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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806762/a-becn1-mutation-mediates-hyperactive-autophagic-sequestration-of-amyloid-oligomers-and-improved-cognition-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Altea Rocchi, Soh Yamamoto, Tabitha Ting, Yuying Fan, Katherine Sadleir, Yigang Wang, Weiran Zhang, Sui Huang, Beth Levine, Robert Vassar, Congcong He
Impairment of the autophagy pathway has been observed during the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by abnormal deposition of extracellular and intracellular amyloid β (Aβ) peptides. Yet the role of autophagy in Aβ production and AD progression is complex. To study whether increased basal autophagy plays a beneficial role in Aβ clearance and cognitive improvement, we developed a novel genetic model to hyperactivate autophagy in vivo. We found that knock-in of a point mutation F121A in the essential autophagy gene Beclin 1/Becn1 in mice significantly reduces the interaction of BECN1 with its inhibitor BCL2, and thus leads to constitutively active autophagy even under non-autophagy-inducing conditions in multiple tissues, including brain...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806692/microplastic-pollution-identified-in-deep-sea-water-and-ingested-by-benthic-invertebrates-in-the-rockall-trough-north-atlantic-ocean
#2
Winnie Courtene-Jones, Brian Quinn, Stefan F Gary, Andrew O M Mogg, Bhavani E Narayanaswamy
Microplastics are widespread in the natural environment and present numerous ecological threats. While the ultimate fate of marine microplastics are not well known, it is hypothesized that the deep sea is the final sink for this anthropogenic contaminant. This study provides a quantification and characterisation of microplastic pollution ingested by benthic macroinvertebrates with different feeding modes (Ophiomusium lymani, Hymenaster pellucidus and Colus jeffreysianus) and in adjacent deep water > 2200 m, in the Rockall Trough, Northeast Atlantic Ocean...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806683/asymmetric-polyplex-nanocapsules-loaded-with-photosentisizer-for-light-assisted-gene-transfer
#3
Xuemin Lu, Li Liu
Inefficient intracellular gene delivery is still a limitation for the clinical translation of gene therapy. Recently, photochemical internalization (PCI) has emerged with the opportunity to overcome endo-lysosomal sequestration in gene delivery, which utilizes photosensitizer (PS) plus light generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) at sub-lethal level to facilitate intracellularly targeted drug delivery. In this work, asymmetric polyplex-nanocapsules were prepared based on the triblock copolymers of PEG-PCL-PEI by using the simple solvent-injection method...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806680/sequestration-of-aluminium-iii-by-different-natural-and-synthetic-organic-and-inorganic-ligands-in-aqueous-solution
#4
Paola Cardiano, Rosalia Maria Cigala, Francesco Crea, Fausta Giacobello, Ottavia Giuffrè, Anna Irto, Gabriele Lando, Silvio Sammartano
The speciation of Al(3+) in aqueous solutions containing organic and inorganic ligands important from a biological (citrate (Cit(3-)), gluconate (Gluc(-)), lactate (Lac(-)), silicate (H2SiO4(2-)), carbonate (CO3(2-)), fluoride (F(-))) and industrial (Gantrez(®); polymethyl-vinyl-ether-co-maleic acids; GTZ S95 and GTZ AN169) point of view is reported. The stability constants of Al(3+)/L(z-) complexes (L(z-) = ligand with z(-) charge) were determined by potentiometry at T = 298.15 K and 0.10 ≤ I/M ≤ 1...
August 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806394/smggds-is-a-transient-nucleolar-protein-that-protects-cells-from-nucleolar-stress-and-promotes-the-cell-cycle-by-regulating-dream-complex-gene-expression
#5
P Gonyo, C Bergom, A C Brandt, S-W Tsaih, Y Sun, T M Bigley, E L Lorimer, S S Terhune, H Rui, M J Flister, R M Long, C L Williams
The chaperone protein and guanine nucleotide exchange factor SmgGDS (RAP1GDS1) is a key promoter of cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. SmgGDS undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, suggesting that it has both cytoplasmic and nuclear functions that promote cancer. Previous studies indicate that SmgGDS binds cytoplasmic small GTPases and promotes their trafficking to the plasma membrane. In contrast, little is known about the functions of SmgGDS in the nucleus, or how these nuclear functions might benefit cancer cells...
