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Lipase acid lipoprotein deficiency

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197978/managing-cardiovascular-risk-in-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency
#1
REVIEW
James J Maciejko
Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) is a rare, life-threatening, autosomal recessive, lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the LIPA gene, which encodes for lysosomal acid lipase (LAL). This enzyme is necessary for the hydrolysis of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride in lysosomes. Deficient LAL activity causes accumulation of these lipids in lysosomes and a marked decrease in the cytoplasmic free cholesterol concentration, leading to dysfunctional cholesterol homeostasis. The accumulation of neutral lipid occurs predominantly in liver, spleen, and macrophages throughout the body, and the aberrant cholesterol homeostasis causes a marked dyslipidemia...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984852/biochemical-analysis-of-the-lipoprotein-lipase-truncation-variant-lpl-s447x-reveals-increased-lipoprotein-uptake
#2
Cassandra K Hayne, Michael J Lafferty, Brian J Eglinger, John P Kane, Saskia B Neher
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is responsible for the hydrolysis of triglycerides from circulating lipoproteins. Whereas most identified mutations in the LPL gene are deleterious, one mutation, LPL(S447X), causes a gain of function. This mutation truncates two amino acids from LPL's C-terminus. Carriers of LPL(S447X) have decreased VLDL levels and increased HDL levels, a cardioprotective phenotype. LPL(S447X) is used in Alipogene tiparvovec, the gene therapy product for individuals with familial LPL deficiency. It is unclear why LPL(S447X) results in a serum lipid profile more favorable than that of LPL...
January 9, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941191/diagnostic-and-therapeutic-management-of-children-with-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency-lal-d-review-of-the-literature-and-own-experience
#3
Aldona Wierzbicka-Rucińska, Wojciech Jańczyk, Agnieszka Ługowska, Dariusz Lebensztejn, Piotr Socha
Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency may present at any age (in infants, children and adults). Its presenting features commonly include elevated serum transaminase activity levels, hypercholesterolemia, fatty liver, progressive liver fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Nonspecific clinical manifestations can lead to a delay in the diagnosis of both children and adults. The early development of fibrosis and cirrhosis suggests that the lysosomal accumulation of cholesterol esters and triglycerides in the liver is a potent inducer of fibrosis...
2016: Developmental Period Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811232/mobility-of-hspg-bound-lpl-explains-how-lpl-is-able-to-reach-gpihbp1-on-capillaries
#4
Christopher M Allan, Mikael Larsson, Rachel S Jung, Michael Ploug, André Bensadoun, Anne P Beigneux, Loren G Fong, Stephen G Young
In mice lacking glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high density lipoprotein binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1), the LPL secreted by adipocytes and myocytes remains bound to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) on all cells within tissues. That observation raises a perplexing issue: Why isn't the freshly secreted LPL in wild-type mice captured by the same HSPGs, thereby preventing LPL from reaching GPIHBP1 on capillaries? We hypothesized that LPL-HSPG interactions are transient, allowing the LPL to detach and move to GPIHBP1 on capillaries...
January 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488580/testosterone-differentially-regulates-targets-of-lipid-and-glucose-metabolism-in-liver-muscle-and-adipose-tissues-of-the-testicular-feminised-mouse
#5
Daniel M Kelly, Samia Akhtar, Donna J Sellers, Vakkat Muraleedharan, Kevin S Channer, T Hugh Jones
Testosterone deficiency is commonly associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and their clinical consequences-hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis. The testicular feminised mouse (non-functional androgen receptor and low testosterone) develops fatty liver and aortic lipid streaks on a high-fat diet, whereas androgen-replete XY littermate controls do not. Testosterone treatment ameliorates these effects, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We compared the influence of testosterone on the expression of regulatory targets of glucose, cholesterol and lipid metabolism in muscle, liver, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue...
