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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034325/collection-of-viable-aerosolized-influenza-virus-and-other-respiratory-viruses-in-a-student-health-care-center-through-water-based-condensation-growth
#1
Maohua Pan, Tania S Bonny, Julia Loeb, Xiao Jiang, John A Lednicky, Arantzazu Eiguren-Fernandez, Susanne Hering, Z Hugh Fan, Chang-Yu Wu
The dynamics and significance of aerosol transmission of respiratory viruses are still controversial, for the major reasons that virus aerosols are inefficiently collected by commonly used air samplers and that the collected viruses are inactivated by the collection method. Without knowledge of virus viability, infection risk analyses lack accuracy. This pilot study was performed to (i) determine whether infectious (viable) respiratory viruses in aerosols could be collected from air in a real world environment by the viable virus aerosol sampler (VIVAS), (ii) compare and contrast the efficacy of the standard bioaerosol sampler, the BioSampler, with that of the VIVAS for the collection of airborne viruses in a real world environment, and (iii) gain insights for the use of the VIVAS for respiratory virus sampling...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976493/accelerometer-assessed-physical-activity-in-epidemiology-are-monitors-equivalent
#2
Alex V Rowlands, Evgeny M Mirkes, Tom Yates, Stacey Clemes, Melanie Davies, Kamlesh Khunti, Charlotte L Edwardson
PURPOSE: Accelerometers are increasingly being used to assess physical activity in large-scale surveys. Establishing whether key physical activity outcomes can be considered equivalent between three widely-used accelerometer brands would be a significant step towards capitalising on the increasing availability of accelerometry data for epidemiological research. METHODS: Twenty participants wore a GENEActiv, Axivity AX3 and ActiGraph GT9X on their non-dominant wrist and were observed for two-hours in a simulated living space...
October 2, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960131/blood-perfusion-changes-during-sacral-nerve-root-stimulation-versus-surface-gluteus-electrical-stimulation-on-in-seated-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Liang Qin Liu, Martin Ferguson-Pell
The objective of this article is to examine dynamic changes of ischial blood perfusion during sacral nerve root stimulation against surface functional electrical stimulation (FES). Fourteen adults with suprasacral spinal cord injury (SCI) were recruited. The gluteal maximus was activated by surface FES or stimulating sacral nerve roots by functional magnetic stimulation (FMS) or a sacral anterior root stimulator implant (SARS). Ischial skin index of hemoglobin (IHB) and oxygenation (IOX) was measured.Skin blood perfusion was significantly higher during FMS than the baseline (IHB 1...
September 29, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952156/positive-expiratory-pressure-therapy-versus-other-airway-clearance-techniques-for-bronchiectasis
#4
REVIEW
Annemarie L Lee, Angela T Burge, Anne E Holland
BACKGROUND: People with bronchiectasis experience chronic cough and sputum production and require the prescription of airway clearance techniques (ACTs). A common type of ACT prescribed is positive expiratory pressure (PEP) therapy. A previous review has suggested that ACTs including PEP therapy are beneficial compared to no treatment in people with bronchiectasis. However, the efficacy of PEP therapy in a stable clinical state or during an acute exacerbation compared to other ACTs in bronchiectasis is unknown...
September 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943154/sex-differences-in-leg-dexterity-are-not-present-in-elite-athletes
#5
Emily L Lawrence, Lorenzo Peppoloni, Francisco J Valero-Cuevas
We studied whether the time-varying forces that control unstable foot-ground interactions provide insight into the neural control of dynamic leg function. Twenty elite (10F, 26.4±3.5yrs) and 20 recreational (10F, 24.8±2.4yrs) athletes used an isolated leg to maximally compress a slender spring designed to buckle at low forces while seated. The foot forces during the compression at the edge of instability quantify the maximal sensorimotor ability to control dynamic foot-ground interactions. Using the nonlinear analysis technique of attractor reconstruction, we characterized the spatial (interquartile range IQR) and geometric (trajectory length TL, volume V, and sum of edge lengths SE) features of the dynamical behavior of those force time series...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918003/relevance-of-adding-a-triangular-dynamic-cushion-on-a-traditional-chair-a-3d-analysis-of-seated-schoolchildren
#6
T Fettweis, M N Onkelinx, C Schwartz, C Demoulin, J L Croisier, M Vanderthommen
BACKGROUND: Low back pain is highly prevalent in the general population and is even reported as early as at primary school. A poor sitting position has been suggested as an etiologic factor. This study analysed, in primary schoolchildren, the influence of a triangular dynamic cushion that aims to help children maintain their physiological lumbar lordosis and to induce movement to reduce the static effect of the sitting position. METHODS: Thirty 8-year-old children took part in this study...
