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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140999/variation-in-the-diversity-productivity-relationship-in-young-forests-of-the-eastern-united-states
#1
Santosh Ojha, Luben Dimov
The diversity-productivity relationship has not been studied as extensively in forests as in other ecosystems. We address this gap in our knowledge by examining the relationship of productivity (primarily the periodic annual increment in aboveground biomass, but also the mean annual increment) with five species diversity indices, stand, and environmental factors. We used 967 naturally regenerated Forest Inventory and Analysis plots with stand age ≤30 years, located in the conterminous thirty-one eastern states, and satisfying strict selection requirements...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139492/gram-scale-synthesis-of-monodisperse-sulfonated-polystyrene-nanospheres-for-rapid-and-efficient-sequestration-of-heavy-metal-ions
#2
Bin Gong, Yaotian Peng, Ziyan Pan, Weiming Chen, Yi Shen, Kaijun Xiao, Ling Zhang
Herein, gram-scale monodisperse sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) nanospheres are synthesized and examined as a sorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions (Pb(2+), Zn(2+) and Cu(2+)). The resulting uniform SPS nanospheres exhibit remarkable adsorption capabilities and kinetics, facile regeneration and outstanding recyclability, affording promising applications in food engineering and water cleanup.
November 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139171/structural-insights-into-a-thermostable-variant-of-human-carbonic-anhydrase-ii
#3
Kelsey M Kean, Joseph J Porter, Ryan A Mehl, P Andrew Karplus
Carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme of interest for many biotechnological developments including carbon sequestration. These applications often require harsh conditions, so there is a need for the development of thermostable variants. One of the most thermostable human carbonic anhydrase II variants (HCAIIts) was patented in 2006. Here, we report the ultra-high resolution crystal structure of HCAIIts. The structural changes seen are consistent with each of the six mutations involved acting largely independently and variously resulting in increased H-bonding, improved packing, and reduced side chain entropy loss upon folding to yield the increased stability...
November 15, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138536/spotlight-on-siponimod-and-its-potential-in-the-treatment-of-secondary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-the-evidence-to-date
#4
REVIEW
Alberto Gajofatto
Siponimod (BAF312) is a synthetic molecule belonging to the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) modulator family, which has putative neuroprotective properties and well-characterized immunomodulating effects mediated by sequestration of B and T cells in secondary lymphoid organs. Compared to fingolimod (ie, precursor of the S1P modulators commercially available for the treatment of relapsing-remitting [RR] multiple sclerosis [MS]), siponimod exhibits selective affinity for types 1 and 5 S1P receptor, leading to a lower risk of adverse events that are mainly induced by S1P3 receptor activation, such as bradycardia and vasoconstriction...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138466/manganese-availability-is-negatively-associated-with-carbon-storage-in-northern-coniferous-forest-humus-layers
#5
Johan Stendahl, Björn Berg, Björn D Lindahl
Carbon sequestration below ground depends on organic matter input and decomposition, but regulatory bottlenecks remain unclear. The relative importance of plant production, climate and edaphic factors has to be elucidated to better predict carbon storage in forests. In Swedish forest soil inventory data from across the entire boreal latitudinal range (n = 2378), the concentration of exchangeable manganese was singled out as the strongest predictor (R(2) = 0.26) of carbon storage in the extensive organic horizon (mor layer), which accounts for one third of the total below ground carbon...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138460/global-sequestration-potential-of-increased-organic-carbon-in-cropland-soils
#6
Robert J Zomer, Deborah A Bossio, Rolf Sommer, Louis V Verchot
The role of soil organic carbon in global carbon cycles is receiving increasing attention both as a potentially large and uncertain source of CO2 emissions in response to predicted global temperature rises, and as a natural sink for carbon able to reduce atmospheric CO2. There is general agreement that the technical potential for sequestration of carbon in soil is significant, and some consensus on the magnitude of that potential. Croplands worldwide could sequester between 0.90 and 1.85 Pg C/yr, i.e. 26-53% of the target of the "4p1000 Initiative: Soils for Food Security and Climate"...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136879/development-and-evaluation-of-a-new-diffusive-gradients-in-thin-films-technique-for-measuring-organotin-compounds-in-coastal-sediment-pore-water
#7
Russell F Cole, Graham A Mills, Michelle S Hale, Ruth Parker, Thi Bolam, Peter R Teasdale, William W Bennett, Gary R Fones
Organotins present a toxicological risk to biota in the aquatic environment. Understanding the behaviour of these compounds in sediment is challenging, with sophisticated analytical techniques required for their measurement. We investigated the use of silica-bound sorbents for diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) adsorption gels to pre-concentrate five organotins (monobutlytin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), diphenyltin (DPhT), triphenyltin (TPhT)) found frequently in coastal sediment. C8 sorbent showed optimum performance in uptake and recovery of organotins for pH and ionic strength ranges typical of coastal waters...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136618/hepcidin-in-iron-homeostasis-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-implications-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients
#8
Sintayehu Ambachew, Belete Biadgo
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in epidemic proportions worldwide. Evidence suggests body iron overload is frequently linked and observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Body iron metabolism is based on iron conservation and recycling by which only a part of the daily need is replaced by duodenal absorption. The principal liver-produced peptide called hepcidin plays a fundamental role in iron metabolism. It directly binds to ferroportin, the sole iron exporter, resulting in the internalization and degradation of ferroportin...
