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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426462/high-resolution-esophageal-manometry-interpretation-in-clinical-practice
#1
Rena Yadlapati
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) is the current state-of-the-art diagnostic tool to evaluate esophageal motility patterns and, as such, is widely adopted in clinical practice. This article will review the interpretation of esophageal HRM in clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: HRM uses a high-resolution catheter to transmit intraluminal pressure data that are subsequently converted into dynamic esophageal pressure topography (EPT) plots...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399877/overground-vs-treadmill-based-robotic-gait-training-to-improve-seated-balance-in-people-with-motor-complete-spinal-cord-injury-a-case-report
#2
Amanda E Chisholm, Raed A Alamro, Alison M M Williams, Tania Lam
BACKGROUND: Robotic overground gait training devices, such as the Ekso, require users to actively participate in triggering steps through weight-shifting movements. It remains unknown how much the trunk muscles are activated during these movements, and if it is possible to transfer training effects to seated balance control. This study was conducted to compare the activity of postural control muscles of the trunk during overground (Ekso) vs. treadmill-based (Lokomat) robotic gait training, and evaluate changes in seated balance control in people with high-thoracic motor-complete spinal cord injury (SCI)...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366027/detecting-destabilizing-wheelchair-conditions-for-maintaining-seated-posture
#3
Anna Crawford, Kiley Armstrong, Kenneth Loparo, Musa Audu, Ronald Triolo
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to detect and classify potentially destabilizing conditions encountered by manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injuries (SCI) to dynamically increase stability and prevent falls. METHODS: A volunteer with motor complete T11 paraplegia repeatedly propelled his manual wheelchair over level ground and simulated destabilizing conditions including sudden stops, bumps and rough terrain. Wireless inertial measurement units attached to the wheelchair frame and his sternum recorded associated accelerations and angular velocities...
April 1, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343746/preliminary-development-of-an-advanced-modular-pressure-relief-cushion-testing-and-user-evaluation
#4
Tyler Freeto, Steven J Mitchell, Kath M Bogie
STUDY AIM: Effective pressure relief cushions are identified as a core assistive technology need by the World Health Organization Global Cooperation on Assistive Technology. High quality affordable wheelchair cushions could provide effective pressure relief for many individuals with limited access to advanced assistive technology. MATERIALS: Value driven engineering (VdE) principles were employed to develop a prototype modular cushion. Low cost dynamically responsive gel balls were arranged in a close packed array and seated in bilayer foam for containment and support...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Tissue Viability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322250/effects-of-ecological-restoration-projects-on-changes-in-land-cover-a-case-study-on-the-loess-plateau-in-china
#5
Jun Zhao, Yanzheng Yang, Qingxia Zhao, Zhong Zhao
Changes in land cover have become key components of global environmental change and represent the impact of human activity. To better understand the fundamental processes of land transition characteristics before and after the implementation of ecological programmes, we determined the dominant systematic changes in land cover in Yongshou, a hilly-gully region on the Loess Plateau. This was achieved by performing an in-depth analysis of a cross-tabulation matrix and a modified spatial dynamic degree model. Our results indicated that (1) forest land and cultivated land were the most important land cover types in Yongshou and their persistence would greatly affect the landscape pattern of the entire region; (2) the most significant changing signals in the study area during the periods 1992-2000 and 2000-2013 were from immature forest land to forest land, cultivated land to orchards and orchards to construction land; and (3) the region that experienced the most changes during 1992-2000 was the densely populated county seat of Yongshou; however, from 2000-2013, the region of most changes was Changning, a town located in the northcentral region of Yongshou...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300175/dynamic-cortical-participation-during-bilateral-cyclical-ankle-movements-effects-of-aging
#6
Takashi Yoshida, Kei Masani, Karl Zabjek, Robert Chen, Milos R Popovic
The precise role of the human primary motor cortex in walking is unknown. Our previous study showed that the primary motor cortex may contribute to specific requirements of walking (i.e., maintaining a constant movement frequency and bilaterally coordinating the feet). Because aging can impair (i) the ability to fulfill the aforementioned requirements and (ii) corticomuscular communication, we hypothesized that aging would impair the motoneuronal recruitment by the primary motor cortex during bilateral cyclical movements...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291488/patient-litter-system-response-in-a-full-scale-ch-46-crash-test
#7
Charles A Weisenbach, Tyler Rooks, Troy Bowman, Vince Fralish, B Joseph McEntire
