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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647341/suppression-of-autophagic-flux-contributes-to-cardiomyocyte-death-by-activation-of-necroptotic-pathways
#1
Makoto Ogasawara, Toshiyuki Yano, Masaya Tanno, Koki Abe, Satoko Ishikawa, Takayuki Miki, Atsushi Kuno, Toshiyuki Tobisawa, Shingo Muratsubaki, Kouhei Ohno, Yuki Tatekoshi, Kei Nakata, Wataru Ohwada, Tetsuji Miura
BACKGROUND: The role of necroptosis in myocardial injury has not been fully characterized. Here we examined roles of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and autophagy in necroptosis of cardiomyocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: In H9c2 cells, necroptosis was induced by treatment with TNF-α (TNF) and z-VAD-fmk (zVAD) for 24h, and necroptotic death was determined by LDH release (as % of total). TNF/zVAD increased LDH release from 16.6±4.3% to 60.6±2.7%, and the LDH release was suppressed by necrostatin-1 (29...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645048/phytolith-carbon-sequestration-in-global-terrestrial-biomes
#2
Zhaoliang Song, Hongyan Liu, Caroline A E Strömberg, Xiaomin Yang, Xiaodong Zhang
Terrestrial biogeochemical carbon (C) sequestration is coupled with the biogeochemical silicon (Si) cycle through mechanisms such as phytolith C sequestration, but the size and distribution of the phytolith C sink remain unclear. Here, we estimate phytolith C sequestration in global terrestrial biomes. We used biome data including productivity, phytolith and silica contents, and the phytolith stability factor to preliminarily determine the size and distribution of the phytolith C sink in global terrestrial biomes...
June 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644844/carbonic-anhydrase-inhibitor-attenuates-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-acute-lung-injury
#3
Chou-Chin Lan, Chung-Kan Peng, Shih-En Tang, Kun-Lun Huang, Chin-Pyng Wu
Ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is implicated in several clinical conditions including lung transplantation, cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, re-expansion of collapsed lung from pneumothorax or pleural effusion and etc. IR-induced ALI remains a challenge in the current treatment. Carbonic anhydrase has important physiological function and influences on transport of CO2. Some investigators suggest that CO2 influences lung injury. Therefore, carbonic anhydrase should have the role in ALI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643789/tidal-dynamics-and-mangrove-carbon-sequestration-during-the-oligo-miocene-in-the-south-china-sea
#4
Daniel S Collins, Alexandros Avdis, Peter A Allison, Howard D Johnson, Jon Hill, Matthew D Piggott, Meor H Amir Hassan, Abdul Razak Damit
Modern mangroves are among the most carbon-rich biomes on Earth, but their long-term (≥10(6) years) impact on the global carbon cycle is unknown. The extent, productivity and preservation of mangroves are controlled by the interplay of tectonics, global sea level and sedimentation, including tide, wave and fluvial processes. The impact of these processes on mangrove-bearing successions in the Oligo-Miocene of the South China Sea (SCS) is evaluated herein. Palaeogeographic reconstructions, palaeotidal modelling and facies analysis suggest that elevated tidal range and bed shear stress optimized mangrove development along tide-influenced tropical coastlines...
June 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643454/polar-zoobenthos-blue-carbon-storage-increases-with-sea-ice-losses-because-across-shelf-growth-gains-from-longer-algal-blooms-outweigh-ice-scour-mortality-in-the-shallows
#5
David K A Barnes
One of the major climate-forced global changes has been white to blue to green; losses of sea ice extent in time and space around Arctic and West Antarctic seas has increased open water and the duration (though not magnitude) of phytoplankton blooms. Blueing of the poles has increases potential for heat absorption for positive feedback but conversely the longer phytoplankton blooms have increased carbon export to storage and sequestration by shelf benthos. However, ice shelf collapses and glacier retreat can calve more icebergs, and the increased open water allows icebergs more opportunities to scour the seabed, reducing zoobenthic blue carbon capture and storage...
