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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334637/contamination-characteristics-and-source-apportionment-of-heavy-metals-in-topsoil-from-an-area-in-xi-an-city-china
#1
Xiuduan Chen, Xinwei Lu
As soil-extractable elements potentially pose ecological and health risks, identifying their contamination characteristics and sources is crucial. Therefore, to understand topsoil trace elements in the urban ring zone from the Second Ring Road to the Third Ring of Xi'an city in China, we determined the concentrations of Zn, Co, V, As, Cu, Mn, Ba, Ni and Pb, and analyzed the sources of the contamination. The results showed that the individual pollution indices of Pb, Co, Cu, Zn, Ba, Ni, Mn, As, and V were 1...
January 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334549/cost-effectiveness-of-alternative-strategies-for-provision-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-people-who-inject-drugs
#2
Rui Fu, Douglas K Owens, Margaret L Brandeau
BACKGROUND: Oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been recommended as a means of HIV prevention among people who inject drugs (PWID) but, at current prices, is unlikely to be cost-effective for all PWID. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies for enrolling PWID in PrEP. DESIGN: Dynamic network model that captures HIV transmission and progression among PWID in a representative US urban center. OUTCOME MEASURES: HIV infections averted, discounted costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs)...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334536/nationwide-trend-analysis-of-pediatric-inpatients-with-immune-thrombocytopenia-in-the-united-states
#3
Yusuke Okubo, Atsuhiko Handa
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported the epidemiology of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) among children in the United States and other countries. However, recent trends in ITP among hospitalized children and hospital course remain unknown at a national level in the United States. METHOD: Hospital discharge records of patients with ITP aged 19 years and younger were obtained for the years 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012 using the Kids' Inpatient Database. Data were weighted to estimate the annual hospitalization rates in the United States with trend analyses...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334532/cost-effectiveness-and-improved-parent-and-provider-satisfaction-with-outpatient-management-of-pediatric-oncology-patients-with-low-risk-fever-and-neutropenia
#4
Abhishek Bavle, Amanda Grimes, Sibo Zhao, Daniel Zinn, Andrea Jackson, Binita Patel, Timothy Porea, Ankhi Dutta, Heidi Russell, Andras Heczey
On the basis of significant evidence for safety, the international pediatric fever and neutropenia committee recommends the identification and management of patients with "low-risk fever and neutropenia" (LRFN), outpatient with oral antibiotics, instead of traditional inpatient management. The aim of our study was to compare the cost-per-patient with these 2 strategies, and to evaluate parent and provider satisfaction with the outpatient management of LRFN. Between March 2016 and February 2017, 17 LRFN patients (median absolute neutrophil count, 90/μL) were managed at a single institution, per new guidelines...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334524/leveraging-linkage-of-cohort-studies-with-administrative-claims-data-to-identify-individuals-with-cancer
#5
Mackenzie R Bronson, Nirav S Kapadia, Andrea M Austin, Qianfei Wang, Diane Feskanich, Julie P W Bynum, Francine Grodstein, Anna N A Tosteson
BACKGROUND: In an effort to overcome quality and cost constraints inherent in population-based research, diverse data sources are increasingly being combined. In this paper, we describe the performance of a Medicare claims-based incident cancer identification algorithm in comparison with observational cohort data from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). METHODS: NHS-Medicare linked participants' claims data were analyzed using 4 versions of a cancer identification algorithm across 3 cancer sites (breast, colorectal, and lung)...
January 12, 2018: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334506/targeted-biopsy-benefits-and-limitations
#6
Stephanie Purnell, Jonathan Bloom, Vladimir Valera Romero, Bradford Wood, Ismail Baris Turkbey, Peter A Pinto
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current literature regarding the role of multiparametric MRI and fusion-guided biopsies in urologic practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Fusion biopsies consistently show an increase in the detection of clinically significant cancers and decrease in low-risk disease that may be more suitable for active surveillance. Although, when to incorporate multiparametric MRI into workup is not clearly agreed upon, studies have shown a clear benefit in both biopsy naïve and those with prior negative biopsies in determining the appropriate treatment strategy...
January 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334481/flexible-and-freestanding-supercapacitor-based-on-nanostructured-poly-m-aminophenol-carbon-nanofiber-hybrid-mats-with-high-energy-and-power-densities
#7
Arup Choudhury, Baban Dey, Susanta Sinha Mahapatra, Doo-Won Kim, Kap-Seung Yang, Duck J Yang
Nanostructured poly(m-aminophenol) (PmAP) coated freestanding carbon nanofiber (CNF) mats were fabricated through simple in-situ rapid-mixing polymerization of m-aminophenol in presence of CNF mat for flexible solid-state supercapacitors. The surface compositions, morphology and pore structure of the hybrid mats were characterized by using different techniques, e.g., FTIR, Raman, XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and N2 absorption. The results show that the PmAP nanoparticles homogeneously deposited on CNF surfaces and formed a thin flexible hybrid mat, which were directly used to made electrodes for electrochemical analysis without using any binders and conductive additives...
