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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748178/community-based-prescribing-for-impetigo-in-remote-australia-an-opportunity-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#1
Stefanie Jane Oliver, James Cush, Jeanette E Ward
BACKGROUND: To support antibiotic prescribing for both hospital and community-based health professionals working in remote North Western Australia, a multidisciplinary Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) Committee was established in 2013. This Committee is usually focused on hospital-based prescribing. A troubling increase in sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim resistance in Staphylococcus aureus antibiograms from 9 to 18% over 1 year prompted a shift in gaze to community prescribing. WHAT WE DID: Finding a paucity of relevant research, we first investigated contextual factors influencing local prescribing...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747198/population-based-prevalence-survey-of-follicular-trachoma-and-trachomatous-trichiasis-in-the-casamance-region-of-senegal
#2
Emma M Harding-Esch, Julbert Kadimpeul, Boubacar Sarr, Awa Sane, Souleymane Badji, Mass Laye, Ansumana Sillah, Sarah E Burr, David MacLeod, Anna R Last, Martin J Holland, David C Mabey, Robin L Bailey
BACKGROUND: Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. We conducted the first population-based trachoma prevalence survey in the Casamance region of Senegal to enable the Senegalese National Eye Care Programme (NECP) to plan its trachoma control activities. The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines state that any individual with trachomatous trichiasis (TT) should be offered surgery, but that surgery should be prioritised where the prevalence is >0...
July 26, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745516/antibiotic-stewardship-from-toolkit-to-local-implementation-the-gutta-cavat-lapidem-strategy
#3
Massimo Fantoni, Rita Murri, Roberto Cauda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743235/magnetic-hyperthermia-enhance-the-treatment-efficacy-of-peri-implant-osteomyelitis
#4
Chih-Hsiang Fang, Pei-I Tsai, Shu-Wei Huang, Jui-Sheng Sun, Jenny Zwei-Chieng Chang, Hsin-Hsin Shen, San-Yuan Chen, Feng Huei Lin, Lih-Tao Hsu, Yen-Chun Chen
BACKGROUND: When bacteria colony persist within a biofilm, suitable drugs are not yet available for the eradication of biofilm-producing bacteria. The aim of this study is to study the effect of magnetic nano-particles-induced hyperthermia on destroying biofilm and promoting bactericidal effects of antibiotics in the treatment of osteomyelitis. METHODS: Sixty 12-weeks-old male Wistar rats were used. A metallic 18G needle was implanted into the bone marrow cavity of distal femur after the injection of Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA)...
July 25, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742812/broad-range-lytic-bacteriophages-that-kill-staphylococcus-aureus-local-field-strains
#5
Virginia Abatángelo, Natalia Peressutti Bacci, Carina A Boncompain, Ariel A Amadio, Soledad Carrasco, Cristian A Suárez, Héctor R Morbidoni
Staphylococcus aureus is a very successful opportunistic pathogen capable of causing a variety of diseases ranging from mild skin infections to life-threatening sepsis, meningitis and pneumonia. Its ability to display numerous virulence mechanisms matches its skill to display resistance to several antibiotics, including β-lactams, underscoring the fact that new anti-S. aureus drugs are urgently required. In this scenario, the utilization of lytic bacteriophages that kill bacteria in a genus -or even species- specific way, has become an attractive field of study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742785/an-effective-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-1-compatible-local-antibiotic-delivery-device
#6
Ben C C Rand, Joseph C Wenke
OBJECTIVES: The current clinical standard for local antibiotic depot is polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads. Unfortunately, these are not ideal and negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) reduces their limited effectiveness. Recently, a chitosan sponge has been shown to be an effective carrier of antibiotics. Since it acts as a delivery vehicle with increased wound contact area instead of an antibiotic depot, it may be more effective. The objectives of this study are to determine if 1) a chitosan sponge would be more effective than PMMA beads as a local antibiotic delivery device and 2) the chitosan sponge remains an effective method of delivery when used in conjunction with NPWT...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738847/longitudinal-genomic-surveillance-of-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-carriage-in-a-long-term-care-facility-in-the-united-kingdom
#7
Hayley J Brodrick, Kathy E Raven, Teemu Kallonen, Dorota Jamrozy, Beth Blane, Nicholas M Brown, Veronique Martin, M Estée Török, Julian Parkhill, Sharon J Peacock
BACKGROUND: Residents of long-term care facilities (LTCF) may have high carriage rates of multidrug-resistant pathogens, but are not currently included in surveillance programmes for antimicrobial resistance or healthcare-associated infections. Here, we describe the value derived from a longitudinal epidemiological and genomic surveillance study of drug-resistant Escherichia coli in a LTCF in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: Forty-five of 90 (50%) residents were recruited and followed for six months in 2014...