November 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344369/exogenous-supplement-of-n-acetylneuraminic-acid-ameliorates-atherosclerosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#6
Shoudong Guo, Hua Tian, Rongrong Dong, Nana Yang, Ying Zhang, Shutong Yao, Yongjun Li, Yawei Zhou, Yanhong Si, Shucun Qin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous studies investigating the correlation between plasma sialic acid and the severity of atherosclerosis present conflicting results. In atherosclerosis patients, plasma levels of N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) are increased; however, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been clarified. We assume the increased NANA level may be a compensatory mechanism due to oxidative stress and/or inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether supplementation of NANA could attenuate the progression of atherosclerosis...
August 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282869/obesity-development-in-neuron-specific-lipoprotein-lipase-deficient-mice-is-not-responsive-to-increased-dietary-fat-content-or-change-in-fat-composition
#7
Hong Wang, Matthew D Taussig, Nicholas V DiPatrizio, Kimberley Bruce, Daniele Piomelli, Robert H Eckel
We have previously reported that mice with neuron-specific LPL deficiency (NEXLPL-/-) become obese by 16weeks of age on chow. Moreover, these mice had reduced uptake of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein-derived fatty acids and lower levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in the hypothalamus. Here, we asked whether increased dietary fat content or altered dietary composition could modulate obesity development in NEXLPL-/- mice. Male NEXLPL-/- mice and littermate controls (WT) were randomly assigned one of three synthetic diets; a high carbohydrate diet (HC, 10% fat), a high-fat diet (HF, 45% fat), or a HC diet supplemented with n-3 PUFAs (HCn-3, 10% fat, Lovaza, GSK®)...
July 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27264722/both-de-novo-synthetized-and-exogenous-fatty-acids-support-the-growth-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#8
Dan Cao, Xinhua Song, Li Che, Xiaolei Li, Maria G Pilo, Gianpaolo Vidili, Alberto Porcu, Antonio Solinas, Antonio Cigliano, Giovanni M Pes, Silvia Ribback, Frank Dombrowski, Xin Chen, Lei Li, Diego F Calvisi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although it is well established that fatty acids (FA) are indispensable for the proliferation and survival of cancer cells in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) cannot completely repress HCC cell growth in culture. Thus, we hypothesized that uptake of exogenous FA by cancer cells might play an important role in the development and progression of HCC. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of triglycerides into free fatty acids (FFA) and increases the cellular uptake of FA...
January 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27188917/effects-of-two-therapeutic-dietary-regimens-on-primary-chylomicronemia-in-paediatric-age-a-retrospective-data-analysis
#9
O Helk, R Schreiber, K Widhalm
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Subjects suffering from lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency show very severe hypertriglyceridemia, often accompanied by recurrent bouts of pancreatitis. Dietary intervention is currently considered first-line treatment of this condition in paediatric age. The aim of our study was to compare the effects of dietary treatment with a low-fat diet alone and a low-fat diet enriched with omega-3-fatty acids. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The data of 11 patients with LPL deficiency who were diagnosed in our lipid clinic between October 1997 and October 2007 were summarised...
May 18, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053679/the-angptl3-4-8-model-a-molecular-mechanism-for-triglyceride-trafficking
#10
REVIEW
Ren Zhang
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a rate-limiting enzyme for hydrolysing circulating triglycerides (TG) into free fatty acids that are taken up by peripheral tissues. Postprandial LPL activity rises in white adipose tissue (WAT), but declines in the heart and skeletal muscle, thereby directing circulating TG to WAT for storage; the reverse is true during fasting. However, the mechanism for the tissue-specific regulation of LPL activity during the fed-fast cycle has been elusive. Recent identification of lipasin/angiopoietin-like 8 (Angptl8), a feeding-induced hepatokine, together with Angptl3 and Angptl4, provides intriguing, yet puzzling, insights, because all the three Angptl members are LPL inhibitors, and the deficiency (overexpression) of any one causes hypotriglyceridaemia (hypertriglyceridaemia)...
