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Lung biopsy

Anitia McNamee, Thomas Robertson, Brett Sounness, Patricia O'Gorman
A 38-year-old woman presented with extreme fatigue and multiple lung nodules. She was referred for a PET/CT, which demonstrated multiple FDG-avid pulmonary nodules and lymph nodes with intense uptake within multiple muscle groups predominantly involving the paraspinal muscles and muscles of mastication. Histopathology of a paraspinal muscle biopsy revealed increased skeletal muscle lipid stores and increased mitochondria with normal morphology. This abnormality is seen in metabolic myopathy due to a disorder of fatty acid oxidation...
July 12, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Yujing Hu, Dayong Wu, Congna Tian, Qiang Wei, Yanzhu Bian
A 74-year-old man with multiple soft tissue lesions in the lung, which were suspected to be metastatic neoplasms, underwent F-FDG PET/CT scan to detect primary malignancy. The images demonstrated that the lung and 2 retroperitoneal lymph nodes were the only affected organ or tissues with suspected primary lung neoplasms. Multiple intestinal-type adenocarcinoma was eventually diagnosed by CT-guided transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy.
July 12, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Jayaram N Iyengar, Bharath Kumar K R Reddy
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) - an unusual diffuse lung disease characterized by alveolar accumulation of phospholipoprotein material, with a peak incidence in third to fourth decade and male predominance is also described in children. Recorded prevalence is 0.1/100,000 individuals. Major clinicopathogenetic subtypes include autoimmune (idiopathic) associated with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor autoantibodies, secondary form, and the congenital form (associated with surfactant gene mutations)...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Nadir Demirel, Roberto Ochoa, Megan K Dishop, Tara Holm, William Gershan, Gail Brottman
A 2-month-old female with worsening cough, respiratory distress and an abnormal chest X-ray was referred to our institution for further evaluation of suspected scimitar syndrome. She was found to have normal pulmonary venous drainage with a large patent ductus arteriosus and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. Chest CT was suggestive of interstitial lung disease. Wedge lung biopsy revealed alveolar simplification and patchy pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis. A definitive diagnosis of Filamin A deficiency was made with genetic studies...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Su-Jin Oh, Ki-Eun Hwang, Eun-Taik Jeong, Hak-Ryul Kim
We report first case of pulmonary siderosis appearing as a consolidation upon radiological examination and being misdiagnosed as pneumonia. A 59-year-old man visited our hospital with a cough and sputum that had persisted for more than a month. He had undergone chest computed tomography (CT) after abnormal findings on chest X-ray at other hospitals. Based on the chest CT results, he was diagnosed with pneumonia. He was then administered antibiotics for 3 weeks, but there was no improvement. We identified the patient's occupational history first, and then performed bronchoalveolar lavage and chest CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsy...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Swarna Arumugam, Raghu Raju, Andrew G Nicholson
Here we report a case of Pulmonary Hyalinising Granuloma (PHG) presenting with mild to moderate FDG positive nodules in an individual with a high risk of cancer. We explore the considerations in interpreting imaging findings and assess the benefits and risks of undertaking invasive investigations such as tissue biopsy. We highlight the importance of reaching an accurate diagnosis of this benign condition on our patients and their future outlook.
