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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068962/correlation-between-lumbar-dysfunction-and-fat-infiltration-in-lumbar-multifidus-muscles-in-patients-with-low-back-pain
#1
Markus Hildebrandt, Gabriela Fankhauser, André Meichtry, Hannu Luomajoki
BACKGROUND: Lumbar multifidus muscles (LMM) are important for spinal motion and stability. Low back pain (LBP) is often associated with fat infiltration in LMM. An increasing fat infiltration of LMM may lead to lumbar dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between the severity of lumbar dysfunction and the severity of fat infiltration of LMM. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 42 patients with acute or chronic LBP were recruited...
January 10, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028535/kinematics-and-dynamics-of-the-east-pacific-rise-linked-to-a-stable-deep-mantle-upwelling
#2
David B Rowley, Alessandro M Forte, Christopher J Rowan, Petar Glišović, Robert Moucha, Stephen P Grand, Nathan A Simmons
Earth's tectonic plates are generally considered to be driven largely by negative buoyancy associated with subduction of oceanic lithosphere. In this context, mid-ocean ridges (MORs) are passive plate boundaries whose divergence accommodates flow driven by subduction of oceanic slabs at trenches. We show that over the past 80 million years (My), the East Pacific Rise (EPR), Earth's dominant MOR, has been characterized by limited ridge-perpendicular migration and persistent, asymmetric ridge accretion that are anomalous relative to other MORs...
December 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978486/comparing-spatially-static-and-dynamic-vibrotactile-take-over-requests-in-the-driver-seat
#3
S M Petermeijer, S Cieler, J C F de Winter
Vibrotactile stimuli can be effective as warning signals, but their effectiveness as directional take-over requests in automated driving is yet unknown. This study aimed to investigate the correct response rate, reaction times, and eye and head orientation for static versus dynamic directional take-over requests presented via vibrating motors in the driver seat. In a driving simulator, eighteen participants performed three sessions: 1) a session involving no driving (Baseline), 2) driving a highly automated car without additional task (HAD), and 3) driving a highly automated car while performing a mentally demanding task (N-Back)...
December 12, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941232/itrack-instrumented-mobile-electrooculography-eog-eye-tracking-in-older-adults-and-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Samuel Stuart, Aodhán Hickey, Brook Galna, Sue Lord, Lynn Rochester, Alan Godfrey
Detection of saccades (fast eye-movements) within raw mobile electrooculography (EOG) data involves complex algorithms which typically process data acquired during seated static tasks only. Processing of data during dynamic tasks such as walking is relatively rare and complex, particularly in older adults or people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Development of algorithms that can be easily implemented to detect saccades is required. This study aimed to develop an algorithm for the detection and measurement of saccades in EOG data during static (sitting) and dynamic (walking) tasks, in older adults and PD...
January 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938365/comparing-the-effects-of-different-dynamic-sitting-strategies-in-wheelchair-seating-on-lumbar-pelvic-angle
#5
Chun-Ting Li, Yao-Te Peng, Yen-Ting Tseng, Yen-Nien Chen, Kuen-Horng Tsai
BACKGROUND: Prolonged static sitting in a wheelchair is associated with an increased risk of lower back pain. The wheelchair seating system is a key factor of this risk because it affects spinal loading in the sitting position. In this study, 7 dynamic sitting strategies (DSSs) are examined: lumbar prominent dynamic sitting (LPDS), back reclined dynamic sitting (BRDS), femur upward dynamic sitting (FUDS), lumbar prominent with back reclined dynamic sitting (LBDS), lumbar prominent with femur upward dynamic sitting (LFDS), back reclined with femur upward dynamic sitting (BFDS), and lumbar prominent with back reclined with femur upward dynamic sitting (LBFDS)...
