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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535593/simulating-soil-organic-carbon-stock-as-affected-by-land-cover-change-and-climate-change-hyrcanian-forests-northern-iran
#1
Azam Soleimani, Seyed Mohsen Hosseini, Ali Reza Massah Bavani, Mostafa Jafari, Rosa Francaviglia
Soil organic carbon (SOC) contains a considerable portion of the world's terrestrial carbon stock, and is affected by changes in land cover and climate. SOC modeling is a useful approach to assess the impact of land use, land use change and climate change on carbon (C) sequestration. This study aimed to: (i) test the performance of RothC model using data measured from different land covers in Hyrcanian forests (northern Iran); and (ii) predict changes in SOC under different climate change scenarios that may occur in the future...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535031/tunichrome-inspired-gold-enrichment-dispersion-matrix-and-its-application-in-water-treatment-a-proof-of-concept-investigation
#2
Amarendra Dhar Dwivedi, Rega Permana, Jitendra Pal Singh, Hakwon Yoon, Keun Hwa Chae, Yoon-Seok Chang, Dong Soo Hwang
Tunicate, a filter-feeder in seawater, is able to accumulate high amount of metals using intracellular polymer matrices. The woven pyrogallol structures of tunichrome, a small peptide contained in tunicate's blood cells, is believed to be responsible for selective metal sequestration in tunicates from seawater. However, the intriguing tunichrome matrix is difficult to harvest from the tunicate nor to synthesize massively due to the extreme oxidation sensitivity of the pyrogallol moiety which limits the study scope...
May 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534855/rbc-adherence-of-immune-complexes-containing-botulinum-toxin-improves-neutralization-and-macrophage-uptake
#3
Fetweh H Al-Saleem, Rashmi Sharma, Rama Devudu Puligedda, Md Elias, Chandana Devi Kattala, Paul M Simon, Lance L Simpson, Scott K Dessain
In the paralytic disease botulism, the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) passes through the bloodstream to reach and inactivate neuromuscular junctions. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) may be useful BoNT countermeasures, as mAb combinations can rapidly clear BoNT from the blood circulation. We have previously shown that the BoNT-neutralizing potency of mAbs can be improved through red blood cell (RBC) immunoadherence. For example, a fusion protein (FP) that adheres biotinylated mAbs to the RBC surface enabled a pair of mAbs to neutralize 5000 LD50 BoNT/A in the mouse protection assay...
May 19, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533562/accelerating-tropicalization-and-the-transformation-of-temperate-seagrass-meadows
#4
Glenn A Hyndes, Kenneth L Heck, Adriana Vergés, Euan S Harvey, Gary A Kendrick, Paul S Lavery, Kathryn McMahon, Robert J Orth, Alan Pearce, Mathew Vanderklift, Thomas Wernberg, Scott Whiting, Shaun Wilson
Climate-driven changes are altering production and functioning of biotic assemblages in terrestrial and aquatic environments. In temperate coastal waters, rising sea temperatures, warm water anomalies and poleward shifts in the distribution of tropical herbivores have had a detrimental effect on algal forests. We develop generalized scenarios of this form of tropicalization and its potential effects on the structure and functioning of globally significant and threatened seagrass ecosystems, through poleward shifts in tropical seagrasses and herbivores...
November 1, 2016: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533366/mechanism-of-h2s-mediated-protection-against-oxidative-stress-in-escherichia-coli
#5
Alexander Mironov, Tatyana Seregina, Maxim Nagornykh, Lyly G Luhachack, Natalya Korolkova, Liubov Errais Lopes, Vera Kotova, Gennady Zavilgelsky, Rustem Shakulov, Konstantin Shatalin, Evgeny Nudler
Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) renders bacteria highly resistant to oxidative stress, but its mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we report that 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) is the major source of endogenous H2S in Escherichia coli Cellular resistance to H2O2 strongly depends on the activity of mstA, a gene that encodes 3MST. Deletion of the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) renders ∆mstA cells hypersensitive to H2O2 Conversely, induction of chromosomal mstA from a strong pLtetO-1 promoter (P tet -mstA) renders ∆fur cells fully resistant to H2O2 Furthermore, the endogenous level of H2S is reduced in ∆fur or ∆sodA ∆sodB cells but restored after the addition of an iron chelator dipyridyl...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531956/sediment-microbes-mediate-the-impact-of-nutrient-loading-on-blue-carbon-sequestration-by-mixed-seagrass-meadows
#6
Songlin Liu, Zhijian Jiang, Jingping Zhang, Yunchao Wu, Xiaoping Huang, Peter I Macreadie
Recent studies have reported significant variability in sediment organic carbon (SOC) storage capacity among seagrass species, but the factors driving this variability are poorly understood, limiting our ability to make informed decisions about which seagrass types are optimal for carbon offsetting and why. Here we show that differences in SOC storage capacity among species within the same geomorphic environment can be explained (in part) by below-ground processes in response to nutrient load; specifically, differences in the activity of microbes harboured by morphologically-different seagrass species...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529475/fragile-x-associated-tremor-ataxia-syndrome-from-molecular-pathogenesis-to-development-of-therapeutics
#7
REVIEW
Ha Eun Kong, Juan Zhao, Shunliang Xu, Peng Jin, Yan Jin
