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Cost effectiveness

Viroj Wiwanitkit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
I Aumann, K Rozanski, K Damm, J-M Graf von der Schulenburg
Aim of the Study: Through the promotion of smoking cessation premature mortality can be prevented. Therefore it is necessary to provide effective and cost-effective smoking cessation interventions. In Germany the cost of pharmacological smoking cessation measures are not yet reimbursed by the statutory health insurance. The aim of this study is to present the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of already approved pharmacological smoking cessation therapies and to evaluate their quality. Method: A systematic literature research was conducted in the databases by DIMDI (Medline, Embase, etc...
October 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
Matthew J Klebanoff, Jagpreet Chhatwal, Jacob D Nudel, Kathleen E Corey, Lee M Kaplan, Chin Hur
Importance: Severe obesity affects 4% to 6% of US youth and is increasing in prevalence. Bariatric surgery for the treatment of adolescents with severe obesity is becoming more common, but data on cost-effectiveness are limited. Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery for adolescents with obesity using recently published results from the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery study. Design, Setting, and Patients: A state-transition model was constructed to compare 2 strategies: no surgery and bariatric surgery...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Surgery
Michael C Gundry, Lorenzo Brunetti, Angelique Lin, Allison E Mayle, Ayumi Kitano, Dimitrios Wagner, Joanne I Hsu, Kevin A Hoegenauer, Cliona M Rooney, Margaret A Goodell, Daisuke Nakada
Our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) has been advanced by the ability to genetically manipulate mice; however, germline modification is time consuming and expensive. Here, we describe fast, efficient, and cost-effective methods to directly modify the genomes of mouse and human HSPCs using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Using plasmid and virus-free delivery of guide RNAs alone into Cas9-expressing HSPCs or Cas9-guide RNA ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes into wild-type cells, we have achieved extremely efficient gene disruption in primary HSPCs from mouse (>60%) and human (∼75%)...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Mayte Conejero-Muriel, Isaac Rodriguez-Ruiz, Cristobal Verdugo-Escamilla, Andreu Llobera, Jose Antonio Gavira
Microfluidics or lab-on-a-chip technology offer clear advantages over conventional systems such as a dramatic reduction of reagent consumption or a shorter analysis time, which are translated into costs effective systems. In this work, we present a photonic enzymatic lab on a chip reactor based on Cross-Linked Enzyme Crystals (CLECs), able to work in continuous flow, as a highly sensitive, robust, reusable and stable platform for continuous sensing with superior performance as compared to the state of the art...
October 26, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Katharine Kripke, Jason Reed, Catherine Hankins, Gregory Smiley, Catey Laube, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli
BACKGROUND: The report of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) for World AIDS Day 2014 highlighted a Fast-Track Strategy that sets ambitious treatment and prevention targets to reduce global HIV incidence to manageable levels by 2020 and end the AIDS epidemic by 2030. The 90-90-90 treatment targets for 2020 call for 90% of people living with HIV to know their HIV status, 90% of people who know their status to receive treatment, and 90% of people on HIV treatment to be virally suppressed...
2016: PloS One
Athumani M Ramadhani, Tamsyn Derrick, David Macleod, Martin J Holland, Matthew J Burton
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is a blinding disease, initiated in early childhood by repeated conjunctival infection with the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The population prevalence of the clinical signs of active trachoma; ''follicular conjunctivitis" (TF) and/or ''intense papillary inflammation" (TI), guide programmatic decisions regarding the initiation and cessation of mass drug administration (MDA). However, the persistence of TF following resolution of infection at both the individual and population level raises concerns over the suitability of this clinical sign as a marker for C...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Katharine Kripke, Karin Hatzold, Owen Mugurungi, Gertrude Ncube, Sinokuthemba Xaba, Elizabeth Gold, Kim Seifert Ahanda, Natalie Kruse-Levy, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli
BACKGROUND: Zimbabwe aims to increase circumcision coverage to 80% among 13- to 29-year-olds. However, implementation data suggest that high coverage among men ages 20 and older may not be achievable without efforts specifically targeted to these men, incurring additional costs per circumcision. Scale-up scenarios were created based on trends in implementation data in Zimbabwe, and the cost-effectiveness of increasing efforts to recruit clients ages 20-29 was examined. METHODS: Zimbabwe voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) program data were used to project trends in male circumcision coverage by age into the future...