September 8, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846736/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-pirarucu-arapaima-gigas-follicle-stimulating-hormone-and-luteinizing-hormone-%C3%AE-subunit-cdnas
#7
Thais Sevilhano, Roberto Feitosa de Carvalho, Nélio Alessandro de Jesus Oliveira, João Ezequiel Oliveira, Vinicius Gonçalves Maltarollo, Gustavo Trossini, Riviane Garcez, Paolo Bartolini
The common gonadotrophic hormone α-subunit (GTHα) has been previously isolated by our research group from A. gigas pituitaries; in the present work the cDNA sequences encoding FSHβ and LHβ subunits have also been isolated from the same species of fish. The FSH β-subunit consists of 126 amino acids with a putative 18 amino acid signal peptide and a 108 amino acid mature peptide, while the LH β-subunit consists of 141 amino acids with a putative 24 amino acid amino acid signal peptide and a 117 amino acid mature peptide...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817375/effect-of-maternal-antibody-transfer-on-antibody-dynamics-and-control-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-infection-in-offspring
#8
Cheryl M T Dvorak, Brian J Payne, Jessica L Seate, Michael P Murtaugh
Sow immunity plays an important role in preventing viral infection and disease in newborn piglets. Vertical transmission of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) may perpetuate porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) in newborn and growing pigs. Hence, the immunological effects of maternal immunoglobulin transfer of PCV2-specific antibodies on PCV2 viremia and immune response in piglets in commercial swine herds were evaluated. Sow vaccination has been shown to reduce viral shedding and viremia, and increases the neutralizing antibody (NA) titers...
August 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780186/dynamic-forces-over-the-interface-between-a-seated-human-body-and-a-rigid-seat-during-vertical-whole-body-vibration
#9
Chi Liu, Yi Qiu, Michael J Griffin
Biodynamic responses of the seated human body are usually measured and modelled assuming a single point of vibration excitation. With vertical vibration excitation, this study investigated how forces are distributed over the body-seat interface. Vertical and fore-and-aft forces were measured beneath the ischial tuberosities, middle thighs, and front thighs of 14 subjects sitting on a rigid flat seat in three postures with different thigh contact while exposed to random vertical vibration at three magnitudes...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753685/effects-of-lumbar-spine-assemblies-and-body-borne-equipment-mass-on-anthropomorphic-test-device-responses-during-drop-tests
#10
Daniel Aggromito, Mark Jaffrey, Allen Chhor, Bernard Chen, Wenyi Yan
When simulating or conducting land mine blast tests on armored vehicles to assess potential occupant injury, the preference is to use the Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD). In land blast events, neither the effect of body-borne equipment (BBE) on the ATD response nor the dynamic response index (DRI) is well understood. An experimental study was carried out using a drop tower test rig, with a rigid seat mounted on a carriage table undergoing average accelerations of 161 g and 232 g over 3 ms. A key aspect of the work looked at the various lumbar spine assemblies available for a Hybrid III ATD...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730724/dynamic-loop-gain-increases-upon-adopting-the-supine-body-position-during-sleep-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnoea
#11
Simon A Joosten, Shane A Landry, Scott A Sands, Philip I Terrill, Dwayne Mann, Christopher Andara, Elizabeth Skuza, Anthony Turton, Philip Berger, Garun S Hamilton, Bradley A Edwards
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is typically worse in the supine versus lateral sleeping position. One potential factor driving this observation is a decrease in lung volume in the supine position which is expected by theory to increase a key OSA pathogenic factor: dynamic ventilatory control instability (i.e. loop gain). We aimed to quantify dynamic loop gain in OSA patients in the lateral and supine positions, and to explore the relationship between change in dynamic loop gain and change in lung volume with position...
November 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715333/wheelchair-neuroprosthesis-for-improving-dynamic-trunk-stability
#12
Kramay Patel, Matija Milosevic, Kimitaka Nakazawa, Milos R Popovic, Kei Masani
Trunk instability is a major problem for individuals with thoracic and cervical spinal cord injury. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) neuroprosthesis, a technology that uses small electrical currents to artificially contract muscles, has previously been utilized to improve trunk stability during quasistatic and dynamic sitting. The aim of this study was to develop the first powered wheelchair-based neuroprosthesis and to test its feasibility for improving trunk stability. Eleven male, able-bodied individuals participated in the feasibility study...
July 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715302/characterization-of-humeral-head-displacements-during-dynamic-glenohumeral-neuromuscular-control-exercises-using-quantitative-ultrasound-imaging-a-feasibility-study
#13
Guillaume Desroches, François Desmeules, Dany H Gagnon
The objectives of the present study were to test the feasibility of measuring humeral head displacements using quantitative ultrasound imaging during the performance of two different dynamic glenohumeral neuromuscular control exercises and to investigate the influence of these exercises on the acromiohumeral distance (AHD) and anterior-posterior distance (APD). Ten individuals who have no history of shoulder injury at the non-dominant shoulder completed three repetitions of an active humeral head lowering exercise and three repetitions of a posteriorisation exercise in a random order in a seated position...