August 14, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803863/epidermal-e-cadherin-dependent-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-is-phytochemical-inducible-and-accelerates-anagen-hair-cycling
#6
Noha S Ahmed, Subhadip Ghatak, Mohamed S El Masry, Surya C Gnyawali, Sashwati Roy, Mohamed Amer, Helen Everts, Chandan K Sen, Savita Khanna
Unlike the epidermis, which regenerates continually, hair follicles anchored in the subcutis periodically regenerate by spontaneous repetitive cycles of growth (anagen), degeneration (catagen), and rest (telogen). The loss of hair follicles in response to injuries or pathologies such as alopecia endangers certain inherent functions of the skin. Thus, it is of interest to understand mechanisms underlying follicular regeneration in adults. In this work, a phytochemical rich in the natural vitamin E tocotrienol (TRF) served as a productive tool to unveil a novel epidermal pathway of hair follicular regeneration...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801954/an-analysis-of-inpatient-pediatric-sickle-cell-disease-incidence-costs-and-outcomes
#7
Laura M Bou-Maroun, Fabien Meta, Curtis J Hanba, Andrew D Campbell, Gregory A Yanik
OBJECTIVE: To identify characteristics of pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) hospitalizations and to examine admission demographics and medical expenditures. METHODS: Admissions with SCD were identified from the 2009 and 2012 releases of the Healthcare and Cost Utilization Project's Kids Inpatient Database. Disease-specific secondary diagnoses including acute chest syndrome (ACS), vaso-occlusive pain crisis (VOC), splenic sequestration, and stroke/transient ischemic attack were analyzed for patient and hospital demographics...
August 12, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801768/the-influence-of-particle-size-and-feedstock-of-biochar-on-the-accumulation-of-cd-zn-pb-and-as-by-brassica-chinensis-l
#8
Ruilun Zheng, Cui Li, Guoxin Sun, Zubin Xie, Jie Chen, Juying Wu, Qinghai Wang
Biochar produced from rice straw (RC) and maize stalk (MC) was amended to the heavy metal-contaminated soil to investigate the effects of different biochar feedstock and particle size (fine, moderate, coarse) on the accumulation of Cd, Zn, Pb, and As in Brassica chinensis L. (Chinese cabbage). The concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Pb in shoot were decreased by up to 57, 75, and 63%, respectively, after biochar addition (4%). Only MC decreased As concentration in B. chinensis L. shoots by up to 61%. Biochar treatments significantly decreased NH4NO3-extractable concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Pb in soil by 47-62, 33-66, and 38-71%, respectively, yet increased that of As by up to 147%...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801743/investigation-of-an-optimal-cell-lysis-method-for-the-study-of-the-zinc-metalloproteome-of-histoplasma-capsulatum
#9
Anna M Donnell, Stephanie Lewis, Sami Abraham, Kavitha Subramanian, Julio Landero Figueroa, George S Deepe, Anne P Vonderheide
This work sought to assess optimal extraction conditions in the study of the metalloproteome of the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. One of the body's responses to H. capsulatum infection is sequestration of zinc within host macrophage (MØ), as reported by Vignesh et al. (Immunity 39:697-710, 2013) and Vignesh et al. (PLOS Pathog 9:E1003815, 2013). Thus, metalloproteins containing zinc were of greatest interest as it plays a critical role in survival of the fungus. One challenge in metalloproteomics is the preservation of the native structure of proteins to retain non-covalently bound metals...
