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Silvania da Silva Teixeira, Carly Filgueira, Douglas H Sieglaff, Cindy Benod, Rosa Villagomez, Laurie J Minze, Aijun Zhang, Paul Webb, Maria Tereza Nunes
AIM: Thyroid hormones regulate metabolic response. While triiodothyronine (T3) is usually considered to be the active form of thyroid hormone, one form of diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) exerts T3-like effects on energy consumption and lipid metabolism. 3,5-T2 also improves glucose tolerance in rats and 3,5-T2 levels correlate with fasting glucose in humans. Presently, however, little is known about mechanisms of 3,5-T2 effects on glucose metabolism. Here, we set out to compare effects of T3, 3,5-T2 and another form of T2 (3,3-T2) in a mouse model of diet induced obesity and determined effects of T3 and 3,5-T2 on markers of classical insulin sensitization to understand how diiodothyronines influence blood glucose...
October 22, 2016: Acta Physiologica
K Wolinski, A Stangierski, K Dyrda, K Nowicka, M Pelka, A Iqbal, A Car, M Lazizi, N Bednarek, A Czarnywojtek, E Gurgul, M Ruchala
PURPOSE: Acromegaly is a chronic disease resulting from pathological oversecretion of growth hormone and subsequently insulin growth factor-1. Several complications of the disease have been reported, including cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders but also increased risk of benign and malignant neoplasms. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of malignant neoplasms in the patients with acromegaly in comparison with the control group. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Medical documentation of acromegalic patients treated in one medical center between 2005 and 2016 has been analyzed...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Carly B Garrison, Kristin J Lastwika, Yuzheng Zhang, Christopher I Li, Paul D Lampe
Proteomic studies can offer information on hundreds to thousands of proteins and potentially provide researchers with a comprehensive understanding of signaling response during stress and disease. Large datasets, such as those obtained in high-dimensional proteomic studies, can be leveraged for pathway analysis to discover or describe the biological implications of clinical disease states. Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is considered a risk factor for numerous other diseases. We performed analysis on plasma proteomic data from 3 separate sample sets of post-menopausal women to identify the pathways that are altered in subjects with a high body mass index (BMI) compared to normal BMI...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Geeta Yadav, Prabhat Kumar Srivastava, Parul Parihar, Sanjesh Tiwari, Sheo Mohan Prasad
In order to know the impact of elevated level of UV-B on arsenic stressed Helianthus annuus L. var. DRSF-113 plants, certain physiological (growth - root and shoot lengths, their fresh masses and leaf area; photosynthetic competence and respiration) and biochemical parameters (pigments - Chl a and b, Car, anthocyanin and flavonoids; reactive oxygen species - superoxide radicals, H2O2; reactive carbonyl group, electrolyte leakage; antioxidants - superoxide dismutase, peroxidise, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, proline) of their seedlings were analysed under the simultaneous exposures of two arsenic doses (6mgkg(-1) soil, As1; and 12mgkg(-1) soil, As2) and two UV-B doses (1...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
L A Rojas, R Moreno, H Calderón, R Alemany
There is great skepticism in the capability of adenovirus vectors and oncolytic adenoviruses to reach specific organs or tumors upon systemic administration. Besides antibodies, the presence of CAR (coxsackie and adenovirus receptor) in human erythrocytes has been postulated to sequester CAR-binding adenoviruses, commonly used in gene therapy and oncolytic applications. The use of non-CAR-binding fibers or serotypes has been postulated to solve this limitation. Given the lack of integrins in erythrocytes and therefore of internalization of the CAR-bound virus, we hypothesized that the interaction of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) with CAR in human erythrocytes could be reversible...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
Daniel Jaeger, Christian Pilger, Henning Hachmeister, Elina Oberländer, Robin Wördenweber, Julian Wichmann, Jan H Mussgnug, Thomas Huser, Olaf Kruse