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Yusuke Katsumata, Jun Ikari, Nozomi Tanaka, Mitsuhiro Abe, Kenji Tsushima, Yoko Yonemori, Koichiro Tatsumi
A 67-year-old woman with fever and cough was diagnosed with eosinophilic pneumonia because of eosinophilia and increased eosinophil levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and transbronchial biopsy lung specimens. However, prednisolone therapy at a previous hospital was ineffective. Histological findings from thoracoscopic lung and lymph node biopsies were consistent with multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). Since specimens also showed prominent eosinophil and IgG4 -positive plasma cell infiltration, it was difficult to distinguish IgG4 -related disease (IgG4 -RD) from MCD...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Njanja Enz, Fernando Fragoso, Alexander Gamrekeli, Frank Lippek, Wolfgang Jungraithmayr
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a tumor marker for detecting recurrences of adenocarcinomas such as colon cancer. In lung adenocarcinoma, CEA elevation can be found in both serum and malignant pleural effusion. However, CEA elevation in cytologically negative pleural effusion in the presence of adenocarcinoma without pleural infiltration has not been described. We here present the case of an 82-year-old man with incidental early stage adenocarcinoma of the right upper lobe showing CEA elevation in pleural fluid and serum despite negative cytological findings...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Maria Teresa Ruiz Tsukazan, Ricardo Mingarini Terra, Frank Detterbeck, Ilka Lopes Santoro, Bruno Hochhegger, Gustavo de Souza Portes Meirelles, Gustavo Fortunato, Gustavo Faibischew Prado
Background: Pulmonary nodules are common; some are inconsequential while others are malignant. Management of solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) in Brazil appears to be highly variable, potentially leading to suboptimal outcomes. Assessment of the variability and the association with the degree of availability of resources can provide a foundation for development of clinical guidelines for management of SPN specific for the Brazilian setting. Methods: A web-based survey was developed by thoracic surgeons, pulmonologists and radiologists to evaluate SPN perception and management...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Liping Liu, Di Shao, Qiuhua Deng, Hailing Tang, Jingjing Wang, Jilong Liu, Fengming Guo, Yongping Lin, Zhiyu Peng, Mao Mao, Karsten Kristiansen, Mingzhi Ye, Jianxing He
Background: Molecular profiling of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is essential for therapeutic decision-making. Pleural effusion obtained by a non-invasive, repeatable procedure may provide an opportunity for molecular profiling and thereby possibly provide information enabling targeted therapy. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of pleural effusion as a specimen for molecular analysis. Methods: Thirty patients with paired malignant pleural effusion and thoracic biopsy specimens were included...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Hikmet Sahratov, Adem Guler, Mustafa Kurkluoglu, Bahadır Calişkan, Fahri Gurkan Yesil, Murat Tavlasoglu, Mehmet Ali Sahin
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) of the lung are rare solid tumors and usually affect children and young adults. We describe an unusual form of an IMT of the left lower lobe invading the left atrium. A 9-year-old male patient with recurrent cough was referred for an evaluation of left-lung pneumonia. Transthoracic needle biopsy was performed, and the histopathological examination showed mixed inflammatory cells. Accordingly, an IMT was considered. Left lower lobectomy was performed. A portion of the tumor invading the left atrium was resected together with the intact atrial wall...
January 2018: Journal of Tehran Heart Center
Swati Bhattacharyya, Wenxia Wang, Wenyi Qin, Kui Cheng, Sara Coulup, Sherry Chavez, Shuangshang Jiang, Kirtee Raparia, Lucia Maria V De Almeida, Christian Stehlik, Zenshiro Tamaki, Hang Yin, John Varga
Persistent fibrosis in multiple organs is the hallmark of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Recent genetic and genomic studies implicate TLRs and their damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) endogenous ligands in fibrosis. To test the hypothesis that TLR4 and its coreceptor myeloid differentiation 2 (MD2) drive fibrosis persistence, we measured MD2/TLR4 signaling in tissues from patients with fibrotic SSc, and we examined the impact of MD2 targeting using a potentially novel small molecule. Levels of MD2 and TLR4, and a TLR4-responsive gene signature, were enhanced in SSc skin biopsies...
July 12, 2018: JCI Insight
Daniel T Merrick, Michael G Edwards, Wilbur A Franklin, Michio Sugita, Robert L Keith, York E Miller, Micah B Friedman, Lori D Dwyer-Nield, Meredith A Tennis, Mary C O'Keefe, Elizabeth J Donald, Jessica M Malloy, Adrie van Bokhoven, Storey Wilson, Peter J Koch, Charlene O'Shea, Christopher Coldren, David J Orlicky, Xian Lu, Anna E Baron, Greg Hickey, Timothy C Kennedy, Roger Powell, Lynn Heasley, Paul A Bunn, Mark Geraci, Raphael A Nemenoff
Persistent bronchial dysplasia (BD) is associated with increased risk of developing invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung. In this study, we hypothesized that differences in gene expression profiles between persistent and regressive BD would identify cellular processes that underlie progression to SCC. RNA expression arrays comparing baseline biopsies from 32 bronchial sites that persisted/progressed to 31 regressive sites showed 395 differentially expressed genes (ANOVA, FDR ≤ 0.05). 31 pathways showed significantly altered activity between the two groups, many of which were associated with cell cycle control and proliferation, inflammation, or epithelial differentiation/cell-cell adhesion...
July 11, 2018: Cancer Research
W Q Yu, M D Ding, G H Dai, C J Gu, L Xue, Y Chen, D M Zhou, J C Xian, H T Xu
Objective: To describe the clinical, chest imaging, pathological manifestations and therapeutic experience of human infection with A/H7N9 virus. Methods: The features of 15 laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with A/H7N9 virus in Taizhou, Jiangsu Province were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The 15 patients with confirmed viral pneumonia included 12 males and 3 females, with a median age of 61 years(ranging from 33 to 81 years). Twelve patients had a history of exposure to the poultry trading places, or direct contact with ill/dead avian, while 3 patients denied exposure or contact...
