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Teiko Sakurai, Hidenori Kusumoto, Tomoko Wakasa, Yoshio Ohta, Eiichi Konishi, Hiroyuki Shiono
BACKGROUND: Epithelioid sarcoma (ES) is a rare variant of soft tissue sarcoma. The proximal type of ES occurs in various locations. We present a resected case with proximal-type ES that occurred in the chest wall and discuss the relevant literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A 47-year-old woman was referred for a 6-month history of a right anterior chest mass with tenderness. Chest computed tomography showed an invasive chest wall mass with calcification surrounding the third rib...
July 13, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
Harriett Holme, Aditi Gulati, Rachel Brough, Emmy D G Fleuren, Ilirjana Bajrami, James Campbell, Irene Y Chong, Sara Costa-Cabral, Richard Elliott, Tim Fenton, Jessica Frankum, Samuel E Jones, Malini Menon, Rowan Miller, Helen N Pemberton, Sophie Postel-Vinay, Rumana Rafiq, Joanna L Selfe, Alex von Kriegsheim, Amaya Garcia Munoz, Javier Rodriguez, Janet Shipley, Winette T A van der Graaf, Chris T Williamson, Colm J Ryan, Stephen Pettitt, Alan Ashworth, Sandra J Strauss, Christopher J Lord
Osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive sarcoma, where novel treatment approaches are required. Genomic studies suggest that a subset of OS, including OS tumour cell lines (TCLs), exhibit genomic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) patterns reminiscent of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutant tumours. This raises the possibility that PARP inhibitors (PARPi), used to treat BRCA1/2 mutant cancers, could be used to target OS. Using high-throughput drug sensitivity screening we generated chemosensitivity profiles for 79 small molecule inhibitors, including three clinical PARPi...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anello Marcello Poma, Liborio Torregrossa, Rossella Bruno, Fulvio Basolo, Gabriella Fontanini
The disruption of the Hippo pathway occurs in many cancer types and is associated with cancer progression. Herein, we investigated the impact of 32 Hippo genes on overall survival (OS) of cancer patients, by both analysing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and reviewing the related literature. mRNA and protein expression data of all solid tumors except pure sarcomas were downloaded from TCGA database. Thirty-two Hippo genes were considered; for each gene, patients were dichotomized based on median expression value...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
James Saller, Christine M Walko, Sherri Z Millis, Evita Henderson-Jackson, Rikesh Makanji, Andrew S Brohl
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an uncommon angioproliferative malignancy that is associated with human herpesvirus 8. Although there has been recent enthusiasm for evaluating immune checkpoint inhibition as a therapeutic option for viral-associated tumors, the clinical utility in this disease is currently unknown. We report a case of advanced classic KS refractory to multiple lines of chemotherapy that experienced a partial response to anti-PD-1 therapy. Comprehensive molecular profiling was performed on a diagnostic tumor biopsy sample...
July 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Mallory A Duncan, Meeghan A Lautner
Sarcoma of the breast is extremely rare and differs from epithelial breast carcinomas in staging and treatment. Diagnostic workup includes breast imaging and core biopsy as in breast epithelial carcinoma. Surgical management is often wide local excision in the form of breast conservation if possible for primary breast sarcoma or total mastectomy. Radiation-associated breast angiosarcomas often require total mastectomy with radical excision of skin. Breast sarcomas have a hematogenous spread so lymph node evaluation is not a part of treatment or staging...
August 2018: Surgical Clinics of North America
Bo Xu, Jia Liu, Xin Xiang, Shunhai Liu, Pingyong Zhong, Fei Xie, Tinggang Mou, Liang Lai
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the expression of micro-RNA 143 (miRNA-143) in the patients with pancreatic cancer and to explore the influence of overexpression of miRNA-143 on pancreatic cancer cells. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with pancreatic cancer that received treatment in their hospital were included in this study. Pancreatic cancer tissues of the patients were surgically removed, and cancer-adjacent tissues were taken for control. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expressions of miRNA-143 and its target gene Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS) in pancreatic cancer tissues and cancer-adjacent tissues...