Oleaginous photosynthetic microalgae hold great promise as non-food feedstocks for the sustainable production of bio-commodities. The algal lipid quality can be analysed by Raman micro-spectroscopy, and the lipid content can be imaged in vivo in a label-free and non-destructive manner by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. In this study, both techniques were applied to the oleaginous microalga Monoraphidium neglectum, a biotechnologically promising microalga resistant to commonly applied lipid staining techniques...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Takayuki Koga, Pei-Li Yao, Maryam Goudarzi, Iain A Murray, Gayathri Balandaram, Frank J Gonzalez, Gary H Perdew, Albert J Fornace, Jeffrey M Peters
Alcoholic liver disease is a pathological condition caused by over-consumption of alcohol. Due to the high morbidity and mortality associated with this disease, there remains a need to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying its etiology and to develop new treatments. Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) modulates ethanol-induced hepatic effects, the present study examined alterations in gene expression that may contribute to this disease. Chronic ethanol treatment causes increased hepatic CYP2B10 expression in Pparβ/δ+/+ mice, but not in Pparβ/δ-/- mice...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Janet Ayello, Jessica Hochberg, Allyson Flower, Yaya Chu, Laxmi V Baxi, William Quish, Carmella van de Ven, Mitchell S Cairo
NK cells play a significant role in reducing relapse in patients with hematological malignancies following allogeneic stem cell transplantation but NK cell number and naturally occurring inhibitory signals limit their capability. IL-15 and 4-1BBL are important modulators of NK expansion and functional activation. With an aim to overcome these limitations, cord blood (CB) mononuclear cells (MNC) were ex-vivo expanded (EvE) for 7 days with genetically modified K562-mbIL15-41BBL (MODK562) or wildtype K562 (WTK562)...
October 17, 2016: Experimental Hematology
Francesca Esposito, Ilaria Carli, Claudia Del Vecchio, Lijia Xu, Angela Corona, Nicole Grandi, Dario Piano, Elias Maccioni, Simona Distinto, Cristina Parolin, Enzo Tramontano
BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of effective antiretroviral therapies, drugs for HIV-1 treatment with new mode of action are still needed. An innovative approach is aimed to identify dual HIV-1 inhibitors, small molecules that can inhibit two viral functions at the same time. Rhubarb, originated from Rheum palmatum L. and Rheum officinale Baill., is one of the earliest and most commonly used medicinal plants in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practice. We wanted to explore TCM for the identification of new chemical scaffolds with dual action abilities against HIV-1...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Y Y Tan, B J Liang, C Q Wu, J Lyu, L M Li
Objective: To explore the deployment of sidewalks and the possible relationship with local GDP, population density and prosperity of streets in 12 cities selected in China. Methods: For all the streets in 333 blocks of 12 cities surveyed (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Qingdao, Hangzhou, Shaoxing, Suzhou, Nantong, Zhenjiang, Chengdu, Xining and Harbin), the deployment and management of sidewalks were observed. And we collected the GDP data of the 12 cities, the population data of 333 blocks, and the numbers of stores and restaurants along the streets...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
A Craig, N A Elbers, J Jagnoor, B Gopinath, A Kifley, M Dinh, I Pozzato, R Q Ivers, M Nicholas, I D Cameron
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychological impact of traffic injuries in bicyclists (cyclists) with comparisons to car occupants who also have sustained traffic injuries. Factors predictive of elevated psychological distress were also investigated. METHODS: An inception cohort prospective design was used. Participants included cyclists who sustained a physical injury (n = 238) aged ≥17 years (mean age 41.7yrs), assessed within 28 days of the crash, following medical examination by a registered healthcare practitioner...
October 20, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Claire Rutherford, Adam Couves, Nikola Henderson, Sylvia Kamya, Kelly Ong, Carly Bisset, Mark Vella, Andrew Renwick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Annals of Surgery
V A Fetisov, A A Gusarov, Eksp Smirenin
The results of analysis of forensic medical expertises carried out by different state institutions of forensic medical expertise of this country are presented. It was shown that the practice of standardized expertises of the injuries inflicted inside the passenger compartment of the car remains to be established. The comprehensive approach to the solution of the problem of the circumstances of the road traffic accident and the positions of its participants in the passenger compartment of the car is possible based only on the multi-faceted investigation...