December 9, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908068/perception-of-music-dynamics-in-concert-hall-acoustics
#6
Jukka Pätynen, Tapio Lokki
Dynamics is one of the principal means of expressivity in Western classical music. Still, preceding research on room acoustics has mostly neglected the contribution of music dynamics to the acoustic perception. This study investigates how the different concert hall acoustics influence the perception of varying music dynamics. An anechoic orchestra signal, containing a step in music dynamics, was rendered in the measured acoustics of six concert halls at three seats in each. Spatial sound was reproduced through a loudspeaker array...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900194/chair-based-fidgeting-and-energy-expenditure
#7
Gabriel A Koepp, Graham K Moore, James A Levine
INTRODUCTION: Sedentariness is associated with chronic health conditions, impaired cognitive function and obesity. Work contributes significantly to sedentariness because many work tasks necessitate sitting. Few sustained solutions exist to reverse workplace sedentariness. Here, we evaluated a chair and an under-table device that were designed to promote fidgeting while seated. Our hypothesis was that an under-table leg-fidget bar and/or a fidget-promoting chair significantly increased energy expenditure...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892823/changes-in-joint-range-of-motion-and-muscle-tendon-unit-stiffness-after-varying-amounts-of-dynamic-stretching
#8
Takamasa Mizuno
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of varying amounts of dynamic stretching (DS) on joint range of motion (ROM) and stiffness of the muscle-tendon unit (MTU). Fifteen healthy participants participated in four randomly ordered experimental trials, which involved one (DS1), four (DS4) and seven (DS7) sets of DS, or control conditions/seated at rest (CON). Each DS set consisted of 15 repetitions of an ankle dorsiflexion-plantarflexion movement. The displacement of the muscle-tendon junction (MTJ) was measured using ultrasonography while the ankle was passively dorsiflexed at 0...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857846/optimization-of-nonlinear-quarter-car-suspension-seat-driver-model
#9
Mahesh P Nagarkar, Gahininath J Vikhe Patil, Rahul N Zaware Patil
In this paper a nonlinear quarter car suspension-seat-driver model was implemented for optimum design. A nonlinear quarter car model comprising of quadratic tyre stiffness and cubic stiffness in suspension spring, frame, and seat cushion with 4 degrees of freedom (DoF) driver model was presented for optimization and analysis. Suspension system was aimed to optimize the comfort and health criterion comprising of Vibration Dose Value (VDV) at head, frequency weighted RMS head acceleration, crest factor, amplitude ratio of head RMS acceleration to seat RMS acceleration and amplitude ratio of upper torso RMS acceleration to seat RMS acceleration along with stability criterion comprising of suspension space deflection and dynamic tyre force...
November 2016: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815577/reduced-mind-wandering-in-experienced-meditators-and-associated-eeg-correlates
#10
Tracy Brandmeyer, Arnaud Delorme
One outstanding question in the contemplative science literature relates to the direct impact of meditation experience on the monitoring of internal states and its respective correspondence with neural activity. In particular, to what extent does meditation influence the awareness, duration and frequency of the tendency of the mind to wander. To assess the relation between mind wandering and meditation, we tested 2 groups of meditators, one with a moderate level of experience (non-expert) and those who are well advanced in their practice (expert)...
November 4, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810690/a-video-based-method-to-quantify-posture-of-the-head-and-trunk-in-sitting
#11
María B Sánchez, Ian Loram, John Darby, Paul Holmes, Penelope B Butler
Maintenance of a vertically aligned posture of the head and trunk in sitting is a fundamental skill that demonstrates the presence of neuromotor control. Clinical assessments of posture are generally subjective. Studies have quantified posture using different technologies, but the application of such technologies in a clinical environment remains difficult. Video recordings, however, are easily used clinically and have potential for quantitative analysis of movement. This study used a video-based method to generate a numerical measure of postural alignment of the head and trunk in sitting...
January 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780424/characterisation-of-the-human-seat-coupling-in-response-to-vibration
#12
Eunyeong Kim, Mohammad Fard, Kazuhito Kato
Characterising the coupling between the occupant and vehicle seat is necessary to understand the transmission of vehicle seat vibration to the human body. In this study, the vibration characteristics of the human body coupled with a vehicle seat were identified in frequencies up to 100 Hz. Transmissibilities of three volunteers seated on two different vehicle seats were measured under multi-axial random vibration excitation. The results revealed that the human-seat system vibration was dominated by the human body and foam below 10 Hz...
