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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643525/folic-acid-conjugated-nanoliposomes-as-promising-carriers-for-targeted-delivery-of-bleomycin
#1
Mohsen Chiani, Dariush Norouzian, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Kayhan Azadmanesh, Aazam Najmafshar, Mohammad Reza Mehrabi, Azim Akbarzadeh
Targeted drug delivery has received considerable attention due to its key role in improving therapeutic efficacy and reducing the side effects of anticancer drugs. Bleomycin (BLM) is an anticancer antibiotic with short half-life, low therapeutic and high side effects that limit its clinical applications. This study aims to evaluate the anticancer potential of folate-targeted liposomal bleomycin (FL-BLM) and its free-folate form (L-BLM) on two different cancer cell lines including human cervix carcinoma HeLa, and human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells...
June 23, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639052/gentamicin-loaded-polysaccharide-membranes-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-post-operative-wound-infections-in-the-skeletal-system
#2
Urszula Cibor, Małgorzata Krok-Borkowicz, Monika Brzychczy-Włoch, Łucja Rumian, Krzysztof Pietryga, Dominika Kulig, Wojciech Chrzanowski, Elżbieta Pamuła
PURPOSE: To develop polysaccharide-based membranes that allow controlled and localized delivery of gentamicin for the treatment of post-operative bone infections. METHODS: Membranes made of gellan gum (GUM), sodium alginate (ALG), GUM and ALG crosslinked with calcium ions (GUM + Ca and ALG + Ca, respectively) as well as reference collagen (COL) were produced by freeze-drying. Mechanical properties, drug release, antimicrobial activity and cytocompatibility of the membranes were assessed...
June 21, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638306/effect-of-maternal-obesity-on-maternal-fetal-transfer-of-preoperative-cefazolin-at-cesarean-section
#3
Stephanie McKenney Groff, Wareef Fallatah, Samuel Yang, Jamie Murphy, Christopher Crutchfield, Mark Marzinke, Joanne Kurtzberg, Carlton K K Lee, Irina Burd, Azadeh Farzin
OBJECTIVES: American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends a single dose of antibiotic prophylaxis before all cesarean sections (C/S). This recommendation is based on pharmacokinetic studies that include only non-obese patients. We sought to evaluate 1) cefazolin plasma concentrations among obese and non-obese patients after administration of a 2-g cefazolin dose for prevention of surgical wound infections, and 2) whether cefazolin concentration in fetal circulation may be protective against pathogens that cause early onset neonatal sepsis...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633864/perinatal-group-b-streptococcal-infections-virulence-factors-immunity-and-prevention-strategies
#4
REVIEW
Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal infections. GBS commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal and genital tracts and, during pregnancy, neonates are at risk of infection. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor and delivery has decreased the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection, these measures do not prevent ascending infection that can occur earlier in pregnancy leading to preterm births, stillbirths, or late-onset neonatal infections...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633592/recent-advances-in-therapeutic-delivery-systems-of-bacteriophage-and-bacteriophage-encoded-endolysins
#5
Hollie Hathaway, Scarlet Milo, J Mark Sutton, Toby A Jenkins
Antibiotics have been the cornerstone of clinical management of bacterial infection since their discovery in the early 20th century. However, their widespread and often indiscriminate use has now led to reports of multidrug resistance becoming globally commonplace. Bacteriophage therapy has undergone a recent revival in battle against pathogenic bacteria, as the self-replicating and co-evolutionary features of these predatory virions offer several advantages over conventional therapeutic agents. In particular, the use of targeted bacteriophage therapy from specialized delivery platforms has shown particular promise owing to the control of delivery location, administration conditions and dosage of the therapeutic cargo...
July 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632072/maternal-obesity-obstetric-interventions-and-post-partum-anaemia-increase-the-risk-of-post-partum-sepsis-a-population-based-cohort-study-based-on-swedish-medical-health-registers
#6
Daniel Axelsson, Marie Blomberg
BACKGROUND: The objective was to estimate whether maternal obesity and/or obstetric interventions are associated with diagnosed maternal post-partum sepsis. METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study including all deliveries in Sweden between 1997 and 2012 (N = 1,558,752). Cases of sepsis (n = 376) were identified by International Classification of Diseases, (ICD-10) codes A40, A41 and O 85 in the Medical Birth Register and the National Patient Register...
June 20, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628310/furoxan-nitric-oxide-donors-disperse-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilms-accelerate-growth-and-repress-pyoverdine-production
#7
Wee Han Poh, Nicolas Barraud, Stefano Guglielmo, Loretta Lazzarato, Barbara Rolando, Roberta Fruttero, Scott A Rice
The use of nitric oxide (NO) as a signal for biofilm dispersal has been shown to increase the susceptibility of many biofilms to antibiotics, promoting their eradication. The delivery of NO to biofilms can be achieved by using NO-donors with different kinetics and properties of NO release that can influence their efficacy as biofilm control agents. In this study, the kinetics of three furoxan-derivatives were evaluated. The effects of these NO-donors, which have an advantageous pharmacological profile of slower onset with an extended duration of action, on Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, biofilm development and dispersal were also characterized...