June 23, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642762/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-augments-arsenic-tolerance-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-by-strengthening-antioxidant-defense-system-and-thiol-metabolism
#6
Surbhi Sharma, Garima Anand, Neeraja Singh, Rupam Kapoor
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) can help plants to tolerate arsenic (As) toxicity. However, plant responses are found to vary with the host plant and the AM fungal species. The present study compares the efficacy of two AM fungi Rhizoglomus intraradices (M1) and Glomus etunicatum (M2) in amelioration of As stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD-2967). Mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) wheat plants were subjected to four levels of As (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg As kg(-1) soil). Although As additions had variable effects on the percentage of root colonized by the two fungal inoculants, each mycobiont conferred benefits to the host plant...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642594/differential-effects-on-gene-transcription-and-hematopoietic-differentiation-correlate-with-gata2-mutant-disease-phenotypes
#7
C-E Chong, P Venugopal, P H Stokes, Y K Lee, P J Brautigan, D T O Yeung, M Babic, G A Engler, S W Lane, M Klingler-Hoffmann, J M Matthews, R J D'Andrea, A L Brown, C N Hahn, H S Scott
Heterozygous GATA2 mutations underlie an array of complex hematopoietic and lymphatic diseases. Analysis of the literature reporting three recurrent GATA2 germline (g) mutations (gT354M, gR396Q, gR398W) revealed different phenotype tendencies. While all three mutants differentially predispose to myeloid malignancies, there was no difference in leukemia-free survival for GATA2 patients. Despite intense interest, the molecular pathogenesis of GATA2 mutation is poorly understood. We functionally characterized a GATA2 mutant allelic series representing major disease phenotypes caused by germline and somatic (s) mutations in zinc finger (ZF) 2...
June 23, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642573/characterisation-of-plasmodium-falciparum-populations-selected-on-the-human-endothelial-receptors-p-selectin-e-selectin-cd9-and-cd151
#8
Nahla Galal Metwally, Ann-Kathrin Tilly, Pedro Lubiana, Lisa K Roth, Michael Dörpinghaus, Stephan Lorenzen, Kathrin Schuldt, Susanne Witt, Anna Bachmann, Henning Tidow, Thomas Gutsmann, Thorsten Burmester, Thomas Roeder, Egbert Tannich, Iris Bruchhaus
The ability of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum to evade the immune system and be sequestered within human small blood vessels is responsible for severe forms of malaria. The sequestration depends on the interaction between human endothelial receptors and P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) exposed on the surface of the infected erythrocytes (IEs). In this study, the transcriptomes of parasite populations enriched for parasites that bind to human P-selectin, E-selectin, CD9 and CD151 receptors were analysed...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641400/cytosolic-delivery-of-sirna-by-ultra-high-affinity-dsrna-binding-proteins
#9
Nicole J Yang, Monique J Kauke, Fangdi Sun, Lucy F Yang, Katie F Maass, Michael W Traxlmayr, Yao Yu, Yingda Xu, Robert S Langer, Daniel G Anderson, K Dane Wittrup
Protein-based methods of siRNA delivery are capable of uniquely specific targeting, but are limited by technical challenges such as low potency or poor biophysical properties. Here, we engineered a series of ultra-high affinity siRNA binders based on the viral protein p19 and developed them into siRNA carriers targeted to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Combined in trans with a previously described endosome-disrupting agent composed of the pore-forming protein Perfringolysin O (PFO), potent silencing was achieved in vitro with no detectable cytotoxicity...
June 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640348/global-patterns-of-aboveground-carbon-stock-and-sequestration-in-mangroves
#10
Gustavo C D Estrada, Mário L G Soares
In order to contribute to understand the factors that control the provisioning of the ecosystem service of carbon storage by mangroves, data on carbon stock and sequestration in the aboveground biomass (AGB) from 73 articles were averaged and tested for the dependence on latitude, climatic parameters, physiographic types and age. Global means of carbon stock (78.0 ± 64.5 tC.ha-1) and sequestration (2.9 ± 2.2 tC.ha-1.yr-1) showed that mangroves are among the forest ecosystems with greater capacity of carbon storage in AGB per area...