2016: PloS One
Janet Bouttell, James Lewsey, Claudia Geue, Grace Antony, Andrew Briggs, Gerry McCartney, Sharon Hutchinson, Lesley Graham, Mathis Heydtmann
Studies assessing the costs of alcoholic liver disease are lacking. We aimed to calculate the costs of hospitalisations before and after diagnosis compared to population controls matched by age, sex and socio-economic deprivation. We aimed to use population level data to identify a cohort of individuals hospitalised for the first time with alcoholic liver disease in Scotland between 1991 and 2011.Incident cases were classified by disease severity, sex, age group, socio-economic deprivation and year of index admission...
2016: PloS One
Catherine Hankins, Mitchell Warren, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli
Over 11 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMC) have been performed of the projected 20.3 million needed to reach 80% adult male circumcision prevalence in priority sub-Saharan African countries. Striking numbers of adolescent males, outside the 15-49-year-old age target, have been accessing VMMC services. What are the implications of overall progress in scale-up to date? Can mathematical modeling provide further insights on how to efficiently reach the male circumcision coverage levels needed to create and sustain further reductions in HIV incidence to make AIDS no longer a public health threat by 2030? Considering ease of implementation and cultural acceptability, decision makers may also value the estimates that mathematical models can generate of immediacy of impact, cost-effectiveness, and magnitude of impact resulting from different policy choices...
2016: PloS One
Patrizia Belfiore, Davide Di Palma, Francesca Gallé, Valeria Di Onofrio, Alessandro Scaletti, Giorgio Liguori
Type II diabetes has a high prevalence rate worldwide, especially in industrialized countries. By requiring increasing health expenditures and resources, the disease and its complications generate a considerable economic burden. Since many years several institutions promote awareness and information programs regarding the most effective strategies to prevent and control diabetes. By reducing the severity of the disease and its complications, Adapted Exercise therapy (AE) represents an ideal instrument to remodulate the Therapeutic Healthcare Management Protocol (THMP) of patients with type II diabetes and may be defined as a new health technology...
July 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
Alex Peaslee, Marleen Wickizer, Julie Olson, Robert Topp
BACKGROUND: Value-based insurance design (VBID) waives or reduces prescription copayments in order to decrease member cost barriers to refilling medications. Medication therapy management (MTM) is a member clinical intervention designed to reinforce members' knowledge of their medications, which addresses barriers to medication adherence. Both methods have been shown to increase adherence in members, particularly when used in combination. To date, studies of such combined programs have often been completed within integrated health systems but have rarely included control populations...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Jason Shafrin, Taylor T Schwartz, Darius N Lakdawalla, Felicia M Forma
BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to antipsychotic medication among patients with schizophrenia results in poor symptom management and increased health care and other costs. Despite its health impact, medication adherence remains difficult to accurately assess. New technologies offer the possibility of real-time patient monitoring data on adherence, which may in turn improve clinical decision making. However, the economic benefit of accurate patient drug adherence information (PDAI) has yet to be evaluated...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Janice L Pringle, Arnie Aldridge, Shannon M Kearney, Kim Grasso, John Radack, Susan Hogue, Chronis Manolis
BACKGROUND: Medication nonadherence is problematic throughout health care practice. Patient nonadherence is a result of several factors, such as financial issues, confusion about the medication, or concerns about possible side effects. Efforts to improve adherence have been implemented, but new strategies are needed to ensure that patients fill their medication prescriptions and adhere to their prescribed use. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether providing patients with a free 30-day supply of medication at the point of care via a dispensing kiosk-a secure, computerized cabinet placed in the prescriber's office-that provides sample medication and educational materials had a measurable impact on adherence and health care cost...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Jashin J Wu, Annie Guerin, Genevieve Gauthier, Murali Sundaram