June 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708562/non-model-based-control-of-a-wheeled-vehicle-pulling-two-trailers-to-provide-early-powered-mobility-and-driving-experiences
#14
David A Sanders Td Vr
Non-model-based control of a wheeled vehicle pulling two trailers is presented. It is a fun train for disabled children consisting of a locomotive and two carriages. The fun train has afforded opportunities for both disabled and able bodied young people to share an activity and has provided early driving experiences for disabled children; it has introduced them to assistive and powered mobility. The train is a nonlinear system and subject to nonholonomic kinematic constraints so that position and state depend on the path taken to get there...
July 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678774/the-pyrite-type-high-pressure-form-of-feooh
#15
Masayuki Nishi, Yasuhiro Kuwayama, Jun Tsuchiya, Taku Tsuchiya
Water transported into Earth's interior by subduction strongly influences dynamics such as volcanism and plate tectonics. Several recent studies have reported hydrous minerals to be stable at pressure and temperature conditions representative of Earth's deep interior, implying that surface water may be transported as far as the core-mantle boundary. However, the hydrous mineral goethite, α-FeOOH, was recently reported to decompose under the conditions of the middle region of the lower mantle to form FeO2 and release H2, suggesting the upward migration of hydrogen and large fluctuations in the oxygen distribution within the Earth system...
July 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666000/dynamic-wheelchair-seating-positions-impact-cardiovascular-function-after-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Jessica A Inskip, Henrike Rianne J C Ravensbergen, Inderjeet S Sahota, Christine Zawadzki, Lowell T McPhail, Jaimie F Borisoff, Victoria E Claydon
BACKGROUND: Innovative wheelchairs allow individuals to change position easily for comfort and social situations. While these wheelchairs are beneficial in multiple ways, the effects of position changes on blood pressure might exacerbate hypotension and cerebral hypoperfusion, particularly in those with spinal cord injury (SCI) who can have injury to autonomic nerves that regulate cardiovascular control. Conversely, cardiovascular benefits may be obtained with lowered seating. Here we investigate the effect of moderate changes in wheelchair position on orthostatic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular reflex control...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662932/dynamic-in-vivo-3d-atlantoaxial-spine-kinematics-during-upright-rotation
#17
William Anderst, Bryan Rynearson, Tyler West, William Donaldson, Joon Lee
Diagnosing dysfunctional atlantoaxial motion is challenging given limitations of current diagnostic imaging techniques. Three-dimensional imaging during upright functional motion may be useful in identifying dynamic instability not apparent on static imaging. Abnormal atlantoaxial motion has been linked to numerous pathologies including whiplash, cervicogenic headaches, C2 fractures, and rheumatoid arthritis. However, normal C1/C2 rotational kinematics under dynamic physiologic loading have not been previously reported owing to imaging difficulties...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638483/thermoacoustic-imaging-and-therapy-guidance-based-on-ultra-short-pulsed-microwave-pumped-thermoelastic-effect-induced-with-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#18
Liewei Wen, Sihua Yang, Junping Zhong, Quan Zhou, Da Xing
Multifunctional nanoparticle-mediated imaging and therapeutic techniques are promising modalities for accurate localization and targeted treatment of cancer in clinical settings. Thermoacoustic (TA) imaging is highly sensitive to detect the distribution of water, ions or specific nanoprobes and provides excellent resolution, good contrast and superior tissue penetrability. TA therapy is a potential non-invasive approach for the treatment of deep-seated tumors. In this study, human serum albumin (HSA)-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (HSA-SPIO) is used as a multifunctional nanoprobe with clinical application potential for MRI, TA imaging and treatment of tumor...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622848/average-male-and-female-virtual-dummy-model-biorid-and-evarid-simulations-with-two-seat-concepts-in-the-euro-ncap-low-severity-rear-impact-test-configuration
#19
Astrid Linder, Kristian Holmqvist, Mats Y Svensson
Soft tissue neck injuries, also referred to as whiplash injuries, which can lead to long term suffering accounts for more than 60% of the cost of all injuries leading to permanent medical impairment for the insurance companies, with respect to injuries sustained in vehicle crashes. These injuries are sustained in all impact directions, however they are most common in rear impacts. Injury statistics have since the mid-1960s consistently shown that females are subject to a higher risk of sustaining this type of injury than males, on average twice the risk of injury...
June 13, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598900/interleaved-mapping-of-temperature-and-longitudinal-relaxation-rate-to-monitor-drug-delivery-during-magnetic-resonance-guided-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-induced-hyperthermia
#20
Esther Kneepkens, Edwin Heijman, Jochen Keupp, Steffen Weiss, Klaas Nicolay, Holger Grüll
OBJECTIVES: Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a method to heat lesions noninvasively to a stable, elevated temperature and a well-suited method to induce local hyperthermia (41°C-43°C) in deep-seated tissues. Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging provides therapy planning on anatomical images and offers temperature feedback based on near-real-time MR thermometry. Although constant acquisition of MR thermometry data is crucial to ensure prolonged hyperthermia, it limits the freedom to perform measurements of other MR parameters, which are of interest during hyperthermia treatments...
June 8, 2017: Investigative Radiology
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