July 13, 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Jan Skoda, Renata Veselska
BACKGROUND: Sarcomas are rare tumors but represent the third most common malignancy in children. The cancer stem cell (CSC) paradigm is well established, and CSCs have been intensively studied in sarcomas in the past decade. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes current knowledge on CSCs in sarcomas and provides new perspectives on the role of a deregulated stemness program in sarcomagenesis. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: Cell surface markers have so far failed to specifically target sarcoma CSCs...
July 9, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Dinesh Kumar, Pooja Sharma, Kunal Nepali, Girish Mahajan, Mubashir J Mintoo, Amarinder Singh, Gurpreet Singh, Dilip M Mondhe, Gurdarshan Singh, Subheet K Jain, Girish K Gupta, Fidele Ntie-Kang
In an effort to discover an effective and selective antitumour agent, synthesis and anti-cancer potential of 4-(pyridin-4-yl)-6-(thiophen-2-yl) pyrimidin-2(1 H )-one ( SK-25 ), which has been reported earlier by us with significant cytotoxicity towards MiaPaCa-2 malignant cells, with an IC50 value of 1.95 μM and was found to instigate apoptosis. In the present study, the antitumour efficacy of SK-25 was investigated on Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT, solid), Sarcoma 180 (solid) tumour and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma...
June 2018: Heliyon
Kazuki Okubo, Akio Horiguchi, Keiichi Ito, Tomohiko Asano
Pazopanib is an orally bioavailable tyrosine kinase inhibitor anticancer drug approved worldwide for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and advanced soft tissue sarcoma. Here we report the case of a patient whose recurrent retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma showed a drastic reduction immediately after pazopanib administration accompanied by severe liver dysfunction. His liver function was restored conservatively by giving him hepatoprotectors and having him stop taking pazopanib. The recurrent tumor disappeared but by 4 months later had regrown...
September 2018: Urology Case Reports
Michelle Lindström, Beidong Liu
Fused in sarcoma (FUS) is a multifunctional DNA/RNA-binding protein predominantly localized in the cell nucleus. However, FUS has been shown to accumulate and form aggregates in the cytoplasm when mislocalized there due to mutations. These FUS protein aggregates are known as pathological hallmarks in a subset of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) cases. In this review, we discussed recent research developments on elucidating the molecular mechanisms behind FUS protein aggregation and toxicity...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Matthew Farag, Anthony Ta, Siva Shankar, Lih-Ming Wong
We report a case of rapidly growing sarcoma that resulted in mortality only 6 years after radiotherapy for low-grade prostate cancer.At the age of 69 years and a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) that had risen to 9.0 µg/L, transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate found a single core of Gleason 3+3 disease involving 4 mm of a 10 mm core. The patient declined active surveillance and completed 78 Gy of external beam radiotherapy over 39 fractions to a prostate volume of 46 mL.His PSA nadir was 0...
July 11, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Andreas Toepfer, Norbert Harrasser, Maximiliane Recker, Ulrich Lenze, Florian Pohlig, Ludger Gerdesmeyer, Rüdiger von Eisenhart-Rothe
BACKGROUND: Bone and soft tissue masses of the foot and ankle are not particularly rare but true neoplasia has to be strictly differentiated from pseudotumorous lesions. Diagnosis is often delayed as diagnostic errors are more common than in other regions. Awareness for this localization of musculoskeletal tumors is not very high and neoplasia is often not considered. The purpose of this study is to provide detailed information on the incidence and distribution patterns of foot and ankle tumors of a university tumor institute and propose a simple definition to facilitate comparison of future investigations...
July 13, 2018: BMC Cancer
Stefano Gambera, Ander Abarrategi, Miguel A Rodríguez-Milla, Francisca Mulero, Sofía T Menéndez, René Rodriguez, Samuel Navarro, Javier García-Castro
Osteosarcoma is a highly aggressive bone tumor that usually arises intramedullary at the extremities of long bones. Due to the fact that the peak of incidence is in the growth spurt of adolescence, the specific anatomical location and the heterogeneity of cells, it is believed that osteosarcomagenesis is a process associated to bone development. Different studies in murine models showed that the tumor-initiating cell in osteosarcoma could be an uncommitted mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) developing in a specific bone microenvironment...