July 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Ying-Lun Ou, Chin-Yu Liu, Tai-Lung Cha, Sheng-Tang Wu, Chih-Wei Tsao
RATIONALE: Ketamine abuse is an emerging issue in many countries, and ketamine cystitis (KC) is a growing disease which more and more urologists may encounter with. There was no gold standard diagnostic criteria of ketamine cystits established yet, but well-accepted with the positive substance abuse history and clinical symptoms. The clinical presentation of ketamine cystitis varies and may mimic those presented in interstitial cystitis (IC), such as voiding frequency, urgency with urge incontinence, dysuria, nocturia, burning sensation during urination, post urination pain, painful hematuria, and small bladder capacity, but there are still differences that KC presented with more urgency, hematuria, pyuria and upper urinary tract involvement such as ureteral stenosis, vesico-ureteric reflux, hydronephrosis and renal function impairment...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Giannina Ricci, Daniel Wagner Santos, Joseph A Kovacs, Angela Satie Nishikaku, Taina Veras de Sandes-Freitas, Anderson Messina Rodrigues, Geetha Kutty, Regina Affonso, Hélio Tedesco Silva, José Osmar Medina-Pestana, Marcello Fabiano de Franco, Arnaldo Lopes Colombo
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii can cause severe potentially life-threatening pneumonia (PCP) in kidney transplant patients. Prophylaxis against PCP in this setting of patient is usually performed during six months after transpantation Objectives: To describe the molecular epidemiology of a cluster of PCP in renal transplant recipients in Brazil. METHODS: Renal transplant patients who developed PCP between May and December 2011 had their formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) lung biopsy samples analyzed...
July 11, 2018: Mycoses
Michael Meier-Schroers, Rami Homsi, Jürgen Gieseke, Hans Heinz Schild, Daniel Thomas
PURPOSE: To evaluate MRI for lung cancer screening comparing LDCT- and MRI-derived Lung-RADS categories in the first two screening rounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 224 participants in a lung cancer screening study were examined with MRI and low-dose CT (LDCT). Acquired MRI sequences were T2, balanced, T1 and DWI. MRI was prospectively analysed regarding nodules. Minimum nodule size was 4 mm. Nodules were assigned a Lung-RADS score based on appearance and size at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months...
July 10, 2018: European Radiology
Namhoon Lee, Kiook Baek, Soohyun Park, Inho Hwang, Insung Chung, Wonil Choi, Hyera Jung, Miyoung Lee, Seonhee Yang
Background: Using analysis of air samples from the workplace, we report on one case of pneumoconiosis in an individual who has been working in a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) spraying process for 28 years. Case presentation: The patient was diagnosed with granulomatous lung disease caused by PTFE using computed tomography (CT), lung biopsy and electron microscopy. To assess the qualitative and quantitative exposure to PTFE in workplace, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on air samples from the workplace...
2018: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Teresa Cejalvo, Ana Judith Perisé-Barrios, Isabel Del Portillo, Eduardo Laborda, Miguel A Rodriguez-Milla, Isabel Cubillo, Fernando Vázquez, David Sardón, Manuel Ramirez, Ramon Alemany, Noemí Del Castillo, Javier Garcia-Castro
Dogs with spontaneous tumors treated in veterinary hospitals offer an excellent opportunity for studying immunotherapies, including oncolytic viruses. Oncolytic viruses have advanced into the clinic as an intratumorally administered therapeutic; however, intravenous delivery has been hindered by neutralization in the blood. To circumvent this hurdle, mesenchymal stem cells have been used as a "Trojan horse". Here we present the treatment of 27 canine cancer patients with canine mesenchymal stem cells infected with ICOCAV17, a canine oncolytic adenovirus...
July 10, 2018: Cancer Research
Yunkyoung Lee, Sojung Park, Woo Sung Kim, Jae Cheol Lee, Se Jin Jang, Jene Choi, Chang-Min Choi
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to identify whether the presence of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in plasma before treatment with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is associated with clinical outcomes. METHODS: Fifty-seven pairs of tissues and plasma samples were obtained from patients with NSCLC adenocarcinoma harboring activating EGFR mutations before the administration of EGFR-TKI treatment. ctDNA mutation was identified using the PANAMutyper EGFR mutation kit...
July 10, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
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