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a premutation CGG repeat expansion (55-200 repeats) within the 5' UTR of the fragile X gene (FMR1). FXTAS is characterized by intension tremor, cerebellar ataxia, progressive neurodegeneration, parkinsonism and cognitive decline. The development of transgenic mouse and Drosophila melanogaster models carrying an expanded CGG repeat has yielded valuable insight into the pathophysiology of FXTAS. To date, we know of two main molecular mechanisms of this disorder: (1) a toxic gain of function of the expanded CGG-repeat FMR1 mRNA, which results in the binding/sequestration of the CGG-binding proteins; and (2) CGG repeat-associated non-AUG-initiated (RAN) translation, which generates a polyglycine peptide toxic to cells...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528652/nutritional-immunity-and-fungal-pathogenesis-the-struggle-for-micronutrients-at-the-host-pathogen-interface
#8
Dhara Malavia, Aaron Crawford, Duncan Wilson
All living organisms require certain micronutrients such as iron, zinc, manganese and copper for cellular function and growth. For human pathogens however, the maintenance of metal ion homeostasis is particularly challenging. This is because the mammalian host actively enforces extremes of micronutrient availability on potential microbial invaders-processes collectively termed nutritional immunity. The role of iron sequestration in controlling microbial infections is well established and, more recently, the importance of other metals including zinc, manganese and copper has been recognised...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527325/dyslipidemia-management-update
#9
REVIEW
Yingzi Chang, Jacques Robidoux
Association of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is well established. Reducing low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and raising high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) have been the therapeutic targets to reduce the risk of ASCVD. Cholesterol-lowering medications have been used to provide both primary and secondary prevention of ASCVD for many years by reducing the absorption and reabsorption, promoting excretion, or decreasing the synthesis of cholesterol. Within the past five years, several new classes of cholesterol-lowering drugs have been tested and approved for patients with hypercholesterolemia that are not well controlled by conventional therapy (ezetimibe, bile-acid sequestrants, and statins)...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526632/erythrocytosis-following-testosterone-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Samuel J Ohlander, Bibin Varghese, Alexander W Pastuszak
INTRODUCTION: A rapid increase in awareness of androgen deficiency has led to substantial increases in prescribing of testosterone therapy (TTh), with benefits of improvements in mood, libido, bone density, muscle mass, body composition, energy, and cognition. However, TTh can be limited by its side effects, particularly erythrocytosis. This review examines the literature on testosterone-induced erythrocytosis and polycythemia. AIM: To review the available literature on testosterone-induced erythrocytosis, discuss possible mechanisms for pathophysiology, determine the significance of formulation, and elucidate potential thromboembolic risk...
May 16, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525642/dynamics-of-sequestration-based-gene-regulatory-cascades
#11
Tatenda Shopera, William R Henson, Tae Seok Moon
Gene regulatory cascades are ubiquitous in biology. Because regulatory cascades are integrated within complex networks, their quantitative analysis is challenging in native systems. Synthetic biologists have gained quantitative insights into the properties of regulatory cascades by building simple circuits, but sequestration-based regulatory cascades remain relatively unexplored. Particularly, it remains unclear how the cascade components collectively control the output dynamics. Here, we report the construction and quantitative analysis of the longest sequestration-based cascade in Escherichia coli...
May 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524599/modulation-of-nuclear-rest-by-alternative-splicing-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-huntington-s-disease
#12
Guo-Lin Chen, Qi Ma, Dharmendra Goswami, Jianyu Shang, Gregory M Miller
Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a genetically mutated huntingtin (mHtt) protein with expanded polyQ stretch, which impairs cytosolic sequestration of the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST), resulting in excessive nuclear REST and subsequent repression of neuronal genes. We recently demonstrated that REST undergoes extensive, context-dependent alternative splicing, of which exon-3 skipping (∆E3 )-a common event in human and nonhuman primates-causes loss of a motif critical for REST nuclear targeting...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523005/impact-of-temperature-and-nutrients-on-carbon-nutrient-tissue-stoichiometry-of-submerged-aquatic-plants-an-experiment-and-meta-analysis
#13
Mandy Velthuis, Emma van Deelen, Ellen van Donk, Peiyu Zhang, Elisabeth S Bakker
Human activity is currently changing our environment rapidly, with predicted temperature increases of 1-5°C over the coming century and increased nitrogen and phosphorus inputs in aquatic ecosystems. In the shallow parts of these ecosystems, submerged aquatic plants enhance water clarity by resource competition with phytoplankton, provide habitat, and serve as a food source for other organisms. The carbon:nutrient stoichiometry of submerged aquatic plants can be affected by changes in both temperature and nutrient availability...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517929/computational-modeling-and-simulation-of-co2-capture-by-aqueous-amines
#14
Xin Yang, Robert J Rees, William Conway, Graeme Puxty, Qi Yang, David A Winkler
We review the literature on the use of computational methods to study the reactions between carbon dioxide and aqueous organic amines used to capture CO2 prior to storage, reuse, or sequestration. The focus is largely on the use of high level quantum chemical methods to study these reactions, although the review also summarizes research employing hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics methods and molecular dynamics. We critically review the effects of basis set size, quantum chemical method, solvent models, and other factors on the accuracy of calculations to provide guidance on the most appropriate methods, the expected performance, method limitations, and future needs and trends...
