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necrotizing enterocolitis treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923478/increased-incidence-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-the-netherlands-after-implementation-of-the-new-dutch-guideline-for-active-treatment-in-extremely-preterm-infants-results-from-three-academic-referral-centers
#1
Fardou H Heida, Lisanne Stolwijk, Marie-Louise H J Loos, Stannie J van den Ende, Wes Onland, Frank A M van den Dungen, Elisabeth M W Kooi, Arend F Bos, Jan B F Hulscher, Roel Bakx
INTRODUCTION: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe inflammatory disease, mostly occurring in preterm infants. The Dutch guidelines for active treatment of extremely preterm infants changed in 2006 from 26+0 to 25+0weeks of gestation, and in 2010 to 24+0 of gestation. We aimed to gain insight into the incidence, clinical outcomes and treatment strategies, in three academic referral centers in the Netherlands over the last nine years. METHODS: We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study of all patients with NEC (Bell stage ≥2a) in three academic referral centers diagnosed between 2005 and 2013...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919824/melatonin-s-role-as-a-co-adjuvant-treatment-in-colonic-diseases-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Eduardo Esteban-Zubero, Laura López-Pingarrón, Moisés Alejandro Alatorre-Jiménez, Purificación Ochoa-Moneo, Celia Buisac-Ramón, Miguel Rivas-Jiménez, Silvia Castán-Ruiz, Ángel Antoñanzas-Lombarte, Dun-Xian Tan, José Joaquín García, Russel J Reiter
Melatonin is produced in the pineal gland as well as many other organs, including the enterochromaffin cells of the digestive mucosa. Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant that resists oxidative stress due to its capacity to directly scavenge reactive species, to modulate the antioxidant defense system by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and to stimulate the innate immune response through its direct and indirect actions. In addition, the dysregulation of the circadian system is observed to be related with alterations in colonic motility and cell disruptions due to the modifications of clock genes expression...
December 2, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916446/gastrointestinal-complications-associated-with-the-surgical-treatment-of-heart-disease-in-children
#3
Lee P Ferguson, Tarriyo Gandiya, Christos Kaselas, Jigna Sheth, Asif Hasan, Hany Os Gabra
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The gastrointestinal system is prone to complications following heart surgery. We sought to determine the incidence and factors associated with gastrointestinal complication after cardiac surgery in children. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients aged <16years that underwent cardiac surgery between 2009 and 2013. Primary outcome was occurrence of gastrointestinal complication within 30days. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify variables related to occurrence of gastrointestinal complication...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916444/influence-of-weight-at-enterostomy-reversal-on-surgical-outcomes-in-infants-after-emergent-neonatal-stoma-creation
#4
Lindsay J Talbot, Robert D Sinyard, Kristy L Rialon, Brian R Englum, Elizabeth T Tracy, Henry E Rice, Obinna O Adibe
PURPOSE: Neonates after emergent enterostomy creation frequently require reversal at low weight because of complications including cholestasis, dehydration, dumping, failure to thrive, and failure to achieve enteral independence. We investigated whether stoma reversal at low weight (< 2.5kg) is associated with poor surgical outcomes. METHODS: Patients who underwent enterostomy reversal from 2005 to 2013 at less than 6months old were identified in our institutional database...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914140/comparison-of-the-mortality-and-in-hospital-outcomes-of-preterm-infants-treated-with-ibuprofen-for-patent-ductus-arteriosus-with-or-without-clinical-symptoms-attributable-to-the-patent-ductus-arteriosus-at-the-time-of-ibuprofen-treatment
#5
Hani Yoo, Jin A Lee, Sohee Oh, Young Hwa Jung, Jin A Sohn, Seung Han Shin, Chang Won Choi, Ee Kyung Kim, Han Suk Kim, Beyong Il Kim
The aim of this study was to assess the differences in the mortality and in-hospital outcomes of preterm infants with < 28 weeks of gestation who received ibuprofen treatment according to the presence of clinical symptoms (any of oliguria, hypotension, or moderate to severe respiratory difficulty) attributable to hemodynamically-significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) at the time of first ibuprofen treatment. In total, 91 infants born from April 2010 to March 2015 were included. Fourteen infants (15...
January 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896154/use-of-t-tube-enterostomy-in-neonatal-gastro-intestinal-surgery
#6
Maher Al-Zaiem, Abdulhai F Al-Garni, Abdulrahman Al-Maghrebi, Asim A Asghar
Aim: To evaluate the results of the use of the T-tube ileostomy in neonatal intestinal surgery cases. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of sixty two neonates underwent intestinal obstruction surgery by using T-tube ileostomy was conducted between January 1990 and January 2013.The pathologies of the intestinal obstruction were; thirty four of jejunoileal atresia cases, thirteen case meconium ileus, eight cases perforated necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), three cases meconium peritonitis, three cases with bowel resection due to intestinal volvulus, and one case of gastroschisis...