November 15, 2017: Acta Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135412/surgical-repair-in-case-of-covered-exstrophy-of-bladder-with-complete-duplication-of-lower-genitourinary-tract-and-visceral-sequestration
#9
Sachin Sarode, Sunil Mhaske, Vinayak G Wagaskar, Bhushan Patil, Sujata K Patwardhan, Ganesh Gopalakrishnan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135239/advances-in-sulfidation-of-zerovalent-iron-for-water-decontamination
#10
Jinxiang Li, Xueying Zhang, Yuankui Sun, Liping Liang, Bing-Cai Pan, Weiming Zhang, Xiaohong Guan
Sulfidation has gained increasing interest in recent years for improving the sequestration of contaminants by zerovalent iron (ZVI). In view of the bright prospects of the sulfidated ZVI (S-ZVI), this review comprehensively summarized the latest developments in sulfidation of ZVI, particularly that of nanoscale ZVI (S-nZVI). The milestones in development of S-ZVI technology including its background, enlightenment, synthesis, characterization, water remediation and treatment, etc., are summarized. Under most circumstances, sulfidation can enhance the sequestration of various organic compounds and metal(loid)s by ZVI to various extents...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132088/analysing-the-impacts-of-air-quality-policies-on-ecosystem-services-a-case-study-for-telemark-norway
#11
L Hein, L White, A Miles, P Roberts
There is an increasing interest in considering the effects of air pollution on ecosystem services supply in order to enhance cost-benefit analyses of air pollution policies. This paper presents a generic, conceptual approach that can be used to link atmospheric deposition of air pollutants to ecosystem services supply and societal benefits. The approach is applied in a case study in the Telemark county of Norway. First, we examine the potential effects of four European air quality policy scenarios on N deposition in the ecosystems of this county...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131321/ty1-fused-protein-body-formation-for-spatial-organization-of-metabolic-pathways-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#12
Jong Yun Han, Jae Myeong Song, Sung Hwa Seo, Chonglong Wang, Seung-Goo Lee, Hongweon Lee, Seon-Won Kim, Eui-Sung Choi
Metabolite production through a multistep metabolic pathway can often be increased by efficient substrate channeling created by spatial sequestration of the metabolic reactions. Here, Tya, a structural component in the Ty1 retrotransposon element that forms virus-like particles (VLPs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was used to spatially organize enzymes involved in a metabolic pathway into a multi-enzyme protein body in yeast. As a proof of principle, Tya fusion to three key enzymes involved in biosynthesis of the isoprenoids farnesene and farnesol was tested to assess its potential to improve productivity...
November 13, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131311/hemiparasites-can-transmit-indirect-effects-from-their-host-plants-to-herbivores
#13
Nathan L Haan, Jonathan D Bakker, M Deane Bowers
Parasitic plants can serve as critical intermediaries between their hosts and other organisms; however these relationships are not well understood. To investigate the relative importance of plant traits in such interactions, we studied the role of the root hemiparasite, Castilleja levisecta (Orobanchaceae), as a mediator of interactions between the host plants it parasitizes and the lepidopteran herbivore Euphydryas editha (Nymphalidae), whose caterpillars feed on Castilleja and sequester iridoid glycosides from it...
November 13, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127635/immobilisation-of-metals-in-a-contaminated-soil-with-biochar-compost-mixtures-and-inorganic-additives-2-year-greenhouse-and-field-experiments
#14
Jasmin Karer, Franz Zehetner, Gerald Dunst, Jakob Fessl, Mario Wagner, Markus Puschenreiter, Māra Stapkēviča, Wolfgang Friesl-Hanl, Gerhard Soja
Besides carbon sequestration and improvement of soil properties, biochar (BC) has increasingly been studied as an amendment to immobilise heavy metals in contaminated soils. In a 2-year experiment, we analysed the effects of poplar BC (P-BC, mixed with compost) and gravel sludge with siderite-bearing material (GSFe) on a Cd-, Pb- and Zn-contaminated soil and on metal concentration in Miscanthus × giganteus shoots under greenhouse and field conditions. In the greenhouse, 1% (m/m) P-BC addition reduced NH4NO3-extractable Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations by 75, 86 and 92%, respectively, at the end of the study...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127358/effects-of-elevated-co2-on-fine-root-biomass-are-reduced-by-aridity-but-enhanced-by-soil-nitrogen-a-global-assessment
#15
Juan Piñeiro, Raúl Ochoa-Hueso, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Silvan Dobrick, Peter B Reich, Elise Pendall, Sally A Power
Plant roots play a crucial role in regulating key ecosystem processes such as carbon (C) sequestration and nutrient solubilisation. Elevated (e)CO2 is expected to alter the biomass of fine, coarse and total roots to meet increased demand for other resources such as water and nitrogen (N), however, the magnitude and direction of observed changes vary considerably between ecosystems. Here, we assessed how climate and soil properties mediate root responses to eCO2 by comparing 24 field-based CO2 experiments across the globe including a wide range of ecosystem types...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127253/first-biochemical-and-crystallographic-characterization-of-a-fast-performing-ferritin-from-a-marine-invertebrate
#16
E De Meulenaere, J B Bailey, F A Tezcan, D D Deheyn
Ferritin, a multimeric cage-like enzyme, is integral to iron metabolism across all phyla through the sequestration and storage of iron through efficient ferroxidase activity. While ferritin sequences from around 900 species have been identified, crystal structures from only 50 species have been reported, the majority from bacterial origin. We recently isolated a secreted ferritin from the marine invertebrate Chaetopterus sp. (parchment tubeworm), which resides in muddy coastal seafloors. Here, we present the first ferritin from a marine invertebrate to be crystallized, and its biochemical characterization...