April 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639022/citrus-stand-ages-regulate-the-fraction-alteration-of-soil-organic-carbon-under-a-citrus-stropharua-rugodo-annulata-intercropping-system-in-the-three-gorges-reservoir-area-china
#11
Yang Zhang, Jiupai Ni, John Yang, Tong Zhang, Deti Xie
Soil carbon fractionation is a valuable indicator in assessing stabilization of soil organic matter and soil quality. However, limited studies have addressed how different vegetation stand ages under intercropping agroforestry systems, could affect organic carbon (OC) accumulation in bulk soil and its physical fractions. A field study thus investigated the impact of citrus plantation age (15-, 25-, and 45-year citrus) on the bulk soil organic carbon (SOC) and SOC fractions and yields of Stropharia rugoso-annulata (SRA) in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, Chongqing, China...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636912/channeling-of-camp-in-pde-pka-complexes-promotes-signal-adaptation
#12
Nikhil Kumar Tulsian, Srinath Krishnamurthy, Ganesh Srinivasan Anand
Spatiotemporal control of the cAMP signaling pathway is governed by both hormonal stimulation of cAMP generation by adenylyl cyclases (activation phase) and cAMP hydrolysis by phosphodiesterases (PDEs) (termination phase). The termination phase is initiated by PDEs actively targeting the protein kinase A (PKA) R-subunit through formation of a PDE-PKAR-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) complex (the termination complex). Our results using PDE8 as a model PDE, reveal that PDEs mediate active hydrolysis of cAMP bound to its receptor RIα by enhancing the enzymatic activity...
June 20, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636604/liquid-droplet-formation-by-hp1%C3%AE-suggests-a-role-for-phase-separation-in-heterochromatin
#13
Adam G Larson, Daniel Elnatan, Madeline M Keenen, Michael J Trnka, Jonathan B Johnston, Alma L Burlingame, David A Agard, Sy Redding, Geeta J Narlikar
Gene silencing by heterochromatin is proposed to occur in part as a result of the ability of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) proteins to spread across large regions of the genome, compact the underlying chromatin and recruit diverse ligands. Here we identify a new property of the human HP1α protein: the ability to form phase-separated droplets. While unmodified HP1α is soluble, either phosphorylation of its N-terminal extension or DNA binding promotes the formation of phase-separated droplets. Phosphorylation-driven phase separation can be promoted or reversed by specific HP1α ligands...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636560/lipocalin-2-regulates-intestine-bacterial-survival-by-interplaying-with-siderophore-in-a-weaned-piglet-model-of-escherichia-coli-infection
#14
Bing-Xiu Guo, Qian-Qian Wang, Jia-Hui Li, Zhen-Shun Gan, Xiao-Feng Zhang, Yi-Zhen Wang, Hua-Hua Du
Iron is an essential nutrient that facilitates cell proliferation and growth, which plays a pivotal role in modulating the battle for survival between mammalian hosts and their pathogens. Pathogenic bacteria secrete siderophores to acquire iron from the host. However, lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), a siderophore-binding antimicrobial protein, binds to siderophores to prevent bacterial uptake of iron, which is critical for the control of systemic infection with Escherichia coli (E. coli). But few studies focus on the anti-infective response of Lcn2 in the intestines by inhibiting bacterial proliferation based on microbial iron metabolism...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636273/long-term-belowground-effects-of-grassland-management-the-key-role-of-liming
#15
Jemma Heyburn, Paul McKenzie, Michael J Crawley, Dario A Fornara
The functioning of human-managed grassland ecosystems strongly depends on how common management practices will affect grassland 'belowground compartment' including soil biogeochemistry and plant roots. Key questions remain about how animal grazing, liming (e.g. the addition of CaCO3 to soils), and nutrient fertilization might affect, in the long-term, soil nutrient cycling and multiple root traits. Here we focus on a mesotrophic grassland located in Berkshire, UK, where contrasting levels of rabbit grazing, liming and different inorganic fertilizers have been applied since 1991...