October 2016: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893069/new-medical-and-surgical-insights-into-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-review
#7
Brandy L Frost, Biren P Modi, Tom Jaksic, Michael S Caplan
Importance: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) has long remained a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units. While the mainstay of treatment for this devastating condition remains largely supportive, research efforts continue to be directed toward understanding pathophysiology as well as how best to approach surgical management when indicated. Observations: In this review, we first examine recent medical observations, including overviews on the microbiome and a brief review of the use of probiotics...
November 21, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882031/diagnostic-value-and-disease-evaluation-significance-of-abdominal-ultrasound-inspection-for-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#8
Li Wang, Yinghui Li, Jian Liu
OBJECTIVE: To summarize abdominal plain X-rays and ultrasound characteristics of 144 cases of Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) and to analyze diagnostic value and disease evaluation significance of abdominal ultrasound inspection for NEC. METHODS: Clinical data of 144 NEC patients were retrospectively analyzed from February 2014 to December 2015. The patients were divided into suspected NEC group (N=74) and confirmed NEC group (N=70) according to amended Bell-NEC classification and diagnostic criteria...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836423/impact-of-probiotics-on-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#9
REVIEW
Mark A Underwood
A large number of randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials and cohort studies have demonstrated a decrease in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis with administration of probiotic microbes. These studies have prompted many neonatologists to adopt routine prophylactic administration of probiotics while others await more definitive studies and/or probiotic products with demonstrated purity and stable numbers of live organisms. Cross-contamination and inadequate sample size limit the value of further traditional placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials...
November 8, 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836422/surgical-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#10
REVIEW
Jamie R Robinson, Eric J Rellinger, L Dupree Hatch, Joern-Hendrik Weitkamp, K Elizabeth Speck, Melissa Danko, Martin L Blakely
Although currently available data are variable, it appears that the incidence of surgical necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) has not decreased significantly over the past decade. Pneumoperitoneum and clinical deterioration despite maximal medical therapy remain the most common indications for operative treatment. Robust studies linking outcomes with specific indications for operation are lacking. Promising biomarkers for severe NEC include fecal calprotectin and S100A12; serum fatty acid-binding protein; and urine biomarkers...
November 8, 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781254/-application-of-bishop-koop-stoma-in-refractory-congenital-intestinal-atresia
#11
Hong Zhang, Wei Zhong, Jing Sun, Qiuming He, Yong Wang, Le Li, Jiakang Yu, Zhe Wang, Zhihua Ye, Kailin Tang, Huimin Xia
OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility and safety of Bishop-Koop stoma procedure in the treatment of neonates with refractory congenital intestinal atresia. METHODS: Clinical and follow-up data of 25 neonates with refractory congenital intestinal atresia undergoing Bishop-Koop stoma procedure in our center from January 2011 to December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Of 25 neonates, 13 (52%) were male, 12(48%) were female, the birth weight was 1600-3800 g (mean 2920 g), the age of admission was 10 hours to 20 days, and the age of operation was 1-58 d (mean 7 d)...
October 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776846/-prevention-of-preterm-birth-complications-by-antenatal-corticosteroid-administration
#12
T Schmitz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short- and long-term benefits and risks associated with antenatal administration of a single course of corticosteroids and the related strategies: multiple and rescue courses. METHODS: The PubMed database, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. RESULTS: Antenatal administration of a single course of corticosteroids before 34 weeks of gestation is associated in the neonatal period with a significant reduction of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and death (LE1), and in possibly childhood with a reduction of cerebral palsy and increased psychomotor development index and intact survival (LE3)...