November 21, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753541/quantifying-the-postural-demands-of-patrol-officers-a-field-study
#13
Michelle Rae, Michelle Girouard, Colin McKinnon, Jack P Callaghan, Wayne J Albert
Police officers have been identified as group at high risk for developing musculoskeletal injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine physical demands differences of patrol officers during day shifts and night shifts. Sixteen participants were recruited (10 males, 6 females) for in-vehicle observation over one full day shift and one full night shift. Dynamic pressure distribution when seated in the vehicle was assessed and compared between the first and last part of each shift. Activity characterization and postural analyses were conducted from video that was recorded continuously for the duration of each shift to determine time spent in each task and corresponding postures...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684456/sit-to-stand-and-walk-from-120-knee-height-a-novel-approach-to-assess-dynamic-postural-control-independent-of-lead-limb
#14
Gareth D Jones, Darren C James, Michael Thacker, David A Green
Individuals with sensorimotor pathology e.g., stroke have difficulty executing the common task of rising from sitting and initiating gait (sit-to-walk: STW). Thus, in clinical rehabilitation separation of sit-to-stand and gait initiation - termed sit-to-stand-and-walk (STSW) - is usual. However, a standardized STSW protocol with a clearly defined analytical approach suitable for pathological assessment has yet to be defined. Hence, a goal-orientated protocol is defined that is suitable for healthy and compromised individuals by requiring the rising phase to be initiated from 120% knee height with a wide base of support independent of lead limb...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676854/evolution-of-isokinetic-torque-ratios-of-shoulder-rotator-muscles
#15
Maryne Cozette, Stéphane Delanaud, Pierre-Marie Lepretre, Thierry Weissland
OBJECTIVE: Shoulder internal (IR) and external rotator (ER) muscles play an important role in the stability of glenohumeral joint. The ratio between the peak torque of ER and IR in concentric (ER/IRPT) and mixed (ER-ECC/IR-CONPT) are usually measured to evaluate the effects of muscle weakness, sport activities, injury and treatment (Greenfield et al., 1990; Scoville et al., 1997). However, ER/IRPT and ER-ECC/IR-CONPT failed to provide some indication on the evolution of the ER/IR torque ratio (ER/IRTorque) and mixed torque ratio (ER-EC/IR-COTorque) during the range of motion (ROM)...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634604/local-pressure-application-effects-on-discomfort-temperature-and-limb-oxygenation
#16
Kenneth E Games, Joni M Lakin, John C Quindry, Wendi H Weimar, JoEllen M Sefton
INTRODUCTION: Despite significant investment into the development and improvement of military helicopter seat systems, military aviators continue to report seat system related pain and discomfort during prolonged missions. METHODS: Using a factorial repeated measures design, 15 healthy subjects completed the study, in which focal pressure was applied to two locations on the sitting surfaces of the body (ischial tuberosity and middle of the posterior thigh). Pressure was applied using a purpose-built pressure application system allowing subjects to sit in a position mimicking the sitting position in the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter...
August 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630401/the-effects-of-hippotherapy-on-postural-balance-and-functional-ability-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#17
Andréa Gomes Moraes, Fernando Copetti, Vera Regina Angelo, Luana Leonardo Chiavoloni, Ana Cristina David
UNLABELLED: [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of hippotherapy on seated postural balance, dynamic balance, and functional performance in children with cerebral palsy and compared the effects of 12 and 24 sessions on seated postural balance. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 15 children with cerebral palsy aged between 5 and 10 years. INTERVENTIONS: A hippotherapy protocol was performed for 30 minutes, twice a week, for 12 weeks. Postural balance in a sitting position was measured using an AMTI AccuSway Plus force platform 1 week before initiating the hippotherapy program and after 12 and 24 weeks...
August 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594659/mechanisms-and-mitigation-of-head-and-spinal-injuries-due-to-motor-vehicle-crashes
#18
Paul C Ivancic
Synopsis Head and spinal injuries commonly occur during motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). The goal of this clinical commentary is to discuss real-life versus simulated MVCs and to present clinical, biomechanical, and epidemiological evidence of MVC-related injury mechanisms. It will also address how this knowledge may guide and inform the design of injury mitigation devices and assist in clinical decision making. Evidence indicates that there exists no universal injury tolerance applicable to the entire population of the occupants of MVCs...
October 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586119/naturalistic-driving-study-of-rear-seat-child-occupants-quantification-of-head-position-using-a-kinect%C3%A2-sensor
#19
Kristy B Arbogast, Jinyong Kim, Helen Loeb, Jonny Kuo, Sjaan Koppel, Katarina Bohman, Judith L Charlton
OBJECTIVE: Restraint performance is evaluated using anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) positioned in prescribed, optimal seating positions. Anecdotally, humans-children in particular-assume a variety of positions that may affect restraint performance. Naturalistic driving studies (NDSs), where cameras and other data acquisition systems are placed in a vehicle used by participants during their regular transportation, offer means to collect these data. To date, these studies have used conventional video and analysis methods and, thus, analyses have largely been qualitative...
September 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586113/assessment-of-an-innovative-seat-belt-with-independent-control-of-the-shoulder-and-lap-portions-using-thor-tests-the-thums-model-and-pmhs-tests
#20
Bengt Pipkorn, Francisco J López-Valdés, Oscar Juste-Lorente, Ricardo Insausti, Christer Lundgren, Cecilia Sunnevång
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the potential chest injury benefits and influence on occupant kinematics of a belt system with independent control of the shoulder and lap portions. METHODS: This article investigates the kinematics and dynamics of human surrogates in 35 km/h impacts with 2 different restraints: a pretensioning (PT), force-limiting (FL) seat belt, a reference belt system, and a concept design with a split buckle consisting (SB) of 2 separate shoulder and lap belt bands...
September 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
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