U.S. Military aeromedical patient litter systems are currently required to meet minimal static strength performance requirements at the component level. Operationally, these components must function as a system and are subjected to the dynamics of turbulent flight and potentially crash events. The first of two full-scale CH-46 crash tests was conducted at NASA's Langley Research Center and included an experiment to assess patient and litter system response during a severe but survivable crash event. A three-tiered strap and pole litter system was mounted into the airframe and occupied by three anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs)...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278254/characterizing-the-community-use-of-an-ultralight-wheelchair-with-on-the-fly-adjustable-seating-functions-a-pilot-study
#8
Johanne Mattie, Jaimie Borisoff, William C Miller, Borna Noureddin
An ultralight manual wheelchair that allows users to independently adjust rear seat height and backrest angle during normal everyday usage was recently commercialized. Prior research has been performed on wheelchair tilt, recline, and seat elevation use in the community, however no such research has been done on this new class of manual ultralight wheelchair with "on the fly" adjustments. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate and characterize the use of the two adjustable seating functions available on the Elevation™ ultralight dynamic wheelchair during its use in the community...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277553/the-impact-of-dynamic-seating-on-classroom-behavior-of-students-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Nader Matin Sadr, Hojjat Allah Haghgoo, Sayyed Ali Samadi, Mehdi Rassafiani, Enayatollah Bakhshi, Hossein Hassanabadi
OBJECTIVE: Children with autism have sitting and on-task behavior problems in class. In this study, the effect of three alternative classroom-seating devices such as regular classroom chairs, therapy balls, and air cushions were examined on students' classroom behavior. MATERIALS & METHODS: 15 students with autism participated in this A1-B-A2-C multiple treatments study from Mashhad's Tabasom School, Mashhad, Iran in 2014. Students' behaviors were video recorded in three phases: sitting on their common chairs during phase A, air-sit cushioned in phase B, and ball chairs in phase C...
2017: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267762/impaired-perception-of-surface-tilt-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#10
Marian L Dale, Fay B Horak, W Geoffrey Wright, Bernadette M Schoneburg, John G Nutt, Martina Mancini
INTRODUCTION: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is characterized by early postural instability and backward falls. The mechanisms underlying backward postural instability in PSP are not understood. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that postural instability in PSP is a result of dysfunction in the perception of postural verticality. METHODS: We gathered posturography data on 12 subjects with PSP to compare with 12 subjects with idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (PD) and 12 healthy subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264145/human-body-modeling-method-to-simulate-the-biodynamic-characteristics-of-spine-in-vivo-with-different-sitting-postures
#11
Rui-Chun Dong, Li-Xin Guo
The aim of this study is to model the computational model of seated whole human body including skeleton, muscle, viscera, ligament, intervertebral disc, and skin to predict effect of the factors (sitting postures, muscle and skin, buttocks, viscera, arms, gravity, and boundary conditions) on the biodynamic characteristics of spine. Two finite element models of seated whole body and a large number of finite element models of different ligamentous motion segments were developed and validated. Static, modal, and transient dynamic analyses were performed...
March 6, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242827/postural-effects-on-cerebral-blood-flow-and-autoregulation
#12
Zachary K Garrett, James Pearson, Andrew W Subudhi
Cerebral autoregulation (CA) is thought to maintain relatively constant cerebral blood flow (CBF) across normal blood pressures. To determine if postural changes alter CA, we measured cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) in the middle cerebral arteries, mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), cardiac output (Q), and end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) in 18 healthy individuals (11 female and seven male; 26 ± 9 years) during repeated periods of supine and seated rest. Multiple regression was used to evaluate the influence of PETCO2, MABP, Q, and hydrostatic pressure on CBFv...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214505/positional-right-ventricular-obstruction-in-pectus-excavatum
#13
Katherine Underwood, Matthew Vorsanger, Muhamed Saric, Adam H Skolnick
Pectus excavatum is one of the most common congenital chest wall deformities. The degree of sternal depression, which may result in compression of the right heart by the chest wall, is variable. While typically asymptomatic, there are various symptoms that can result from severe pectus excavatum. We report on a patient with severe pectus excavatum leading to dynamic obstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract in the seated position.
April 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157620/dynamic-head-neck-stabilization-in-cervical-dystonia
#14
Patrick A Forbes, Edo de Bruijn, Sebastiaan W R Nijmeijer, Johannes H T M Koelman, Frans C T van der Helm, Alfred C Schouten, Marina A J Tijssen, Riender Happee
BACKGROUND: Effective sensorimotor integration is essential to modulate (adapt) neck stabilization strategies in response to varying tasks and disturbances. This study evaluates the hypothesis that relative to healthy controls cervical dystonia patients have an impaired ability to modulate afferent feedback for neck stabilization with changes in the frequency content of mechanical perturbations. METHODS: We applied anterior-posterior displacement perturbations (110s) on the torso of seated subjects, while recording head-neck kinematics and muscular activity...