April 2016: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004047/ethanolic-extract-of-commiphora-mukul-gum-resin-attenuates-streptozotocin-induced-alterations-in-carbohydrate-and-lipid-metabolism-in-rats
#11
B Ramesh, R Karuna, S Sreenivasa Reddy, G Sudhakara, D Saralakumari
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Commiphora mukul gum resin ethanolic extract (CMEEt) administration against altered activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism and changes in glycogen content (liver and muscle) and lipids (liver and heart) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced insulin deficient diabetic Wistar albino rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg body wt) to male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: Control (C), control-treated (C+CM), diabetic (D) and diabetic-treated group (D+CM)...
2013: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27003301/acute-female-hypogonadism-alters-adipose-tissue-fatty-acid-storage-factors-and-chylomicronemia
#12
Sylvia Santosa, Sara L Bonnes, Michael D Jensen
CONTEXT: Chronic sex steroid deficiency has effects on adipose fatty acid (FA) storage mechanisms and fat oxidation, but the chronology of events are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the acute effects of female sex steroid suppression on cellular mechanisms affecting abdominal and femoral subcutaneous adipose tissue FA storage. DESIGN: This study had a randomized, longitudinal, parallel study design...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26869825/insulin-sensitivity-improvement-of-fermented-korean-red-ginseng-panax-ginseng-mediated-by-insulin-resistance-hallmarks-in-old-aged-ob-ob-mice
#13
Jeong-Mu Cheon, Dae-Ik Kim, Kil-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: The biological actions of various ginseng extracts have been studied for treating obesity and diabetes mellitus. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of fermented Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) on metabolic syndrome. The present study evaluated the antiobesity and antidiabetic effects of fermented red ginseng (FRG) on old-aged, obese, leptin-deficient (B6.V-Lepob, "ob/ob") mice. METHODS: The animals were divided into three groups and given water containing 0%, 0...
October 2015: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26853749/fgf21-lowers-plasma-triglycerides-by-accelerating-lipoprotein-catabolism-in-white-and-brown-adipose-tissues
#14
Christian Schlein, Saswata Talukdar, Markus Heine, Alexander W Fischer, Lucia M Krott, Stefan K Nilsson, Martin B Brenner, Joerg Heeren, Ludger Scheja
FGF21 decreases plasma triglycerides (TGs) in rodents and humans; however, the underlying mechanism or mechanisms are unclear. In the present study, we examined the role of FGF21 in production and disposal of TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) in mice. Treatment with pharmacological doses of FGF21 acutely reduced plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), liver TG content, and VLDL-TG secretion. In addition, metabolic turnover studies revealed that FGF21 facilitated the catabolism of TRL in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT)...
March 8, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26849851/novel-therapies-for-severe-dyslipidemia-originating-from-human-genetics
#15
REVIEW
Daniel Gaudet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Novel therapies for severe dyslipidemia target a wide range of unmet medical needs: severe familial hypercholesterolemia, severe hypertriglyceridemia and chylomicronemia, elevated lipoprotein (a), lipodystrophies, high-density lipoprotein particle diseases, lysosomal acid lipase deficiency and storage diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and others. The purpose of this review is to describe the contribution of human genetics to the development of therapeutic approaches targeting severe dyslipidemia...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26841664/-the-effect-of-satins-activation-of-lipolysis-and-absorption-by-insulin-depended-cells-lipoproteins-of-very-low-density-increasing-of-bio-availability-of-polyenoic-fatty-acids-and-decreasing-of-cholesterol-of-lipoproteins-of-low-density
#16
V N Titov, P P Malyshev, V A Amelyushkina, A V Aripovsky, G P Smirnov, T Yu Polevaya, S I Kabo, V V Kukhartchuk
The Russian cardiologic R&D production complex of Minzdrav of Russia, 121552 Moscow, Russia The statins are synthetic xenobiotics alien to animal cells. They are unlikely capable to manifest pleiotropic effect. It is feasible to evaluate effect of statins by stages: a) initially a specific inhibition of synthesis of cholesterol alcohol; b) further indirect activation of hydrolysis of triglycerides in lipoproteins of very low density; c) nonspecific activation of cells' receptor absorption of palmitic and oleic lipoproteins of very low density and then d) linoleic and linolenic lipoproteins of low density with all polyenoic fatty acids...