June 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627489/treatment-of-francisella-infections-via-plga-and-lipid-based-nanoparticle-delivery-of-antibiotics-in-a-zebrafish-model
#8
Lilia S Ulanova, Marina Pinheiro, Carina Vibe, Claudia Nunes, Dorna Misaghian, Steven Wilson, Kaizheng Zhu, Federico Fenaroli, Hanne C Winther-Larsen, Salette Reis, Gareth Griffiths
We tested the efficiency of 2 different antibiotics, rifampicin and oxolinic acid, against an established infection caused by fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis ssp. orientalis (F.n.o.) in zebrafish. The drugs were tested in the free form as well as encapsulated into biodegradable nanoparticles, either polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles or nanostructured lipid carriers. The most promising therapies were PLGA-rifampicin nanoparticles and free oxolinic acid; the PLGA nanoparticles significantly delayed embryo mortality while free oxolinic acid prevented it...
June 19, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627354/-principle-and-influence-factors-of-aerosolized-antibiotics-in-the-treatment-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#9
Chang Liu, Yuting Zhang, Jianguo Li
Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is a challenging complication of critical illness. Aerosolized antibiotic is an option for the management of VAP currently, as it is reported that it could increase levels of drug in alveolar without increasing systemic toxicity. The articles that focused on the aerosolized antibiotics in the treatment of VAP and its influence factors were reviewed, and it was found that to achieve maximum drug delivery efficiency and reduce the influence of nebulization method, some factors, such as ventilation modes, tidal volume, nebulizer type, should be adjusted and monitored during the treatment...
March 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616744/demonstration-that-a-klebsiella-pneumoniae-subsp-pneumoniae-isolated-from-an-insect-nezara-viridula-harbors-a-plasmid-borne-type-iv-secretion-system
#10
Enrique Gino Medrano, Alois A Bell
Previously, we reported the isolation of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies pneumoniae strain Kp 5-1 from a southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula) that is a significant pest of numerous economically important crops. We subsequently sequenced the strains whole genome. Here, we report the presence of a functional plasmid-borne type IV secretion (TFSS) system that was identified using genomic mining of the annotated genome. Comparison of the Kp 5-1 resident 186 kb plasmid (pKp 5-1) with nine other Klebsiella with plasmids of comparable size from clinical and environmental strains revealed putative TFSS with identities ranging from 70 to 99%...
June 15, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615382/factors-influencing-the-gut-microbiota-inflammation-and-type-2-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
Li Wen, Andrew Duffy
The gut microbiota is a complex community of bacteria residing in the intestine. Animal models have demonstrated that several factors contribute to and can significantly alter the composition of the gut microbiota, including genetics; the mode of delivery at birth; the method of infant feeding; the use of medications, especially antibiotics; and the diet. There may exist a gut microbiota signature that promotes intestinal inflammation and subsequent systemic low-grade inflammation, which in turn promotes the development of type 2 diabetes...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608529/comparison-of-the-cellex%C3%A2-and-uvar-xts%C3%A2-closed-system-extracorporeal-photopheresis-devices-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease
#12
Robert M Whittle, Helen Denney, Andrew D Chantry, Arun Alfred, Peter C Taylor
Extracorporeal Photopheresis (ECP) is a cellular immunotherapy frequently used for steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Chronic GVHD (cGVHD), response to ECP is associated with survival benefit. The UVAR-XTS(TM) system and the more recently developed CELLEX(TM) device (both Therakos(TM) ) are the mainstay for ECP-delivery in the UK and US. No comparison of treatment outcomes has been reported. We retrospectively compared cGVHD response and steroid reduction and withdrawal in patients treated exclusively over 12 months with either the XTS (n = 51) or CELLEX (n = 50)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607871/prevention-of-surgical-site-infections-and-biofilms-pharmacokinetics-of-subcutaneous-cefazolin-and-metronidazole-in-a-tumescent-lidocaine-solution
#13
Jeffrey A Klein, Loralie J Langman
BACKGROUND: Tumescent anesthesia antibiotic delivery (TAAD) consists of subcutaneous infiltration of antibiotic(s) dissolved tumescent lidocaine anesthesia. Tumescent lidocaine anesthesia contains lidocaine (≤ 1 g/L), epinephrine (≤ 1 mg/L), sodium bicarbonate (10 mEq/L) in 0.9% saline. Our aim was to measure cefazolin and metronidazole concentrations over time in subcutaneous tumescent interstitial fluid (TISF) after TAAD, in serum after TAAD and after intravenous antibiotic delivery (IVAD)...