August 12, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800695/long-term-impact-of-manuring-and-fertilization-on-enrichment-stability-and-quality-of-organic-carbon-in-inceptisol-under-two-potato-based-cropping-systems
#10
R K Yadav, T J Purakayastha, M A Khan, S C Kaushik
Soil organic matter (SOM) stability is a prerequisite for long-term C sequestration. The long-term effect of manuring and fertilization on stability of SOM in rice-potato-wheat (R-P-W) and maize-potato-onion (M-P-O) cropping systems was studied in an Inceptisol of semi-arid subtropical India. Soil samples were collected (0-15 and 15-30cm soil depths) from the following treatments: control, 100% NPK-Fertilizer, 100% N-Vermicompost (VC), 50% NPK-Fertilizer+50%N-Vermicompost (VC), 100%NPK-Fertilizer+crop residue (CR), 100% N-VC+CR...
August 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800107/sequestration-effect-on-the-open-cyclic-switchable-property-of-warfarin-induced-by-cyclodextrin-time-resolved-fluorescence-study
#11
Naji Al-Dubaili, Na'il Saleh
The excited-state lifetimes of the anticoagulant drug warfarin (W) in water and in the absence and presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrins (Me-β-CD) were recorded using time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Selective excitation of the open and cyclic protonated isomers of W were acquired with laser emitting diodes (LED) producing 320 and 280 nm excitation pulses, respectively. Formation of the inclusion complex was checked by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, and the values of binding constants (2.9 × 10³ M(-1) and 4...
August 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799902/innate-immunity-to-intracellular-pathogens-balancing-microbial-elimination-and-inflammation
#12
REVIEW
Gabriel Mitchell, Ralph R Isberg
Recent excitement regarding immune clearance of intracellular microorganisms has focused on two systems that maintain cellular homeostasis. One system includes cellular autophagy components that mediate degradation of pathogens in membrane-bound compartments, in a process termed xenophagy. The second system is driven by interferon-regulated GTPases that promote rupture of pathogen-containing vacuoles and microbial degradation. In the case of xenophagy, pathogen sequestration and compartmentalization suppress inflammation...
August 9, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799342/overview-nucleation-of-clathrate-hydrates
#13
Pramod Warrier, M Naveed Khan, Vishal Srivastava, C Mark Maupin, Carolyn A Koh
Molecular level knowledge of nucleation and growth of clathrate hydrates is of importance for advancing fundamental understanding on the nature of water and hydrophobic hydrate formers, and their interactions that result in the formation of ice-like solids at temperatures higher than the ice-point. The stochastic nature and the inability to probe the small length and time scales associated with the nucleation process make it very difficult to experimentally determine the molecular level changes that lead to the nucleation event...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798234/structural-transitions-in-conserved-ordered-beclin-1-domains-essential-to-regulating-autophagy
#14
Karen Glover, Yue Li, Shreya Mukhopadhyay, Zoe Leuthner, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Christopher L Colbert, Sangita C Sinha
Beclin 1 (BECN1) is a key regulator of autophagy, a critical catabolic homeostasis pathway that involves the sequestration of cytoplasmic components by multilayered vesicles called autophagosomes, followed by lysosomal fusion and degradation. BECN1 is a core component of class III phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase complexes responsible for autophagosome nucleation. Without heterologous binding partners, BECN1 forms an antiparallel homodimer via its coiled-coil domain (CCD). However, the last 16 CCD residues, composing an overlap helix (OH), have been crystallized in two mutually exclusive states: either as part of the CCD or packed against the C-terminal lower case β-α-repeated, autophagy-specific domain (BARAD)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797887/grassland-productivity-and-carbon-sequestration-in-mongolian-grasslands-the-underlying-mechanisms-and-nomadic-implications
#15
Changliang Shao, Jiquan Chen, Housen Chu, Raffaele Lafortezza, Gang Dong, Michael Abraha, Ochirbat Batkhishig, Ranjeet John, Zutao Ouyang, Yaoqi Zhang, Jiaguo Qi
BACKGROUND: Quantifying carbon (C) dioxide exchanges between ecosystems and the atmosphere and the underlying mechanism of biophysical regulations under similar environmental conditions is critical for an accurate understanding of C budgets and ecosystem functions. METHODS: For the first time, a cluster of four eddy covariance towers were set up to answer how C fluxes shift among four dominant ecosystems in Mongolia - meadow steppe (MDW), typical steppe (TPL), dry typical steppe (DRT) and shrubland (SHB) during two growing seasons (2014 and 2015)...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797837/endosomal-sort-of-signaling-control-the-role-of-escrt-machinery-in-regulation-of-receptor-mediated-signaling-pathways
#16
REVIEW
Ewelina Szymanska, Noga Budick-Harmelin, Marta Miaczynska
The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) machinery consists of four protein assemblies (ESCRT-0 to -III subcomplexes) which mediate various processes of membrane remodeling in the cell. In the endocytic pathway, ESCRTs sort cargo destined for degradation into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of endosomes. Cargos targeted by ESCRTs include various signaling molecules, mainly internalized cell-surface receptors but also some cytosolic proteins. It is therefore expected that aberrant trafficking caused by ESCRT dysfunction affects different signaling pathways...
