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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926636/the-expected-and-unexpected-benefits-of-dispensing-the-exact-number-of-pills
#1
Carole Treibich, Sabine Lescher, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Bruno Ventelou
BACKGROUND: From November 2014 to November 2015, an experiment in French community pharmacies replaced traditional pre-packed boxes by per-unit dispensing of pills in the exact numbers prescribed, for 14 antibiotics. METHODS: A cluster randomised control trial was carried out in 100 pharmacies. 75 pharmacies counted out the medication by units (experimental group), the other 25 providing the treatment in the existing pharmaceutical company boxes (control group)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925959/preventing-surgical-site-infections-using-a-natural-biodegradable-antibacterial-coating-on-surgical-sutures
#2
Jochen Reinbold, Ann-Kristin Uhde, Ingrid Müller, Tobias Weindl, Jürgen Geis-Gerstorfer, Christian Schlensak, Hans-Peter Wendel, Stefanie Krajewski
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are one of the most common nosocomial infections, which can result in serious complications after surgical interventions. Foreign materials such as implants or surgical sutures are optimal surfaces for the adherence of bacteria and subsequent colonization and biofilm formation. Due to a significant increase in antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, naturally occurring agents exhibiting antibacterial properties have great potential in prophylactic therapies. The aim of this study was to develop a coating for surgical sutures consisting of the antibacterial substance totarol, a naturally occurring diterpenoid isolated from Podocarpustotara in combination with poly(lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) as a biodegradable drug delivery system...
September 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922635/fucoidan-coated-ciprofloxacin-loaded-chitosan-nanoparticles-for-the-treatment-of-intracellular-and-biofilm-infections-of-salmonella
#3
Elbi S, Nimal T R, Rajan V K, Gaurav Baranwal, Raja Biswas, Jayakumar R, Sathianarayanan S
Salmonella infections and their gallstone associated biofilm infections are difficult to treat due to poor penetration of antibiotics into the intracellular compartments of macrophages and within biofilms. Here we developed ciprofloxacin loaded chitosan nanoparticles (cCNPs) and fucoidan (Fu) coated cCNPs (Fu-cCNPs). Characterizations of these nanoparticles were carried out using Dynamic Light Scattering‎, Transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The prepared cCNPs and Fu-cCNPs have the size range of 124±7nm and 320±18nm, respectively...
September 5, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919737/bacterial-membrane-vesicles-as-novel-nanosystems-for-drug-delivery
#4
REVIEW
Sapna Jain, Jonathan Pillai
Bacterial membrane vesicles (BMVs) are closed spherical nanostructures that are shed naturally and ubiquitously by most bacterial species both in vivo and in vitro. Researchers have elucidated their roles in long-distance transport of a wide array of cargoes, such as proteins, toxins, antigens, virulence factors, microbicidal agents and antibiotics. Given that these natural carriers are important players in intercellular communication, it has been hypothesized that they are equally well attuned for transport and delivery of exogenous therapeutic cargoes...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917836/erythromycin-encapsulation-in-nanoemulsion-based-delivery-systems-for-treatment-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-protection-and-synergy
#5
Le Tuyet Chau Tran, Claire Gueutin, Ghislaine Frebourg, Christophe Burucoa, Vincent Faivre
Poorly water-soluble and unstable compounds are difficult to develop as drug products using conventional formulation techniques. The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate a nanoformulation prepared by a hot high-pressure homogenization method, which was a scalable and solvent-free process. We successfully prepared stable nanodispersions to protect a labile antibiotic, erythromycin. The mean diameter of the dispersed droplets was approximately 150 nm, and size distribution was unimodal. Dispersion was physically stable at room temperature for over six months...
September 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914989/encapsulating-active-pharmaceutical-ingredients-in-self-assembling-adamantanes-with-short-dna-zippers
#6
Clemens Richert, Helmut Griesser, Alexander Schwenger
Formulating pharmaceutically active ingredients for drug delivery is a challenge. There is a need for new drug delivery systems that take up therapeutic molecules and release them into biological systems. We propose a novel mode of encapsulation that involves matrices formed through co-assembly of drugs with adamantane hybrids that feature four CG dimers as sticky ends. Such adamantanes are accessible via inexpensive solution-phase syntheses, and the resulting materials show attractive properties for controlled release...