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602009/update-on-intranasal-medications-in-rhinosinusitis
#14
REVIEW
Kornkiat Snidvongs, Sanguansak Thanaviratananich
This review describes beneficial effects and adverse events of various intranasal medications in treating rhinosinusitis. Application of intranasal steroids has been described in treating all subtypes of adult rhinosinusitis, but reports are limited in pediatrics and mostly in acute pediatric subgroups resulted in benefits While saline irrigation is effective for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without polyps and in pediatric acute rhinosinusitis, there is no evidence yet for saline drips and sprays. Application of intranasal antifungals and nasal irrigation with surfactant brings more harm than benefits...
July 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601683/prenatal-intrapartum-and-postnatal-factors-are-associated-with-pediatric-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#15
Elizabeth T Jensen, Jonathan T Kuhl, Lisa J Martin, Marc E Rothenberg, Evan S Dellon
BACKGROUND: Multiple lines of evidence point to the potential importance of early-life environmental factors in the rapid rise in incidence of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), but potential exposures have not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between prenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal factors and the development of pediatric EoE using a case-control study. METHODS: Cases of EoE were recruited from an existing registry at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599795/metallic-nanoparticles-to-eradicate-bacterial-bone-infection
#16
Shahnaz Qadri, Yousef Haik, Eric Mensah-Brown, Ghada Bashir, Maria J Fernandez-Cabezudo, Basel K Al-Ramadi
Treatment of osteomyelitis by conventional antibiotics has proven to be challenging due to limited accessibility to this unique location. Inorganic routes against bacterial infection have been reported for external and topical applications, however in vivo application of these antimicrobials has not been fully explored. Targeted delivery of metallic nanoparticles with inherent antimicrobial activity represents an alternative means of overcoming the challenges posed by multidrug-resistant bacteria and may potentially reduce overall morbidity...
June 7, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596137/reshaping-antibiotics-through-hydrophobic-drug-bile-acid-ionic-complexation-enhances-activity-against-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilms
#17
Stefano Giovagnoli, Donatella Pietrella, Lanfranco Barberini, Claudio Santi, Andrea Carotti, Alessandro di Michele, Maurizio Ricci
The antibiotic era is on the verge of a profound change and facing a ground shaking crisis. The frequent failures of antibiotic treatments are often associated with biofilm formation, which is responsible for chronic infections, exacerbation as well as reinfection. So far, albeit the large number of valuable strategies employed to combat biofilm formation, little success has been recorded. In this work, we propose a simple approach, based on hydrophobic ionic complexation with the bile acids, deoxycholic acid (DCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), to enhance anti-biofilm activity of well-known antibiotics, namely kanamycin (K), amikacin (A) and vancomycin (V)...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591673/the-windmill-technique-avoids-manual-removal-of-the-retained-placenta-a-new-solution-for-an-old-problem
#18
Larry Hinkson, Mia Amelie Suermann, Susan Hinkson, Wolfgang Henrich
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective is to assess the reduction in manual removal of placenta with the Windmill technique of placenta delivery in patients with retained placenta. DESIGN: The Windmill technique involves the application of continuous 360° umbilical cord traction and rotation in such a manner as to be perpendicular to the direction of the birth canal at the level of the introitus. This rotation through 360° is repeated slowly with movement akin to the motion of the blades of a windmill...
June 1, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587631/bacterial-etiologic-agents-causing-neonatal-sepsis-and-associated-risk-factors-in-gondar-northwest-ethiopia
#19
Tsehaynesh G/Eyesus, Feleke Moges, Setegn Eshetie, Biruk Yeshitela, Ebba Abate
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis is a blood stream infection which is seen in the first month of life of the neonate. Bacterial profile of neonatal septicemia is constantly changing thus, current knowledge on the patterns of bacterial isolates, its antibiotic resistance profile, and associated factors, are essential to design and implement appropriate interventions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify bacterial etiologic agents, their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and associated risk factors of neonatal sepsis among neonates...
June 6, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583330/liposomal-andrographolide-dry-powder-inhalers-for-treatment-of-bacterial-pneumonia-via-anti-inflammatory-pathway
#20
Miao Li, Tongtong Zhang, Lifei Zhu, Rui Wang, Yiguang Jin
Andrographolide (AG) is a chemical entity from traditional Chinese herbs and its oral pills have been applied to the treatment of respiratory inflammation. Here we report pulmonary delivery of liposomal AG dry powder inhalers (LADPIs) for treatment of Staphylococcus aureus-induced pneumonia. AG liposomes were prepared with the injection method and then freeze-dried for preparation of LADPIs. AG liposomes were small and stable with a mean size of 77.91nm and a zeta potential of -56.13mV. Liposomes were well recovered after re-hydration of LADPIs that were suitable for pulmonary delivery with a mass mean aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 4...
June 2, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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