2016: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Michelle Cardoso, Michelle Girouard, Jack P Callaghan, Wayne J Albert
The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived discomfort of patrol officers related to equipment and vehicle design and whether there were discomfort differences between day and night shifts. A total of 16 participants were recruited (10 males, 6 females) from a local police force to participate for one full day shift and one full night shift. A series of questionnaires were administered to acquire information regarding comfort with specific car features and occupational gear (SFODQ), body part discomfort (BPDQ), and health and lifestyle (H&L) discomfort questionnaires were administered three times during each shift to monitor discomfort progression within a shift...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Daphne E Whitmer, Valerie K Sims, Michael E Torres
OBJECTIVE: The goals of this study were to assess the risk identification aspect of mental models using standard elicitation methods and how university campus alerts were related to these mental models. BACKGROUND: People fail to follow protective action recommendations in emergency warnings. Past research has yet to examine cognitive processes that influence emergency decision-making. METHOD: Study 1 examined 2 years of emergency alerts distributed by a large southeastern university...
October 19, 2016: Human Factors
Yunzhu Meng, Wansoo Pak, Berkan Guleyupoglu, Bharath Koya, F Scott Gayzik, Costin D Untaroiu
Child pedestrian protection deserves more attention in vehicle safety design since they are the most vulnerable road users who face the highest mortality rate. Pediatric Finite Element (FE) models could be used to simulate and understand the pedestrian injury mechanisms during crashes in order to mitigate them. Thus, the objective of the study was to develop a computationally efficient (simplified) six-year-old (6YO-PS) pedestrian FE model and validate it based on the latest published pediatric data. The 6YO-PS FE model was developed by morphing the existing GHBMC adult pedestrian model...
October 16, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Emmanuel Nakouné, Basile Kamgang, Nicolas Berthet, Alexandre Manirakiza, Mirdad Kazanji
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes a viral zoonosis, with discontinuous epizootics and sporadic epidemics, essentially in East Africa. Infection with this virus causes severe illness and abortion in sheep, goats, and cattle as well as other domestic animals. Humans can also be exposed through close contact with infectious tissues or by bites from infected mosquitoes, primarily of the Aedes and Culex genuses. Although the cycle of RVFV infection in savannah regions is well documented, its distribution in forest areas in central Africa has been poorly investigated...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Hyejung Won, Luis de la Torre-Ubieta, Jason L Stein, Neelroop N Parikshak, Jerry Huang, Carli K Opland, Michael J Gandal, Gavin J Sutton, Farhad Hormozdiari, Daning Lu, Changhoon Lee, Eleazar Eskin, Irina Voineagu, Jason Ernst, Daniel H Geschwind
Three-dimensional physical interactions within chromosomes dynamically regulate gene expression in a tissue-specific manner. However, the 3D organization of chromosomes during human brain development and its role in regulating gene networks dysregulated in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism or schizophrenia, are unknown. Here we generate high-resolution 3D maps of chromatin contacts during human corticogenesis, permitting large-scale annotation of previously uncharacterized regulatory relationships relevant to the evolution of human cognition and disease...
October 19, 2016: Nature
Paulina J Paszkiewicz, Simon P Fräßle, Shivani Srivastava, Daniel Sommermeyer, Michael Hudecek, Ingo Drexler, Michel Sadelain, Lingfeng Liu, Michael C Jensen, Stanley R Riddell, Dirk H Busch
The adoptive transfer of T cells that have been genetically modified to express a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is effective for treating human B cell malignancies. However, the persistence of functional CD19 CAR T cells causes sustained depletion of endogenous CD19+ B cells and hypogammaglobulinemia. Thus, there is a need for a mechanism to ablate transferred T cells after tumor eradication is complete to allow recovery of normal B cells. Previously, we developed a truncated version of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRt) that is coexpressed with the CAR on the T cell surface...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Delfien Van Dyck, Lieze Mertens, Greet Cardon, Katrien De Cocker, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij
This study aimed to obtain qualitative information about physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors (SB) and their determinants and about recently retired adults' needs regarding PA interventions. Four focus group interviews were organized. The most commonly reported PA types were walking, cycling, swimming and fitness. The most commonly reported SB were reading, TV viewing, and computer use. Car use was limited. Most adults agreed their habits had changed during retirement. The most striking PA determinant was the feeling of being a 'forgotten group', having too few tailored PA initiatives available...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
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