November 10, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127040/improved-pharmacokinetic-profile-of-lipophilic-anti-cancer-drugs-using-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-3-targeted-polyurethane-polyurea-nanoparticles
#17
Pau Rocas, Yolanda Fernández, Natalia García-Aranda, Laia Foradada, Pilar Calvo, Pablo Avilés, María José Guillén, Simó Schwartz, Josep Rocas, Fernando Albericio, Ibane Abasolo
Glutathione degradable polyurethane-polyurea nanoparticles (PUUa NP) with a disulfide-rich multiwalled structure and a cyclic RGD peptide as a targeting moiety were synthesized, incorporating a very lipophilic chemotherapeutic drug named Plitidepsin. In vitro studies indicated that encapsulated drug maintained and even improved its cytotoxic activity while in vivo toxicity studies revealed that the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of Plitidepsin could be increased three-fold after encapsulation. We also found that pharmacokinetic parameters such as maximum concentration (Cmax), area under the curve (AUC) and plasma half-life were significantly improved for Plitidepsin loaded in PUUa NP...
November 7, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125629/the-function-of-yeast-cap-family-proteins-in-lipid-export-mating-and-pathogen-defense
#18
REVIEW
Rabih Darwiche, Ola El Atab, Stéphanie Cottier, Roger Schneiter
In their natural habitat, yeast cells are constantly challenged by changing environmental conditions and a fierce competition for limiting resources. To thrive under such conditions, cells need to adapt and divide quickly, and be able to neutralize the toxic compounds secreted by their neighbors. Proteins like the pathogen-related yeast, Pry proteins, which belong to the large CAP/SCP/TAPS superfamily, may have an important role in this function. CAP proteins are conserved from yeast to man and are characterized by a unique αβα sandwich fold...
November 10, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123263/nuclear-igf-1r-predicts-chemotherapy-and-targeted-therapy-resistance-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#19
Jordi Codony-Servat, Miriam Cuatrecasas, Elena Asensio, Carla Montironi, Anna Martínez-Cardús, Mercedes Marín-Aguilera, Carlos Horndler, Eva Martínez-Balibrea, Michele Rubini, Pedro Jares, Oscar Reig, Iván Victoria, Lydia Gaba, Marta Martín-Richard, Vicente Alonso, Pilar Escudero, Carlos Fernández-Martos, Jaime Feliu, Jose Carlos Méndez, Miguel Méndez, Javier Gallego, Antonieta Salud, Federico Rojo, Antoni Castells, Aleix Prat, Rafael Rosell, Xabier García-Albéniz, Jordi Camps, Joan Maurel
BACKGROUND: Although chemotherapy is the cornerstone treatment for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), acquired chemoresistance is common and constitutes the main reason for treatment failure. Monoclonal antibodies against insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) have been tested in pre-treated mCRC patients, but results have been largely deceiving. METHODS: We analysed time to progression, overall survival, and the mutational status of RAS, BRAF and nuclear p-IGF-1R expression by immunohistochemistry, in 470 metastatic CRC patients...
November 9, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121917/a-single-rapamycin-dose-protects-against-late-stage-experimental-cerebral-malaria-via-modulation-of-host-immunity-endothelial-activation-and-parasite-sequestration
#20
Pedro Mejia, J Humberto Treviño-Villarreal, Justin S Reynolds, Mariana De Niz, Andrew Thompson, Matthias Marti, James R Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Maladaptive immune responses during cerebral malaria (CM) result in high mortality despite opportune anti-malarial chemotherapy. Rapamycin, an FDA-approved immunomodulator, protects against experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in mice through effects on the host. However, the potential for reduced adaptive immunity with chronic use, combined with an incomplete understanding of mechanisms underlying protection, limit translational potential as an adjunctive therapy in CM. RESULTS: The results presented herein demonstrate that a single dose of rapamycin, provided as late as day 4 or 5 post-infection, protected mice from ECM neuropathology and death through modulation of distinct host responses to infection...
November 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
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