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HRT and Alzheimers

C V Rao
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a slow progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects more elderly women than elderly men. It impairs memory, typically progresses into multidomain cognitive decline that destroys the quality of life, and ultimately leads to death. About 5.3 million older Americans are now living with this disease, and this number is projected to rise to 14 million by 2050. Annual health-care costs in the United States alone are projected to increase to about US$1.1 trillion by 2050. The initial theory that decreasing estrogen levels leads to AD development in postmenopausal women has been proven inconclusive...
July 19, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Massimo Cesareo, Alessio Martucci, Elena Ciuffoletti, Raffaele Mancino, Angelica Cerulli, Roberto P Sorge, Alessandro Martorana, Giuseppe Sancesario, Carlo Nucci
AIM: To assess the frequency of glaucoma-like alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients using Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph III (HRT-3) and Frequency Doubling Technology (FDT) perimetry. METHODS: The study included 51 eyes of 51 AD subjects and 67 eyes of 67 age- and sex-matched controls. Subjects underwent an ophthalmological examination including measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP), Matrix FDT visual field testing, optic nerve head morphology and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLt) assessment by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and HRT-3...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Silvia Alemany, Marta Ribasés, Natàlia Vilor-Tejedor, Mariona Bustamante, Cristina Sánchez-Mora, Rosa Bosch, Vanesa Richarte, Bru Cormand, Miguel Casas, Josep A Ramos-Quiroga, Jordi Sunyer Sunyer
Attention deficit is one of the core symptoms of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the specific genetic variants that may be associated with attention function in adult ADHD remain largely unknown. The present study aimed to identifying SNPs associated with attention function in adult ADHD and tested whether these associations were enriched for specific biological pathways. Commissions, hit-reaction time (HRT), the standard error of HRT (HRTSE), and intraindividual coefficient variability (ICV) of the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT-II) were assessed in 479 unmedicated adult ADHD individuals...
July 14, 2015: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Richard L Doty, Isabelle Tourbier, Victoria Ng, Jessica Neff, Deborah Armstrong, Michelle Battistini, Mary D Sammel, David Gettes, Dwight L Evans, Natasha Mirza, Paul J Moberg, Tim Connolly, Steven J Sondheimer
Olfactory dysfunction can be an early sign of Alzheimer's disease. Since hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may protect against Alzheimer's disease in postmenopausal women, the question arises as to whether it also protects against olfactory dysfunction in such women. A total of three olfactory and 12 neurocognitive tests were administered to 432 healthy postmenopausal women with varied HRT histories. Serum levels of reproductive hormones were obtained for all subjects; APOE-ε4 haplotype was determined for 77 women...
June 2015: Neurobiology of Aging
Sevda Aydin Kurna, Gokcen Akar, Ahmet Altun, Yasemin Agirman, Eren Gozke, Tomris Sengor
The purpose of this study was to evaluate optic nerve head (ONH) differences of the patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) measured by confocal scanning laser tomography [Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) III] and compare with glaucoma and control subjects. Eighty-four patients were enrolled into the study: 44 eyes of 24 patients with mild to moderate AD (Group 1), 68 eyes of 35 patients with glaucoma (Group 2), and 49 eyes of 25 heathy volunteers as a control (Group 3). A complete ophthalmologic examination as well as a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopic assessment with HRT III were performed on all patients...
December 2014: International Ophthalmology
Midori Soda, Kaori Ogawa, Yaeko Harada, Suzuko Kawamoto, Miyoko Tanaka, Mayuko Yamaguchi, Chie Takahashi, Asako Ueno, Takashi Osada, Akiko Oguri, Keiko Yamamura
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) given by injection or administered orally or topically can improve the QOL of patients with menopausal symptoms. Because patient comfort is influenced largely by the dosage form, pharmacists should understand the properties of each dosage form and provide appropriate information to individual patients. In this study, we investigated the understanding of medicines and diseases of patients receiving HRT and discuss the approaches pharmacists can take to improve patients' adherence...