September 15, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904933/electrospun-gelatin-poly-glycerol-sebacate-membrane-with-controlled-release-of-antibiotics-for-wound-dressing
#7
Parisa Shirazaki, Jaleh Varshosaz, Anoushe Zargar Kharazi
BACKGROUND: The most important risk that threatens the skin wounds is infections. Therefore, fabrication of a membrane as a wound dressing with the ability of antibiotic delivery in a proper delivery rate is especially important. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) was prepared from sebacic acid and glycerol with 1:1 ratio; then, it was added to gelatin in the 1:3 ratio and was dissolved in 80% (v/v) acetic acid, and finally, ciprofloxacin was added in 10% (w/v) of polymer solution...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900429/plasma-derived-polyreactive-secretory-like-iga-and-igm-opsonizing-salmonella-enterica-typhimurium-reduces-invasion-and-gut-tissue-inflammation-through-agglutination
#8
Gilles Bioley, Justine Monnerat, Marius Lötscher, Cédric Vonarburg, Adrian Zuercher, Blaise Corthésy
Due to the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of enteropathogenic bacteria, development of alternative treatments to fight against gut infections is a major health issue. While vaccination requires that a proper combination of antigen, adjuvant, and delivery route is defined to elicit protective immunity at mucosae, oral delivery of directly active antibody preparations, referred to as passive immunization, sounds like a valuable alternative. Along the gut, the strategy suffers, however, from the difficulty to obtain sufficient amounts of antibodies with the appropriate specificity and molecular structure for mucosal delivery...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899531/sleep-disorders-and-allergic-diseases-in-chinese-toddlers
#9
Xu Wang, Xiang Gao, Qian Yang, Xia Wang, Shenghui Li, Fan Jiang, Jun Zhang, Fengxiu Ouyang
OBJECTIVE: Optimal sleep is important for child growth, development, and immune function. We aimed to explore whether sleep disorders were associated with the risk of allergic diseases in Chinese toddlers. METHODS: This study included 566 children (aged 23.9 ± 0.7 months; 51.1% boys) in Shanghai, China. Sleep parameters (total sleep time, sleep onset latency, nocturnal awaking and snoring) were assessed by an expanded version of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ-expanded)...
September 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893261/a-tale-of-two-systems-practice-patterns-of-a-single-group-of-emergency-medical-physicians-in-taiwan-and-china
#10
I-Anne Huang, Tang-Her Jaing, Chang-Teng Wu, Chee-Jen Chang, Shan-Hsuan Hsia, Nicole Huang
BACKGROUND: The quality of pediatric emergency care has been a major concern in health care. Following a series of health system reforms in China, it is important to do this assessment of pediatric emergency care, and to explore potential influences of health care system. This study aimed to compare practice differences in treating children with respiratory illnesses in two emergency department (ED) settings within different health care systems: China and Taiwan. METHODS: A pooled cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted in two tertiary teaching hospitals in Xiamen, China and Keelung, Taiwan belong to the same hospital chain group...
September 11, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892417/green-biologics-the-algal-chloroplast-as-a-platform-for-making-biopharmaceuticals
#11
Henry N Taunt, Laura Stoffels, Saul Purton
Most commercial production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins involves the use of mammalian cell lines, E. coli or yeast as the expression host. However, recent work has demonstrated the potential of eukaryotic microalgae as platforms for light-driven synthesis of such proteins. Expression in the algal chloroplast is particularly attractive since this organelle contains a minimal genome suitable for rapid engineering using synthetic biology approaches; with transgenes precisely targeted to specific genomic loci and amenable to high-level, regulated and stable expression...
September 11, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892296/tailored-approaches-in-drug-development-and-diagnostics-from-molecular-design-to-biological-model-systems
#12
REVIEW
Cecilia Sahlgren, Annika Meinander, Hongbo Zhang, Fang Cheng, Maren Preis, Chunlin Xu, Tiina A Salminen, Diana Toivola, Daniel Abankwa, Ari Rosling, Didem Şen Karaman, Outi M H Salo-Ahen, Ronald Österbacka, John E Eriksson, Stefan Willför, Ion Petre, Jouko Peltonen, Reko Leino, Mark Johnson, Jessica Rosenholm, Niklas Sandler
Approaches to increase the efficiency in developing drugs and diagnostics tools, including new drug delivery and diagnostic technologies, are needed for improved diagnosis and treatment of major diseases and health problems such as cancer, inflammatory diseases, chronic wounds, and antibiotic resistance. Development within several areas of research ranging from computational sciences, material sciences, bioengineering to biomedical sciences and bioimaging is needed to realize innovative drug development and diagnostic (DDD) approaches...
September 11, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891362/alternatives-to-antibiotics-in-poultry-feed-molecular-perspectives
#13
Gayatri Suresh, Ratul Kumar Das, Satinder Kaur Brar, Tarek Rouissi, Antonio Avalos Ramirez, Younes Chorfi, Stephane Godbout
The discovery of the growth promoting property of antibiotics led to their use as antibiotic feed additives (AFAs) in animal feed at sub-therapeutic doses. Although this has been beneficial for animal health and productivity, it has been, essentially, a double-edged sword. The continued and non-judicious use of AFAs has led to the selection and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant strains of poultry pathogens such as Salmonella, Campylobacter and Escherichia coli. The rapid spread of drug-resistant pathogens as well as emergence of antibiotic-related environmental pollutants is of global concern...