January 15, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334434/the-case-for-stabilized-stannous-fluoride-dentifrice-an-advanced-formulation-designed-for-patient-preference
#8
Tao He, Svetlana Farrell
Oral diseases, particularly caries and gingivitis, continue to be widespread. Incorporating a stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice into patients' daily oral hygiene routine is a convenient, cost effective approach to improve and protect their oral health and the appearance of their smile. Unlike other common fluorides that only provide anti-caries benefits (e.g., sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate), stabilized stannous fluoride formulations have demonstrated broader and significantly greater protection, also reducing plaque, gingivitis, erosion, sensitivity, and halitosis...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334410/selective-binding-and-precipitation-of-cesium-ions-from-aqueous-solutions-a-size-driven-supramolecular-reaction
#9
Ravell Bengiat, Benny Bogoslavsky, Daniel Mandler, Joseph Almog
The nuclear disasters of Chernobyl and Fukushima presented an urgent need for finding solutions to treatment of radioactive wastes. Among the by-products of nuclear fission is the radioactive 137Cs, which evokes an environmental hazard due to its long half-life (>30 years) and high solubility in water. In this work, a water-soluble organic ligand, readily obtained from alloxan and 1,3,5-benzenetriol, has been found to selectively bind and precipitate Cs+ ions from aqueous solutions. The special rigid structure of the ligand, which consists of a "tripodal" carbonyl base above and below an aromatic plane, contributes to the size-driven selectivity towards the large Cs+ ions and the formation of a giant, insoluble supramolecular complex...
January 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334316/potential-therapeutic-and-economic-value-of-risk-stratified-treatment-as-initial-treatment-of-multiple-myeloma-in-europe
#10
Jennifer G Gaultney, Therese W Ng, Carin A Uyl-de Groot, Pieter Sonneveld, Erik H van Beers, Martin H van Vliet, William K Redekop
Biomarkers associated with prognosis in multiple myeloma (MM) can be used to stratify patients into risk categories. An attractive alternative to uniform treatment (UT), risk-stratified treatment (RST) is proposed where high-risk patients receive bortezomib-based regimens while standard-risk patients receive alternative less costly regimens. An early Markov-type decision analytic model evaluated the potential therapeutic and economic value of different RST strategies compared with UT in MM patients in key European countries...
January 15, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334274/an-overview-of-robotic-mechanical-devices-for-post-stroke-thumb-rehabilitation
#11
Marian Suarez-Escobar, Elizabeth Rendon-Velez
PURPOSE: This article aims to clarify the current state-of-the-art of robotic/mechanical devices for post-stroke thumb rehabilitation as well as the anatomical characteristics and motions of the thumb that are crucial for the development of any device that aims to support its motion. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify robotic/mechanical devices for post-stroke thumb rehabilitation. Specific electronic databases and well-defined search terms and inclusion/exclusion criteria were used for such purpose...
January 15, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334117/the-relationship-between-office-type-and-job-satisfaction-testing-a-multiple-mediation-model-through-ease-of-interaction-and-well-being
#12
Tobias Otterbring, Jörg Pareigis, Erik Wästlund, Alexander Makrygiannis, Anton Lindström
Objectives This cross-sectional study investigated the associations between office type (cellular, shared-room, small open-plan, and medium-sized open-plan) and employees' ease of interaction with coworkers, subjective well-being, and job satisfaction. Methods A brief survey including measures of office type, ease of interaction with coworkers, subjective well-being, and job satisfaction was sent electronically to 1500 Swedish real-estate agents, 271 of whom returned usable surveys. The data were analyzed using a regression-based serial multiple mediation model (PROCESS Model 6), which tested whether the relationship between office type and job satisfaction would be mediated by ease of interaction and, in turn, subjective well-being...
January 15, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333873/survey-regarding-the-05-blood-alcohol-concentration-limit-for-driving-in-the-united-states
#13
Dary D Fiorentino, Brian D Martin
STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Background: On May 14, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board ("NTSB") proposed that states lower the blood alcohol concentration ("BAC") illegal limit from .08 g/dL to .05 g/dL (also referred to as the ".08 law" and "the .05 limit," respectively). In March of 2017, this recommendation was signed into law in the State of Utah. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this survey is to investigate perceptions regarding enforcement of the .05 g/dL BAC limit. METHOD: Opinions of law enforcement officers, prosecutors, and defense attorneys were obtained through a series of questionnaires and focus groups...
January 15, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333852/synthesis-of-mip-nanoparticles-for-%C3%AE-casein-detection-using-spr-as-a-milk-allergen-sensor
#14
Jon Ashley, Yunus Shukor, Roberta D'Aurelio, Linda Trinh, Thomas Lawrence Rodgers, Jeff Temblay, Mike Pleasants, Ibtisam E Tothill
Food recalls due to undeclared allergens or contamination are costly to the food manufacturing industry worldwide. As the industry strives for better manufacturing efficiencies over a diverse range of food products, there is a need for the development of new analytical techniques to improve monitoring the presence of unintended food allergens during the food manufacturing process. In particular, the monitoring of wash samples from cleaning in place systems (CIP), used in the cleaning of food processing equipment, would allow for the effective removal of allergen containing ingredients in between food batches...