2014: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Riley Bove, Elizabeth Secor, Lori B Chibnik, Lisa L Barnes, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett, Philip L De Jager
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between age at surgical menopause and both cognitive decline and Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology in 2 longitudinal cohorts. METHODS: Female subjects from 2 longitudinal studies of cognitive decline (Religious Orders Study and Rush Memory and Aging Project) were included (total n = 1,884). The primary analysis examined the association between age at surgical menopause and decline in a global cognition score. Secondary analyses examined additional outcomes: 1) decline in 5 cognitive subdomains and 2) a global measure of the burden of AD pathology...
January 21, 2014: Neurology
Richelin V Dye, Karen J Miller, Elyse J Singer, Andrew J Levine
Over the past two decades, there has been a significant amount of research investigating the risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with regards to neurodegenerative disease. Here, we review basic science studies, randomized clinical trials, and epidemiological studies, and discuss the putative neuroprotective effects of HRT in the context of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, frontotemporal dementia, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder. Findings to date suggest a reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease and improved cognitive functioning of postmenopausal women who use 17β-estradiol...
2012: International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease
Abdullah Foraih Al-Anazi, Viquar Fatima Qureshi, Khalida Javaid, Shoeb Qureshi
Estrogen deficiency is a major risk factor for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Although hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been rampantly used to recompense for the bone loss, but the procedure is coupled with severe adverse effects. Hence, there is a boost in the production of newer synthetic products to ward off the effects of menopause-related osteoporosis. As of today, there are several prescription products available for the treatment of postmenopause osteoporosis; most of these are estrogenic agents and combination products...
July 2011: Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine
Shuchita Meherishi, Sunila Khandelwal, M L Swarankar, Prabhleen Kaur
BACKGROUND: In earlier days, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was recommended for menopause symptoms and also gained much popularity. However, the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) studies suggested an increased risk of cardiovascular and Alzheimer's disease. These findings led to a dramatic decrease in hormone therapy (HT) prescriptions all over the world. However, the WHI conclusions remain debatable especially because of contradictory results from antecedent studies. Inspite of these controversies, post-WHI, most gynecologists refrain from prescribing MHT (menopausal hormone replacement therapy, MHT)...
July 2010: Journal of Mid-life Health
Amr Billeci, V Caso, M Paciaroni, F Palmerini, G Agnelli
Hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) has been used for more than 40 years to reduce perimenopausal symptoms. Estrogens may protect brain structures and functional systems affected by Alzheimer's disease, which suggests that maintaining high levels of hormones with HRT can protect against Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, high premenopausal estrogen concentrations are thought to be protective against stroke and, consequently, in the past, HRT was considered to be a potential protective agent against stroke. However, large clinical trials have failed to demonstrate a benefit from HRT on either cognitive performance or risk of dementia...
November 2007: Women's Health
Avrum Z Bluming, Carol Tavris
From 2002 to 2008, reports from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) claimed that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) significantly increased the risks of breast cancer development, cardiac events, Alzheimer disease, and stroke. These claims alarmed the public and health professionals alike, causing an almost immediate and sharp decline in the numbers of women receiving HRT. However, the actual data in the published WHI articles reveal that the findings reported in press releases and interviews of the principal investigators were often distorted, oversimplified, or wrong...
March 2009: Cancer Journal
Eva Hogervorst, Kristine Yaffe, Marcus Richards, Felicia A H Huppert
BACKGROUND: As estrogens have been shown to have several potentially beneficial effects on the central nervous system, it is biologically plausible that maintaining high levels of estrogens in postmenopausal women by means of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) could be protective against cognitive decline in women with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or other dementia syndromes. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of ERT (estrogens only) or HRT (estrogens combined with a progestagen) compared with placebo in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on cognitive function of postmenopausal women with dementia...
2009: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Mary Sano, Diane Jacobs, Howard Andrews, Karen Bell, Neill Graff-Radford, John Lucas, Peter Rabins, Karen Bolla, Wei-Yan Tsai, Peter Cross, Karen Andrews, Rosann Costa, Xiaodong Luo
BACKGROUND: Observational studies and small clinical trials suggested that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) decreases risk of cognitive loss and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in postmenopausal women and may have value in primary prevention. PURPOSE: A clinical trial was designed to determine if HRT delays AD or memory loss. This report describes the rationale and original design of the trial and details extensive modifications that were required to respond to unanticipated findings that emerged from other studies during the course of the trial...