September 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889767/delayed-interval-delivery-in-twin-pregnancies-report-of-three-cases-and-literature-review
#14
Marta Benito Vielba, Carlos De Bonrostro Torralba, Victoria Pallarés Arnal, Rebeca Herrero Serrano, Eva Lucía Tejero Cabrejas, Jose Manuel Campillos Maza
INTRODUCTION: Delayed delivery is sometimes performed in selected multifetal pregnancies when the first twin birth occurs inevitably. The aim of this procedure is to improve the prognosis and decrease the morbidity and mortality of the second twin. We report three cases of delayed-interval delivery of dichorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancies assisted in our center between 2015 and 2017. After the first twin delivery, the second twin was left in utero and the patient received tocolytic therapy and antibiotics...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888169/green-synthesis-of-si-incorporated-hydroxyapatite-using-sodium-metasilicate-as-silicon-precursor-and-in-vitro-antibiotic-release-studies
#15
P Abinaya Sindu, Elayaraja Kolanthai, R V Suganthi, K Thanigai Arul, E Manikandan, Luiz H Catalani, S Narayana Kalkura
The aim of the current study is to synthesize nanosized silicon incorporated HAp (Si-HAP) using sodium metasilicate as the silicon source. The sol-gel derived samples were further subjected to microwave irradiation. Incorporation of Si into HAp did not alter the HAp phase, as confirmed by the X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Moreover, variation in the lattice parameters of the Si-incorporated HAp indicates that Si is substituted into the HAp lattice. The decrease in the intensity of the peaks attributed to hydroxyl groups, which appeared in the FTIR and Raman spectra of Si-HAp, further confirms the Si substitution in HAp lattices...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885421/evidence-based-bundles-and-cesarean-delivery-surgical-site-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Ebony B Carter, Lorene A Temming, Susan Fowler, Catherine Eppes, Gilad Gross, Sindhu K Srinivas, George A Macones, Graham A Colditz, Methodius G Tuuli
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association of implementation of evidence-based bundles with surgical site infection rates after cesarean delivery. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE through PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: We searched electronic databases for randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing evidence-based infection prevention bundles for cesarean delivery, defined as implementation of three or more processes proven to prevent surgical site infection such as chlorhexidine skin preparation, antibiotic prophylaxis, and hair clipping, with usual care...
September 5, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882728/enhanced-efficacy-of-the-engineered-antimicrobial-peptide-wlbu2-via-direct-airway-delivery-in-a-murine-model-of-p-aeruginosa-pneumonia
#17
Chen Chen, Berthony Deslouches, Ronald C Montelaro, Y Peter Di
OBJECTIVES: P. aeruginosa is a common cause of pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients with the property to generate multidrug resistance against clinically used antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a diverse group of effector molecules of the innate immunity that protect the host against pathogens. However, the lack of activity in common biological matrices has hampered efforts towards clinical development. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of engineered antimicrobial peptide WLBU2 via direct airway delivery in a murine model of P...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877893/randomized-controlled-trial-on-the-impact-of-early-life-intervention-with-bifidobacteria-on-the-healthy-infant-fecal-microbiota-and-metabolome
#18
Monika Bazanella, Tanja V Maier, Thomas Clavel, Ilias Lagkouvardos, Marianna Lucio, Maria X Maldonado-Gòmez, Chloe Autran, Jens Walter, Lars Bode, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Dirk Haller
Background: Early-life colonization of the intestinal tract is a dynamic process influenced by numerous factors. The impact of probiotic-supplemented infant formula on the composition and function of the infant gut microbiota is not well defined.Objective: We sought to determine the effects of a bifidobacteria-containing formula on the healthy human intestinal microbiome during the first year of life.Design: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of newborn infants assigned to a standard whey-based formula containing a total of 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU)/g of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, B...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874611/how-should-aerosols-be-delivered-during-invasive-mechanical-ventilation
#19
Rajiv Dhand
The delivery of aerosols to mechanically ventilated patients presents unique challenges and differs from inhaled drug delivery in spontaneously breathing patients in several respects. Successful aerosol delivery during invasive mechanical ventilation requires careful consideration of a host of factors that influence the amount of drug inhaled by the patient. Pressurized metered-dose inhalers and nebulizers (jet, ultrasonic, and vibrating mesh) are the most commonly used aerosol delivery devices in these patients, although other delivery devices, such as dry powder inhalers, soft mist inhalers, and intratracheal nebulizing catheters, could also be adapted for in-line use...
September 5, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872662/current-options-in-aerosolised-drug-therapy-for-children-receiving-respiratory-support
#20
REVIEW
S Trend, B S von Ungern-Sternberg, S G Devadason, A Schultz, M L Everard
Inhalation of aerosolised medications are the mainstay of treatment for a number of chronic lung diseases and have several advantages over systemically-administered medications. These include more rapid onset of action for drugs such as β-adrenergic agonists when compared with oral medication, high luminal doses for inhaled antibiotics when used to treat endobronchial infection, and an improved therapeutic index compared with systemic delivery for these and other classes of drugs such as corticosteroids. The use of aerosolised drugs to treat patients whose tracheas are intubated is less well established, in part because systemic delivery via the intravenous route can be a simpler alternative for many drugs...
September 5, 2017: Anaesthesia
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