August 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797147/understanding-the-spatial-distribution-of-factors-controlling-topsoil-organic-carbon-content-in-european-soils
#17
M Rial, A Martínez Cortizas, L Rodríguez-Lado
Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) constitutes the largest terrestrial carbon pool. The understanding of its dynamics and the environmental factors that influence its behaviour as sink or source of atmospheric CO2 is crucial to quantify the carbon budget at the global scale. At the European scale, most of the existing studies to account for SOC stocks are centred in the fitting of predictive model to ascertain the distribution of SOC. However, the development of methodologies for monitoring and identifying the environmental factors that control SOC storage in Europe remains a key research challenge...
August 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795424/going-with-the-flow-an-aid-in-detecting-and-differentiating-bronchopulmonary-sequestrations-and-hybrid-lesions
#18
Edward R Oliver, Suzanne E DeBari, Mariann M Giannone, Jennifer E Pogoriler, Ann M Johnson, Steven C Horii, Juliana S Gebb, Lori J Howell, N Scott Adzick, Beverly G Coleman
OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability of prenatal ultrasound (US) in identifying systemic feeding arteries in bronchopulmonary sequestrations and hybrid lesions and report the ability of US in classifying bronchopulmonary sequestrations as intralobar or extralobar. METHODS: Institutional Review Board-approved radiology and clinical database searches from 2008 to 2015 were performed for prenatal lung lesions with final diagnoses of bronchopulmonary sequestrations or hybrid lesions...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794483/impaired-lymphocyte-trafficking-in-mice-deficient-in-the-kinase-activity-of-pkn1
#19
Rana Mashud, Akira Nomachi, Akihide Hayakawa, Koji Kubouchi, Sally Danno, Takako Hirata, Kazuhiko Matsuo, Takashi Nakayama, Ryosuke Satoh, Reiko Sugiura, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Shigeharu Wakana, Hiroyuki Ohsaki, Shingo Kamoshida, Hideyuki Mukai
Knock-in mice lacking PKN1 kinase activity were generated by introducing a T778A point mutation in the catalytic domain. PKN1[T778A] mutant mice developed to adulthood without apparent external abnormalities, but exhibited lower T and B lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood than those of wild-type (WT) mice. T and B cell development proceeded in an apparently normal fashion in bone marrow and thymus of PKN1[T778A] mice, however, the number of T and B cell counts were significantly higher in the lymph nodes and spleen of mutant mice in those of WT mice...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792301/sqstm1-p62-mediated-autophagy-compensates-for-loss-of-proteasome-polyubiquitin-recruiting-capacity
#20
Alik Demishtein, Milana Fraiberg, Dikla Berko, Boaz Tirosh, Zvulun Elazar, Ami Navon
Protein homeostasis in eukaryotic cells is regulated by 2 highly conserved degradative pathways, the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and macroautophagy/autophagy. Recent studies revealed a coordinated and complementary crosstalk between these systems that becomes critical under proteostatic stress. Under physiological conditions, however, the molecular crosstalk between these 2 pathways is still far from clear. Here we describe a cellular model of proteasomal substrate accumulation due to the combined knockdown of PSMD4/S5a and ADRM1, the 2 proteasomal ubiquitin receptors...
August 9, 2017: Autophagy
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