2008: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
Byung Hwa Jung, Myung Jae Jeon, Sang Wook Bai
One of the major social issues nowadays is the aging society. Korea is already an aging society, and 63 cities and districts are ultra-aged societies where the rate of people older than 65 yr exceeds 20%. Among them, more than 67% are women. These statistics reveal the importance of healthcare for older women. Disease and disability of older women are very closely related to the loss of female sex hormones after menopause. Major hormone-dependent aging problems in women such as osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease (AD), urinary incontinence, and coronary atherosclerosis were surveyed in this review, and the key role of hormones in those diseases and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) were summarized...
June 30, 2008: Yonsei Medical Journal
Joanne Ryan, Jaqueline Scali, Isabelle Carriere, Karen Ritchie, Marie-Laure Ancelin
A plethora of in vitro and in vivo studies have supported the neuroprotective role of estrogens and their impact on the neurotransmitter systems implicated in cognition. Recent hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) trials in non-demented postmenopausal women suggest a temporary positive effect (notably on verbal memory), and four meta-analyses converge to suggest a possible protective effect in relation to Alzheimer's disease (reducing risk by 29 to 44%). However, data from the only large randomized controlled trial published to date, the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study, did not confirm these observations and have even suggested an increase in dementia risk for women using HRT compared to controls...
February 2008: International Psychogeriatrics
Kirstin Aschbacher, Roland von Känel, Paul J Mills, Suzi Hong, Susan K Roepke, Brent T Mausbach, Thomas L Patterson, Michael G Ziegler, Joel E Dimsdale, Sonia Ancoli-Israel, Igor Grant
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the combined effects of caregiving and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on platelet hyperactivity to acute psychological stress. Both HRT and the chronic stress of caregiving have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, potentially through a mechanism of platelet hyperactivity. METHODS: A total of 78 elderly postmenopausal women (51 caregivers (CG) and 27 noncaregivers (NC)) were assessed for platelet activation in response to a laboratory speech test...
December 2007: Psychosomatic Medicine
Kohji Mori, Masatoshi Takeda
Estrogen has its receptor in the brain and affects the nervous system in various ways. To date, it has been paid attention whether the cognitive function and the risk of depression change due to estrogen deficiency and also whether these changes respond to hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The increase in female life expectancy accelerates the prevalence of dementia like Alzheimer Disease, so the efficacy of HRT in the cognitive function got the public attention. On the contrary, a series of large-scale randomized controlled trials (Women's Health Initiative Memory Study: WHIMS) in aged 65 years or older women showed HRT increases the risk of dementia...
September 2007: Clinical Calcium
Yun Yue, Ling Hu, Qin-jie Tian, Jing-mei Jiang, Yi-long Dong, Zheng-yu Jin, Yu-hang Cheng, Xia Hong, Qin-sheng Ge, Ping-ping Zuo
AIM: To study the effects of long-term, low-dose sex hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on the volume and biochemical changes of the hippocampus in postmenopausal women carrying apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene epsilon3 or epsilon4. METHODS: Eighty-three postmenopausal women who had used a low dose of HRT for over 4 years were selected as the HRT group, and 99 postmenopausal women with matched age and education were enrolled as the control group. ApoE alleles were analyzed by PCR...
August 2007: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Ling Hu, Yun Yue, Ping-Ping Zuo, Zheng-Yu Jin, Feng Feng, Hui You, Ming-Li Li, Qin-Sheng Ge
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of long-term low dose hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on postmenopausal women in hormone level, cognition score, hippocampus volume, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) parameters. METHODS: A total of 182 postmenopausal women aged 50-87 years were chosen at Peking Union Medical College Hospital and assigned to HRT group and control group. The volunteers of HRT group had taken low dose hormone [estradiol (E2) 0.5-1.0 mg and progesterone 0...
December 2006: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
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