January 16, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103728/occupational-problems-and-barriers-reported-by-individuals-with-obesity
#15
Randi Nossum, Ann-Elin Johansen, Ingvild Kjeken
BACKGROUND: Even if occupational therapists meet many people with obesity in the course of their work, a majority of them do not seem to view weight management as within their area of professional practice. AIM: To explore the occupational problems and barriers among persons with severe obesity from an occupational therapy perspective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study used the Canadian Model of Occupation and Engagement (CMOP-E) and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) to identify and analyze prioritized occupational performance problems and barriers perceived by 63 individuals with obesity...
January 19, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068962/correlation-between-lumbar-dysfunction-and-fat-infiltration-in-lumbar-multifidus-muscles-in-patients-with-low-back-pain
#16
Markus Hildebrandt, Gabriela Fankhauser, André Meichtry, Hannu Luomajoki
BACKGROUND: Lumbar multifidus muscles (LMM) are important for spinal motion and stability. Low back pain (LBP) is often associated with fat infiltration in LMM. An increasing fat infiltration of LMM may lead to lumbar dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between the severity of lumbar dysfunction and the severity of fat infiltration of LMM. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 42 patients with acute or chronic LBP were recruited...
January 10, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028535/kinematics-and-dynamics-of-the-east-pacific-rise-linked-to-a-stable-deep-mantle-upwelling
#17
David B Rowley, Alessandro M Forte, Christopher J Rowan, Petar Glišović, Robert Moucha, Stephen P Grand, Nathan A Simmons
Earth's tectonic plates are generally considered to be driven largely by negative buoyancy associated with subduction of oceanic lithosphere. In this context, mid-ocean ridges (MORs) are passive plate boundaries whose divergence accommodates flow driven by subduction of oceanic slabs at trenches. We show that over the past 80 million years (My), the East Pacific Rise (EPR), Earth's dominant MOR, has been characterized by limited ridge-perpendicular migration and persistent, asymmetric ridge accretion that are anomalous relative to other MORs...
December 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978486/comparing-spatially-static-and-dynamic-vibrotactile-take-over-requests-in-the-driver-seat
#18
S M Petermeijer, S Cieler, J C F de Winter
Vibrotactile stimuli can be effective as warning signals, but their effectiveness as directional take-over requests in automated driving is yet unknown. This study aimed to investigate the correct response rate, reaction times, and eye and head orientation for static versus dynamic directional take-over requests presented via vibrating motors in the driver seat. In a driving simulator, eighteen participants performed three sessions: 1) a session involving no driving (Baseline), 2) driving a highly automated car without additional task (HAD), and 3) driving a highly automated car while performing a mentally demanding task (N-Back)...
February 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941232/itrack-instrumented-mobile-electrooculography-eog-eye-tracking-in-older-adults-and-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Samuel Stuart, Aodhán Hickey, Brook Galna, Sue Lord, Lynn Rochester, Alan Godfrey
Detection of saccades (fast eye-movements) within raw mobile electrooculography (EOG) data involves complex algorithms which typically process data acquired during seated static tasks only. Processing of data during dynamic tasks such as walking is relatively rare and complex, particularly in older adults or people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Development of algorithms that can be easily implemented to detect saccades is required. This study aimed to develop an algorithm for the detection and measurement of saccades in EOG data during static (sitting) and dynamic (walking) tasks, in older adults and PD...
January 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938365/comparing-the-effects-of-different-dynamic-sitting-strategies-in-wheelchair-seating-on-lumbar-pelvic-angle
#20
Chun-Ting Li, Yao-Te Peng, Yen-Ting Tseng, Yen-Nien Chen, Kuen-Horng Tsai
BACKGROUND: Prolonged static sitting in a wheelchair is associated with an increased risk of lower back pain. The wheelchair seating system is a key factor of this risk because it affects spinal loading in the sitting position. In this study, 7 dynamic sitting strategies (DSSs) are examined: lumbar prominent dynamic sitting (LPDS), back reclined dynamic sitting (BRDS), femur upward dynamic sitting (FUDS), lumbar prominent with back reclined dynamic sitting (LBDS), lumbar prominent with femur upward dynamic sitting (LFDS), back reclined with femur upward dynamic sitting (BFDS), and lumbar prominent with back reclined with femur upward dynamic sitting (LBFDS)...
December 9, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
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