December 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774001/the-significance-of-the-enteric-microbiome-on-the-development-of-childhood-disease-a-review-of-prebiotic-and-probiotic-therapies-in-disorders-of-childhood
#13
REVIEW
John Slattery, Derrick F MacFabe, Richard E Frye
Recent studies have highlighted the fact that the enteric microbiome, the trillions of microbes that inhabit the human digestive tract, has a significant effect on health and disease. Methods for manipulating the enteric microbiome, particularly through probiotics and microbial ecosystem transplantation, have undergone some study in clinical trials. We review some of the evidence for microbiome alteration in relation to childhood disease and discuss the clinical trials that have examined the manipulation of the microbiome in an effort to prevent or treat childhood disease with a primary focus on probiotics, prebiotics, and/or synbiotics (ie, probiotics + prebiotics)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761306/prevention-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-with-probiotics-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Sonja C Sawh, Santosh Deshpande, Sandy Jansen, Christopher J Reynaert, Philip M Jones
CONTEXT: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most frequent gastrointestinal emergency in neonates. The microbiome of the preterm gut may regulate the integrity of the intestinal mucosa. Probiotics may positively contribute to mucosal integrity, potentially reducing the risk of NEC in neonates. OBJECTIVE: To perform an updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of probiotics for the prevention of NEC in premature infants. DATA SOURCES: Structured searches were performed in: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (all via Ovid, from 2013 to January 2015)...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754992/the-connection-between-abdominal-signs-and-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-infants-501-to-1500-g
#15
Sheila M Gephart, Michelle Fleiner, Amy Kijewski
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) can become severe quickly, making early recognition a priority and understanding the occurrence of abdominal and clinical signs of impending NEC important. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships of abdominal signs up to 36 hours before diagnosis of NEC within subgroups treated medically, surgically, or those who died. METHODS: A 3-site, descriptive correlational case-control design with retrospective data collection was used matching each NEC case to 2 controls (N = 132)...
October 14, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740976/patent-ductus-arteriosus-in-the-preterm-infant-diagnostic-and-treatment-options
#16
Stephanie Prescott, Jessica Keim-Malpass
BACKGROUND: The incidence of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) increases with decreasing gestational age and is associated with many common morbidities of extreme prematurity. Controversies remain surrounding the definition of hsPDA, the population of infants requiring treatment, the appropriate timing and method of treatment, and the outcomes associated with PDA and its therapies. PURPOSE: This integrative literature review focuses on diagnostic and treatment recommendations derived from the highest levels of evidence...
October 8, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735024/the-effect-of-immunoglobulin-treatment-for-hemolysis-on-the-incidence-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-meta-analysis
#17
Y Yang, J-J Pan, X-G Zhou, X-Y Zhou, R Cheng, Y-H Hu
OBJECTIVE: The application of intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) has been recommended for treating hemolysis in neonates for several years. But in clinical work, more than one study reported that IVIG treatment maybe increased the risk of NEC in hemolytic patients. In light of this situation, we performed this meta-analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane databases for English references, and in Wanfang, VIP, Cnki databases for Chinese references (all last launched on 2015/12/18)...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716331/bedside-pda-ligation-in-premature-infants-less-than-28%C3%A2-weeks-and-1000-grams
#18
Mustafa Kemal Avsar, Tolga Demir, Cem Celiksular, Cenap Zeybek
BACKGROUND: PDA(Patent ductus arteriosus) is a common and clinically important condition which is presented with a number of hemodynamic and respiratory problems such as intraventricular hemorrhage, pulmonary hemorrhage and necrotizing enterocolitis due to increased pulmonary blood flow and stealing from systemic circulation. The incidence of PDA among the infants that were born before the 28th gestational week is as high as 70 %; and spontaneous closure rates in very-low-birth-weight premature neonates(VLBWPN) is around 34 %...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698754/oral-paracetamol-vs-oral-ibuprofen-in-the-treatment-of-symptomatic-patent-ductus-arteriosus-in-premature-infants-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Bo Yang, Xiangyu Gao, Yi Ren, Yun Wang, Qinglin Zhang
The aim of the present study was to analyze the changes of plasma and urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in preterm infants with symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (sPDA) treated with oral ibuprofen and acetaminophen. A total of 87 preterm infants with sPDA admitted to the Neonatal Ward of the Affiliated Xuzhou Hospital of Medical College of Southeast University from October, 2012 to June, 2015 were selected and randomly divided into the ibuprofen group (n=43, 10 mg/kg ibuprofen administered orally as initial dose, followed by 5 mg/kg during the first 24 and 48 h later) and acetaminophen group (n=44, 15 mg/kg acetaminophen administered orally once every 6 h for three days)...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670958/beneficial-effects-of-mucous-fistula-refeeding-in-necrotizing-enterocolitis-neonates-with-enterostomies
#20
Eugene Ct Lau, Adrian Ch Fung, Kenneth Ky Wong, Paul Kh Tam
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis in premature neonates often results in bowel resection and stoma formation. One way to promote bowel adaptation before stoma closure is to introduce proximal loop effluents into the mucous fistula. In this study, we reviewed our experience with distal loop refeeding with respect to control group. METHODS: All patients with necrotizing enterocolitis between 2000 and 2014 necessitating initial diverting enterostomies and subsequent stoma closure in a tertiary referral center were included...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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