June 21, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635205/recurrence-of-right-lower-lobe-pneumonia-3-years-after-the-first-episode-in-an-otherwise-healthy-13-year-old-girl
#16
Antonino Capizzi, Oliviero Sacco, Giovanni A Rossi, Michela Silvestri
Recurrent pneumonia is one of the most frequent reasons for referral to paediatric chest physicians. The diagnostic work-up is dependent on whether infection repeatedly occurs in the same lung lobe, or affects multiple lobes and/or different areas in different episodes. A 13-year-old girl was admitted with a second episode of right lower lobe pneumonia. The chest x-ray demonstrated an inhomogeneous opacity, without a clearly recognizable segmental distribution. A contrast-enhanced CT scan, was therefore performed that showed a polycyclic consolidation with blood supply from a systemic artery, originated from the thoracic aorta...
May 25, 2017: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633293/the-tonoplast-localized-transporter-mtp8-2-contributes-to-manganese-detoxification-in-the-shoots-and-roots-of-oryza-sativa-l
#17
Yuma Takemoto, Yuta Tsunemitsu, Miho Fujii-Kashino, Namiki Mitani-Ueno, Naoki Yamaji, Jian Feng Ma, Shin-Ichiro Kato, Kozo Iwasaki, Daisei Ueno
Manganese (Mn) cation diffusion facilitators (Mn-CDFs) play important roles in the Mn homeostasis of plants. In rice, the tonoplast-localized Mn-CDF metal tolerance protein 8.1 (MTP8.1) is involved in Mn detoxification in the shoots. This study functionally characterized the Mn-CDF MTP8.2 and determined its contribution to Mn tolerance. MTP8.2 was found to share 68% identity with MTP8.1 and was expressed in both the shoots and roots, but its transcription level was lower than that of MTP8.1. Transient expression of the MTP8...
June 13, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631022/risk-analysis-and-outcomes-of-bronchopulmonary-sequestrations
#18
Chun Hong, Gang Yu, Jing Tang, QianLi Liu, Bo Xia
BACKGROUND: Researched and discussed the risks and outcomes of bronchopulmonary sequestrations, especially the intralobar type. METHODS: A retrospective review of our experiences with bronchopulmonary sequestrations from January 2012 to April 2015 is reported. The present study researched and discusses the risks and outcomes of bronchopulmonary sequestrations, especially the intralobar type, compared with other types of bronchopulmonary sequestrations in symptoms, surgery, pathology, and excretion...
June 19, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629105/indispensable-role-of-biochar-inherent-mineral-constituents-in-its-environmental-applications-a-review
#19
Xiaoyun Xu, Yinghao Zhao, Jingke Sima, Ling Zhao, Ondřej Mašek, Xinde Cao
Biochar typically consists of both carbon and mineral fractions, and the carbon fraction has been generally considered to determine its properties and applications. Recently, an increasing body of research has demonstrated that mineral components inherent in biochar, such as alkali or alkaline earth metals in the form of carbonates, phosphates, or oxides, could also influence the properties and thus the applications. The review articles published thus far have mainly focused on multiple environmental and agronomic applications of biochar, including carbon sequestration, soil improvement, environmental remediation, etc...
June 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627435/establishing-the-lipid-droplet-proteome-mechanisms-of-lipid-droplet-protein-targeting-and-degradation
#20
REVIEW
Kirill Bersuker, James A Olzmann
Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived organelles that mediate the sequestration of neutral lipids (e.g. triacylglycerol and sterol esters), providing a dynamic cellular storage depot for rapid lipid mobilization in response to increased cellular demands. LDs have a unique ultrastructure, consisting of a core of neutral lipids encircled by a phospholipid monolayer that is decorated with integral and peripheral proteins. The LD proteome contains numerous lipid metabolic enzymes, regulatory scaffold proteins, proteins involved in LD clustering and fusion, and other proteins of unknown function...
June 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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