July 12, 2018: Stem Cells
Massimiliano Scalvenzi, Claudia Costa, Alessia Villani, Milena Cappello, Massimo Mascolo, Francesca Pagliuca, Gabriella Fabbrocini, Gaia De Fata Salvatores
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Aleksandr Klepinin, Lyudmila Ounpuu, Kati Mado, Laura Truu, Vladimir Chekulayev, Marju Puurand, Igor Shevchuk, Kersti Tepp, Anu Planken, Tuuli Kaambre
Previous studies have shown that class II β-tubulin plays a key role in the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in some highly differentiated cells, but its role in malignant cells has remained unclear. To clarify these aspects, we compared the bioenergetic properties of HL-1 murine sarcoma cells, murine neuroblastoma cells (uN2a) and retinoic acid - differentiated N2a cells (dN2a). We examined the expression and possible co-localization of mitochondrial voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) with hexokinase-2 (HK-2) and βII-tubulin, the role of depolymerized βII-tubuline and the effect of both proteins in the regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) permeability...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
Kathleen I Pishas, Christina D Drenberg, Cenny Taslim, Emily R Theisen, Kirsten M Johnson, Ranajeet S Saund, Ioana L Pop, Brian D Crompton, Elizabeth R Lawlor, Franck Tirode, Jaume Mora, Olivier Delattre, Mary C Beckerle, David F Callen, Sunil Sharma, Stephen L Lessnick
Multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimes remain the cornerstone treatment for Ewing sarcoma, the second most common bone malignancy diagnosed in pediatric and young adolescent populations. We have reached a therapeutic ceiling with conventional cytotoxic agents, highlighting the need to adopt novel approaches that specifically target the drivers of Ewing sarcoma oncogenesis. As KDM1A/LSD1 (Lysine Specific Demethylase 1) is highly expressed in Ewing sarcoma cell lines and tumors, with elevated expression levels associated with worse overall survival (P=0...
July 11, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Joris Paris, Joëlle Tobaly-Tapiero, Marie-Lou Giron, Julien Burlaud-Gaillard, Florence Buseyne, Philippe Roingeard, Pascale Lesage, Alessia Zamborlini, Ali Saïb
BACKGROUND: Nuclear localization of Gag is a property shared by many retroviruses and retrotransposons. The importance of this stage for retroviral replication is still unknown, but studies on the Rous Sarcoma virus indicate that Gag might select the viral RNA genome for packaging in the nucleus. In the case of Foamy viruses, genome encapsidation is mediated by Gag C-terminal domain (CTD), which harbors three clusters of glycine and arginine residues named GR boxes (GRI-III). In this study we investigated how PFV Gag subnuclear distribution might be regulated...
July 11, 2018: Retrovirology
John M Lamar, Vijeyaluxmy Motilal Nehru, Guy Weinberg
Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma involving cells with histologic markers that suggest an endothelial origin. Around 90% of EHEs are caused by the fusion of Transcriptional Co-activator with a PDZ-motif (TAZ) with Calmodulin Binding Transcription Activator 1 (CAMTA1), a central nervous system-specific transcription activator. The 10% of EHEs that lack the TAZ⁻CAMTA1 fusion instead have a fusion of Yes-associated Protein (YAP) and Transcription Factor E3 (TFE3) genes (YAP-TFE3)...
July 10, 2018: Cancers
X C Yan, L S Sun, Z W Dong, Z You, Q Dong
V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) is a pro-oncogene, which is one member of the RAF family. Mutated BRAF is found in approximately 8% of human tumors. BRAF gene mutations lead to continuous activation of the mitogen-activatd protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which resulting in abnormal cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. In recent years, recurrent MAPK signaling mutations were identified in ameloblastoma, among which BRAF-V600E is the most prominent type. This provides new strategies for the targeted treatment of ameloblastoma...
July 9, 2018: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
T Wang, X H Liu, Y H Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
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