July 25, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736974/topical-sevoflurane-for-chronic-venous-ulcers-infected-by-multi-drug-resistant-organisms
#8
Adrián Imbernón-Moya, Francisco Javier Ortiz-de Frutos, Mónica Sanjuan-Alvarez, Isabel Portero-Sanchez, Raúl Merinero-Palomares, Victoria Alcazar
Several anaesthetic drugs have demonstrated antibacterial properties in vitro. Anaesthetics can primarily affect the cell wall of both susceptible and multi-resistant bacteria. They may also have a synergistic effect with conventional antibiotics through an unknown mechanism. We present three cases of a chronic venous ulcer infected by multi-resistant bacteria refractory to conventional systemic antibiotics, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Treatment with topical sevoflurane was performed for 1 month without systemic antibiotics...
July 23, 2017: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736321/an-intraprostatic-modified-release-formulation-of-antiandrogen-2-hydroxyflutamide-for-localized-prostate-cancer
#9
T L Tammela, M Häggman, S Ladjevardi, K Taari, T Isotalo, H Lennernäs, J Weis, C von Below, C Wassberg, B Lennernäs, A Tolf, N Axén, C-G Gölander, H Ahlström
PURPOSE: To investigate tolerability, safety and antitumor effects of a novel intra-prostatic depot formulation of antiandrogen 2-hydroxyflutamide (2-HOF in NanoZolid(®)) in men with localized prostate cancer (PCa). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two clinical trials, LPC-002 and LPC-003, were conducted on a total of 47 men. The formulation was injected transrectally into the prostate with ultrasound guidance. In LPC-002 the effects on prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostate volume (PV) were measured over 6 months on 24 patients...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735655/an-intramedullary-nail-coated-with-antibiotic-and-growth-factor-nanoparticles-an-individualized-state-of-the-art-treatment-for-chronic-osteomyelitis-with-bone-defects
#10
Roberto Berebichez-Fridman, Pablo Montero-Olvera, Ricardo Gómez-García, Enrique Berebichez-Fastlicht
Among various infections, chronic osteomyelitis is one of the most challenging in terms of treatment. This infection is more common among patients with open fractures and those who have undergone elective orthopedic procedures. The treatment of osteomyelitis requires high antibiotic doses and an aggressive and multifaceted surgical approach. The use of parenteral antibiotics alone, without debridement, is not sufficiently effective, due to the formation of sequestra and the low vascularity of the affected area...
August 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735135/endoscope-assisted-abscess-drainage-secondary-to-endoscope-assisted-tlif-1-year-follow-up
#11
Karthik Madhavan, Steven Shelby Burks, Lee Onn Chieng, Anand Veeravagu, Michael Y Wang
INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic discectomy and fusions have been gaining popularity in the recent past and are noted to be safe for its application in elderly population. It involves ultra-small incision for discectomy followed by placement of percutaneous screws in awake patients. Treatment of advanced spinal pathology using endoscope-assisted techniques are challenging. Although not common with endoscopic approach, post-operative infection can be problematic as there are no established guidelines on its management...
July 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734495/clinical-experiences-in-the-use-of-a-gentamicin-coated-titanium-nail-in-tibia-fractures-and-revisions
#12
G Schmidmaier, M Kerstan, P Schwabe, N Südkamp, M Raschke
Despite the improvement of surgical techniques surgical site infections (SSIs) still remain a significant clinical burden in high risk patients undergoing osteosynthesis for tibia fractures. The use of an antibiotic coated implant might reduce the adhesion of bacteria on the implant surface and could therefore reduce the rate of implant-related infection or osteomyelitis. In this prospective multicenter study the use of a gentamicin-coated tibia nail for the treatment of open and closed tibia fractures and non-union revision cases was evaluated in 100 patients (99 treated) followed for 18 months...
July 10, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733486/%C3%AE-toxin-regulates-local-granulocyte-expansion-from-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-in-staphylococcus-aureus-infected-wounds
#13
Patrick C Falahee, Leif S Anderson, Mack B Reynolds, Mauricio Pirir, Bridget E McLaughlin, Carly A Dillen, Ambrose L Cheung, Lloyd S Miller, Scott I Simon
The immune response to Staphylococcus aureus infection in skin involves the recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) from the bone marrow via the circulation and local granulopoiesis from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) that also traffic to infected skin wounds. We focus on regulation of PMN number and function and the role of pore-forming α-toxin (AT), a virulence factor that causes host cell lysis and elicits inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion in wounds. Infection with wild-type S...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731836/mortality-rate-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-complicated-diverticulitis-report-of-272-consecutive-patients-worldwide-a-prospective-cohort-study
#14
Federico Coccolini, Mattia Trevisan, Giulia Montori, Massimo Sartelli, Fausto Catena, Marco Ceresoli, Antonio Costanzo, Arianna Heyer, Luca Ansaloni
BACKGROUND: Complicated diverticulitis (CD) is a common problem for surgeons. In treating it, as a general principle, every verified source of infection should be controlled. Supplementary antimicrobial management involves a delicate balance of optimizing empirical therapy while reducing unnecessary antibiotic use. The necessity to know the most frequent infecting pathogens and their spectra of resistance is becoming pivotal. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiologic profile of complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) secondary to CD, to analyze the role of empirical antimicrobial therapy, and to describe the clinical aspects of CD worldwide...