May 18, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516064/a-novel-role-of-listeria-monocytogenes-membrane-vesicles-in-inhibition-of-autophagy-and-cell-death
#15
Svitlana Vdovikova, Morten Luhr, Paula Szalai, Lars Nygård Skalman, Monika K Francis, Richard Lundmark, Nikolai Engedal, Jörgen Johansson, Sun N Wai
Bacterial membrane vesicle (MV) production has been mainly studied in Gram-negative species. In this study, we show that Listeria monocytogenes, a Gram-positive pathogen that causes the food-borne illness listeriosis, produces MVs both in vitro and in vivo. We found that a major virulence factor, the pore-forming hemolysin listeriolysin O (LLO), is tightly associated with the MVs, where it resides in an oxidized, inactive state. Previous studies have shown that LLO may induce cell death and autophagy. To monitor possible effects of LLO and MVs on autophagy, we performed assays for LC3 lipidation and LDH sequestration as well as analysis by confocal microscopy of HEK293 cells expressing GFP-LC3...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515575/controls-of-primary-production-in-two-phytoplankton-blooms-in-the-antarctic-circumpolar-current
#16
C J M Hoppe, C Klaas, S Ossebaar, M A Soppa, W Cheah, L M Laglera, J Santos-Echeandia, B Rost, D A Wolf-Gladrow, A Bracher, M Hoppema, V Strass, S Trimborn
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current has a high potential for primary production and carbon sequestration through the biological pump. In the current study, two large-scale blooms observed in 2012 during a cruise with R.V. Polarstern were investigated with respect to phytoplankton standing stocks, primary productivity and nutrient budgets. While net primary productivity was similar in both blooms, chlorophyll a -specific photosynthesis was more efficient in the bloom closer to the island of South Georgia (39 °W, 50 °S) compared to the open ocean bloom further east (12 °W, 51 °S)...
April 2017: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515154/progerin-sequestration-of-pcna-promotes-replication-fork-collapse-and-mislocalization-of-xpa-in-laminopathy-related-progeroid-syndromes
#17
Benjamin A Hilton, Ji Liu, Brian M Cartwright, Yiyong Liu, Maya Breitman, Youjie Wang, Rowdy Jones, Hui Tang, Antonio Rusinol, Phillip R Musich, Yue Zou
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare genetic disorder that is caused by a point mutation in the LMNA gene resulting in production of a truncated farnesylated-prelamin A protein (progerin). We previously reported that XPA mislocalized to the progerin-induced DNA double-strand break (DSB) sites, blocking DSB repair, which led to DSB accumulation, DNA damage responses, and early replication arrest in HGPS. In this study, the XPA mislocalization to DSBs occurred at stalled or collapsed replication forks, concurrent with a significant loss of PCNA at the forks, whereas PCNA efficiently bound to progerin...
May 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514273/bronchopulmonary-sequestration-improving-practice-by-evaluating-for-a-missed-diagnosis
#18
Mary Ellen Zator Estes
Bronchopulmonary sequestration (BPS) is a lung mass that does not communicate with the tracheobronchial tree or the pulmonary arterial vasculature, and thus does not play a role in oxygenation. This article discusses the etiology of BPS, as well as its pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, imaging studies used to diagnose, and treatment options in both pediatric and adult patients.
June 16, 2017: Nurse Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513320/crispr-cas9-based-pten-knock-out-and-sleeping-beauty-transposon-mediated-nras-knock-in-induces-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-mice
#19
Mingming Gao, Dexi Liu
Both Pten and Nras are downstream mediators of receptor tyrosine kinase activation that plays important roles in controlling cell survival and proliferation. Here, we investigated whether and how Pten loss cross-talks with Nras activation in driving liver cancer development in mice. Somatic disruption of hepatic Pten and overexpression of Nras were achieved in out-bred immunocompetent CD-1 mice through a hydrodynamic delivery of plasmids carrying Sleeping Beauty transposon-based integration of Nras and the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Pten knock-out system...
May 17, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511933/an-initial-demonstration-of-hierarchically-porous-niobium-alkylphosphonates-coordination-polymers-as-potent-radioanalytical-separation-materials
#20
Kai Lv, Chu-Ting Yang, Jun Han, Sheng Hu, Xiao-Lin Wang
Combining the merits of soft-templating and perchlorate oxidation methods, the first-case investigation of niobium alkylphosphonates has uncovered their unique morphology, backbone composition, thermal behavior and huge potentiality as radioanalytical separation materials. These hierarchically porous solids are random aggregates of densely stacked nanolayers perforated with worm-like holes or vesicular voids, manifesting the massif-, tower-like "polymer brush" elevated up to ∼150nm driven by the minimal surface free energy principle...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
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