BACKGROUND: Adalimumab and ustekinumab are effective psoriasis treatments. This study compares healthcare resource utilization (HRU), costs and dose escalation, and describes starting dose trends in ustekinumab versus adalimumab psoriasis patients. METHODS: Adult psoriasis patients initiating adalimumab/ustekinumab on/after September 25, 2009 were selected from a US claims database and classified into biologic-naïve and biologic-experienced samples. RESULTS: 602 ustekinumab and 3,470 adalimumab biologic-naïve and 1,193 ustekinumab and 1,467 adalimumab biologic-experienced patients were included...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Evan C Palmer-Young, Ben M Sadd, Lynn S Adler
Repeated exposure to inhibitory compounds can drive the evolution of resistance, which weakens chemical defense against antagonists. Floral phytochemicals in nectar and pollen have antimicrobial properties that can ameliorate infection in pollinators, but evolved resistance among parasites could diminish the medicinal efficacy of phytochemicals. However, multi-compound blends, which occur in nectar and pollen, present simultaneous chemical challenges that may slow resistance evolution. We assessed evolution of resistance by the common bumble bee gut parasite Crithidia bombi to two floral phytochemicals, singly and combined, over six weeks (~100 generations) of chronic exposure...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Rama I Mahran, Magda M Hagras, Duxin Sun, Dean E Brenner
Cancer is still a major cause of death all over the world. Its incidence and prevalence are increasing drastically. Cancer treatment imposes high socioeconomic burden with little impact especially on aggressive types of cancer. Reversing or delaying carcinogenesis "cancer chemoprevention" by purified or extracted natural products is a cost-effective alternative. Curcumin is widely available, inexpensive spice that has been used in ancient folk medicine for millennia, especially in India. Curcumin has the pharmacological properties that slow or reverse cellular proliferation and enhance apoptosis and differentiation associated with a diverse array of molecular effects...
October 25, 2016: AAPS Journal
Michael J Boivin, Horacio Ruiseñor-Escudero, Itziar Familiar-Lopez
There is growing concern that although the more severe forms of HIV-associated neurologic deficits are reduced following highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), mild to moderate cognitive disorders may persist for years after HAART initiation and this may occur despite complete plasma viral suppression. According to the UNAIDS 2014 report, there were 3.2 million children living with HIV around the world at the end of 2013 and 91 % of these resided in sub-Saharan Africa. In the same year, only 24 % of children who needed antiretroviral treatment (ART) received it and 190,000 children died of AIDS-related illnesses...
October 25, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Rohit Randhawa, Ajay Duseja, Harish Changotra
Various case-control studies have shown association of single nucleotide polymorphism rs12303764(G/T) in ULK1 with crohn's disease. The techniques used in these studies were time consuming, complicated and require sophisticated/expensive instruments. Therefore, in order to overcome these problems, we have developed a new, rapid and cost effective Tetra-primer ARMS-PCR assay to genotype single nucleotide polymorphism rs12303764(G/T) of ULK1 gene. We manually designed allele specific primers. DNA fragment amplified using outer primers was sequenced to obtain samples with known genotypes (GG, GT and TT) for further use in the development of T-ARMS-PCR assay...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
Fernando Pastor
The renaissance of cancer immunotherapy is, nowadays, a reality. In the near future, it will be very likely among the first-line treatments for cancer patients. There are several different approaches to modulate the immune system to fight against tumor maladies but, so far, monoclonal antibodies may currently be the most successful immuno-tools used to that end. The number of ongoing clinical trials with monoclonal antibodies has been increasing exponentially over the last few years upon the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of the first immune-checkpoint blockade antibodies...
October 24, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
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