October 2015: Klinicheskaia Laboratornaia Diagnostika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26780002/novel-therapeutics-in-hypertriglyceridemia
#17
REVIEW
Steven E Gryn, Robert A Hegele
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an overview of recent advances in the therapy of hypertriglyceridemia, focusing on several new therapies with potential for treating of familial chylomicronemia, other forms of hypertriglyceridemia, and for triglyceride-lowering in patients with other lipid disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Newer triglyceride-lowering modalities under evaluation include gene therapy for lipoprotein lipase deficiency (alipogene tiparvovec), and antisense oligonucleotides against mRNA for apolipoproteins B (mipomersen) and C3 (volanesorsen, ISIS 304801)...
December 2015: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26574515/creation-of-apolipoprotein-c-ii-apoc-ii-mutant-mice-and-correction-of-their-hypertriglyceridemia-with-an-apoc-ii-mimetic-peptide
#18
Toshihiro Sakurai, Akiko Sakurai, Boris L Vaisman, Marcelo J Amar, Chengyu Liu, Scott M Gordon, Steven K Drake, Milton Pryor, Maureen L Sampson, Ling Yang, Lita A Freeman, Alan T Remaley
Apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) is a cofactor for lipoprotein lipase, a plasma enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides (TGs). ApoC-II deficiency in humans results in hypertriglyceridemia. We used zinc finger nucleases to create Apoc2 mutant mice to investigate the use of C-II-a, a short apoC-II mimetic peptide, as a therapy for apoC-II deficiency. Mutant mice produced a form of apoC-II with an uncleaved signal peptide that preferentially binds high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) due to a 3-amino acid deletion at the signal peptide cleavage site...
February 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26545559/-total-parenteral-nutrition-in-a-pregnant-patient-with-acute-pancreatitis-and-lipoprotein-lipase-deficiency
#19
Victoria Contreras-Bolívar, Inmaculada González-Molero, Pedro Valdivieso, Gabriel Olveira
We present a case of severe acute pancreatitis induced by hypertriglyceridemia secondary to lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency in a pregnant patient with gestational diabetes, initially maneged with diet but it was later necessary to carry out artificial nutricional support measures: total parenteral nutrition. LPL deficiency might cause severe hypertriglyceridemia, repetition acute pancreatitis which is an unwieldy and severe situation during pregnancy. Acute familial hypertriglyceridemia pancreatitis accounts for 5% of cases, including LPL deficiency...
October 1, 2015: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26352813/a-phase-3-trial-of-sebelipase-alfa-in-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Barbara K Burton, Manisha Balwani, François Feillet, Ivo Barić, T Andrew Burrow, Carmen Camarena Grande, Mahmut Coker, Alejandra Consuelo-Sánchez, Patrick Deegan, Maja Di Rocco, Gregory M Enns, Richard Erbe, Fatih Ezgu, Can Ficicioglu, Katryn N Furuya, John Kane, Christina Laukaitis, Eugen Mengel, Edward G Neilan, Scott Nightingale, Heidi Peters, Maurizio Scarpa, K Otfried Schwab, Vratislav Smolka, Vassili Valayannopoulos, Marnie Wood, Zachary Goodman, Yijun Yang, Stephen Eckert, Sandra Rojas-Caro, Anthony G Quinn
BACKGROUND: Lysosomal acid lipase is an essential lipid-metabolizing enzyme that breaks down endocytosed lipid particles and regulates lipid metabolism. We conducted a phase 3 trial of enzyme-replacement therapy in children and adults with lysosomal acid lipase deficiency, an underappreciated cause of cirrhosis and severe dyslipidemia. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 66 patients, we evaluated the safety and effectiveness of enzyme-replacement therapy with sebelipase alfa (administered intravenously at a dose of 1 mg per kilogram of body weight every other week); the placebo-controlled phase of the study was 20 weeks long and was followed by open-label treatment for all patients...
September 10, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
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