July 21, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728477/increased-rate-of-penicillin-non-susceptible-strains-of-n-meningitidis-in-naples-italy
#15
Giovanni Di Caprio, Novella Carannante, Mariano Bernardo, Susanna Cuccurullo, Carlo Pallotto, Carlo Tascini
Neisseria meningitidis is a causative agent of community-acquired sepsis and meningitis in humans. These diseases are associated with high mortality and morbidity if treatment is not started promptly. The empiric antibiotic treatment depends on patient factors and local epidemiology. In the past years, an increased number meningococcal strain with reduced susceptibility to penicillin has also been described. We analysed the susceptibility pattern of 11 N. meningitidis strains isolated between 2013 and 2016...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727330/-lower-urinary-tract-infections-in-men-urethritis-cystitis-and-prostatitis
#16
Marie-Céline Zanella, Fabian Schoofs, Benedikt Huttner, Angela Huttner
Recommendations for the treatment of lower non-catheter-related urinary tract infection (UTI) in men are rarely evidence-based. Their management requires the localization of the site of infection, whether it be the urethra, bladder or prostate, and includes antibiotic therapy and in most cases urological assessment. They are often associated with urinary tract procedures or anatomical or functional abnormalities. Nearly 80 % of male UTIs are caused by Enterobacteriaceae. The prevalence of broad-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing strains (ESBL) and quinolone-resistant strains is increasing...
April 12, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726663/-peculiarities-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children-with-neurological-pathology
#17
O Zubarenko, G Kopiyka, T Kravchenko, L Koval, K Gurienko
Neurological disorders in children highly affect the course of pneumonia, its outcome and the development of possible complications. The aim of the study was to reveal clinical and paraclinical features of community-acquired pneumonia in younger children with neurologic pathology infantile cerebral palsy. Under observation were 37 children with community-acquired pneumonia aged 1 to 3 years that suffered from spastic forms of infantile cerebral palsy. The comparison group consisted of 30 children with community-acquired pneumonia without any concomitant neurological pathology...
June 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726434/-salvation-of-the-diabetic-foot-through-a-comprehensive-individualized-treatment-of-the-patient-with-type-2-diabetes-case-study
#18
Ivana Flanderová
This is a case of men with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic foot. The patient was in danger of limb amputation. After improvement of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia therapies a comprehensive treatment of diabetic foot including angioplasty, antibiotics and local maggot therapy was used for diabetic foot management. Therapy result was very satisfying for the patient. Despite of amputation of the 2nd digit due to advanced gangrene, the whole foot function was saved.Key words: diabetes foot - maggot therapies - type 2 diabetes mellitus...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723468/trends-in-antibiotic-resistance-in-urologic-practice
#19
REVIEW
Hala Kandil, Emma Cramp, Tejal Vaghela
CONTEXT: The significant global upsurge in antimicrobial resistance, particularly among Enterobacteriaceae, represents a serious threat to health care systems. The implications for urologic practice are of particular concern. OBJECTIVE: To review trends in antibiotic resistance in urologic practice. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We report current European trends of resistance in Gram-negative uropathogens. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: In addition to β-lactam resistance, Gram-negative pathogens are often resistant to multiple drug classes, including aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and carbapenems, commonly used to treat urologic infections...
October 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722406/possible-molecular-mechanisms-by-which-an-essential-oil-blend-from-star-anise-rosemary-thyme-and-oregano-and-saponins-increase-the-performance-and-ileal-protein-digestibility-of-growing-broilers
#20
Henry Reyer, Jürgen Zentek, Klaus Männer, Ibrahim M I Youssef, Tobias Aumüller, Julian Weghuber, Klaus Wimmers, Andreas Müller
Phytogenic feed additives represent a potential alternative to antibiotics with attributed health and growth promoting effects. Chickens supplemented with an essential oil blend, a Quillaja saponin blend or a combination of both phytogenic preparations showed a comprehensively and significantly improved apparent ileal digestibility of crude protein and amino acids compared to control birds. Accordingly, holistic transcriptomic analyses of jejunum and liver samples indicated alterations of macromolecule transporters and processing pathways likely culminating in an increased uptake and metabolizing of carbohydrates and fatty acids...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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