January 15, 2018: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333812/markers-of-inflammation-and-tolerance-development-in-allergic-proctocolitis
#15
Hikmet T Nacaroglu, Semiha Bahceci Erdem, Ersin Durgun, Sait Karaman, Cahit Baris Erdur, Canan S Unsal Karkmer, Demet Can
BACKGROUND: Today, as a result of an increase in the frequency of food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP), there is a need for studies not only to enlighten the pathophysiology of the disease but also to determine simple, non-invasive markers in both diagnosis, and evaluation of the development of tolerance. No study has been found in the literature about the place of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and mean platelet volume (MPV), which are easy to calculate and non-invasive markers...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333806/asq-3-validation-of-the-ages-and-stages-questionnaire-for-the-detection-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders-in-argentine-children
#16
Ana M Romero Otalvaro, Nora Grañana, Nadia Gaeto, María de Los Á Torres, María N Zamblera, María A Vasconez, Claudia Misenta, María E Rouvier, Jane Squires
INTRODUCTION: The systematic assessment of child development in the first years of life is an essential component of pediatric health checkups. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire, third edition (ASQ-3) is the most validated scale, and has been recommended by the UNICEF to verify if children have a normal neurological development. It is a monitoring instrument to assess the main developmental areas, including communication, gross motor, fine motor, personal-social, and problem solving skills, and to compare the local population to the international development standards...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333660/interventions-to-increase-attendance-for-diabetic-retinopathy-screening
#17
REVIEW
John G Lawrenson, Ella Graham-Rowe, Fabiana Lorencatto, Jennifer Burr, Catey Bunce, Jillian J Francis, Patricia Aluko, Stephen Rice, Luke Vale, Tunde Peto, Justin Presseau, Noah Ivers, Jeremy M Grimshaw
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence supporting the effectiveness of diabetic retinopathy screening (DRS) in reducing the risk of sight loss, attendance for screening is consistently below recommended levels. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the review was to assess the effectiveness of quality improvement (QI) interventions that seek to increase attendance for DRS in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.Secondary objectives were:To use validated taxonomies of QI intervention strategies and behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to code the description of interventions in the included studies and determine whether interventions that include particular QI strategies or component BCTs are more effective in increasing screening attendance;To explore heterogeneity in effect size within and between studies to identify potential explanatory factors for variability in effect size;To explore differential effects in subgroups to provide information on how equity of screening attendance could be improved;To critically appraise and summarise current evidence on the resource use, costs and cost effectiveness...
January 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333560/a-design-of-experiment-approach-for-efficient-multi-parametric-drug-testing-using-a-caenorhabditis-elegans-model
#18
M C Letizia, M Cornaglia, G Tranchida, R Trouillon, M A M Gijs
When studying the drug effectiveness towards a target model, one should distinguish the effects of the drug itself and of all the other factors that could influence the screening outcome. This comprehensive knowledge is crucial, especially when model organisms are used to study the drug effect at a systemic level, as a higher number of factors can influence the drug-testing outcome. Covering the entire experimental domain and studying the effect of the simultaneous change in several factors would require numerous experiments, which are costly and time-consuming...
January 15, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333531/patient-reported-outcome-measures-prom-as-a-preoperative-assessment-tool
#19
Sunghye Kim, Pamela W Duncan, Leanne Groban, Hannah Segal, Rica Moonyeen Abbott, Jeff D Williamson
Aim of review: Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) on functional, social, and behavioral factors might be important preoperative predictors of postoperative outcomes. We conducted a literature review to explore associations of preoperative depression, socioeconomic status, social support, functional status/frailty, cognitive status, self-management skills, health literacy, and nutritional status with surgical outcomes. Methods: Two electronic data bases, including PubMed and Google Scholar, were searched linking either depression, socioeconomic status, social support, functional status/frailty, cognitive status, self-management skills, health literacy, or nutritional status with surgery, postoperative complications, or perioperative period within the past 2 decades...
November 28, 2017: Journal of anesthesia and perioperative medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333490/inhibition-of-bacterial-adhesion-on-nanotextured-stainless-steel-316l-by-electrochemical-etching
#20
Yeongseon Jang, Won Tae Choi, Christopher T Johnson, Andrés J García, Preet M Singh, Victor Breedveld, Dennis W Hess, Julie A Champion
Bacterial adhesion to stainless steel 316L (SS316L), which is an alloy typically used in many medical devices and food processing equipment, can cause serious infections along with substantial healthcare costs. This work demonstrates that nanotextured SS316L surfaces produced by electrochemical etching effectively inhibit bacterial adhesion of both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, but exhibit cytocompatibility and no toxicity toward mammalian cells in vitro. Additionally, the electrochemical surface modification on SS316L results in formation of superior passive layer at the surface, improving corrosion resistance...
January 8, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
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