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Cost effectiveness

Shalender Bhasin, Juan P Brito, Glenn R Cunningham, Frances J Hayes, Howard N Hodis, Alvin M Matsumoto, Peter J Snyder, Ronald S Swerdloff, Frederick C Wu, Maria A Yialamas
Objective: To update the "Testosterone Therapy in Men With Androgen Deficiency Syndromes" guideline published in 2010. Participants: The participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed task force of 10 medical content experts and a clinical practice guideline methodologist. Evidence: This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Nadavala Siva Kumar, Mohammad Asif, Mansour I Al-Hazzaa, Ahmed A Ibrahim
Most industrial waste discharges are often contaminated with phenolic compounds, which constitute a major source of water pollution owing to their toxicity and low biodegradability. Development of cost-effective treatment of such industrial wastewater is therefore of paramount importance. Towards this end, we explore the efficacy of Pine bark powder (PBP), which is an agricultural solid waste material, as a low-cost biosorbent without any pre-treatment, for the adsorptive removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) from aqueous media...
March 2018: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Carlos Vitor Braga Rodrigues, Anderson Oliveira, Christiane Cigagna Wiefels, Maurício de Souza Leão, Cláudio Tinoco Mesquita
BACKGROUND: Data on the current situation of nuclear medicine practices in cardiology in Brazil are scarce. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has recommended eight "good practices" to minimize patients' ionizing radiation exposure during myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). OBJECTIVES: To assess the adoption of the eight good practices in MPS in Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with data obtained by use of a questionnaire...
February 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Frédéric Kosmowski, Tigist Worku
Crop cultivar identification is fundamental for agricultural research, industry and policies. This paper investigates the feasibility of using visible/near infrared hyperspectral data collected with a miniaturized NIR spectrometer to identify cultivars of barley, chickpea and sorghum in the context of Ethiopia. A total of 2650 grains of barley, chickpea and sorghum cultivars were scanned using the SCIO, a recently released miniaturized NIR spectrometer. The effects of data preprocessing techniques and choosing a machine learning algorithm on distinguishing cultivars are further evaluated...
2018: PloS One
ByungWan Jo, Rana Muhammad Asad Khan
The implementation of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for monitoring the complex, dynamic, and harsh environment of underground coal mines (UCMs) is sought around the world to enhance safety. However, previously developed smart systems are limited to monitoring or, in a few cases, can report events. Therefore, this study introduces a reliable, efficient, and cost-effective internet of things (IoT) system for air quality monitoring with newly added features of assessment and pollutant prediction. This system is comprised of sensor modules, communication protocols, and a base station, running Azure Machine Learning (AML) Studio over it...
March 21, 2018: Sensors
Peter G Bittar, Anna R Carlson, Ann Mabie-DeRuyter, Jeffrey R Marcus, Alexander C Allori
OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to describe the process of adapting a conceptual framework into a practical toolkit for one cleft team. DESIGN: This is a single-arm implementation study in a single institution. SETTING: Implementation took place at a mid-sized multidisciplinary clinic for patients with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) from urban/suburban and rural areas across North Carolina and neighboring states. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible participants were patients with CL/P from English-speaking families...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Martha M Gross, Arumugam Manthiram
Large scale energy storage for the electric grid will require low cost and high energy density solutions. We demonstrate in this letter a rechargeable zinc-aqueous polysulfide battery in which a metallic zinc anode is separated from a liquid aqueous polysulfide catholyte by an alkali-metal-ion solid-state electrolyte, wherein the alkali metal ion is Na+ or Li+. The solid-state electrolyte effectively separates the anode from the reactive polysulfide catholyte, preventing the crossover of the polysulfide species and maintaining good electrochemical performance with a reversible discharge capacity of 822 mA h g-1 with nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency...
March 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Daniele Dona, Maura Baraldi, Giulia Brigadoi, Rebecca Lundin, Giorgio Perilongo, Rana F Hamdy, Theoklis Zaoutis, Liviana Da Dalt, Carlo Giaquinto
BACKGROUND: Although Italian pediatric antimicrobial prescription rates are among the highest in Europe, little action has been taken to improve the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescriptions. The primary aim of this study was to assess changes in antibiotic prescription before and after acute otitis media (AOM) and group A streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis Clinical Pathway (CP) implementation; secondary aims were to compare treatment failures and to assess change in the total antibiotics costs before and after CP implementation...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jasmeet Soar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The optimal antiarrhythmic drug therapy (amiodarone or lidocaine) in the treatment of ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VF/pVT) cardiac arrest that is refractory to defibrillation is uncertain. This article reviews the evidence for and against these drugs, alternatives treatments for refractory VF/pVT and aims to define the role of antiarrhythmic drugs during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). RECENT FINDINGS: A large randomized controlled trial that compared amiodarone, lidocaine and saline 0...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Ying Liang, Li Zhu, Minjie Gao, Jianrong Wu, Xiaobei Zhan
Water-soluble β-1,3-glucan (w-glucan) prepared from curdlan is reported to possess various bioactive and medicinal properties. To develop an efficient and cost-effective microbial fermentation method for the direct production of w-glucan, a coupled fermentation system of Agrobacterium sp. and Trichoderma harzianum (CFS-AT) was established. The effects of Tween-80, glucose flow rate, and the use of a dissolved oxygen (DO) control strategy on w-glucan production were assessed. The addition of 10 g L-1 Tween-80 to the CFS-AT enhanced w-glucan production, presumably by loosening the curdlan ultrastructure and increasing the efficiency of curdlan hydrolysis...
March 21, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Yu-Ching Tu, Yi-Jung Lin, Lir-Wan Fan, Tung-I Tsai, Hsiu-Hung Wang
The purposes of this study were to develop gain-framed (benefits of performing behaviors) and loss-framed (costs of not performing behaviors) messages and to identify the effects of these messages on human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cervical cancer awareness and vaccination intention. Self-administered questionnaires and effect-size measurements were used to evaluate the effects of the framed HPV vaccination messages delivered through multimedia. The results showed that gain-framed and loss-framed messages equally improved HPV knowledge ( d = 2...
March 1, 2018: Western Journal of Nursing Research
Arthur Bloemen, Anne M Daniels, Martine G Samyn, Roel Jl Janssen, Jan-Willem Elshof
INTRODUCTION: Peripherally inserted central catheters are venous devices intended for short to medium periods of intravenous treatment. Positioning of the catheter tip at the cavoatrial junction is necessary for optimum performance of a peripherally inserted central catheter. In this study, safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of electrocardiographic-guided peripherally inserted central catheter positioning in a Dutch teaching hospital were evaluated. METHODS: All patients who received a peripherally inserted central catheter in 2016 using electrocardiographic guidance were compared to those where fluoroscopy guidance was used in a prospective non-randomized cohort study...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
Martha J Nelson-Flower, Elizabeth M Wiley, Tom P Flower, Amanda R Ridley
Delayed dispersal is a key step in the evolution of familial animal societies and cooperative breeding. However, no consensus has been reached on the ecological and social circumstances driving delayed dispersal. Here, we test predictions from the ecological constraints and benefits of philopatry hypotheses as well as the recently proposed dual benefits hypothesis to better understand the evolution of group-living and cooperative breeding. Furthermore, we consider how individual social circumstances within groups affect dispersal decisions...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Jill S Levenson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this paper is to improve evidence-based sex offender management systems through an understanding of the research findings related to the stated goals and unintended consequences of such laws. RECENT FINDINGS: Assessment tools using factors derived from research studies can improve the identification of higher-risk sex offenders, so that more intensive or restrictive interventions can be tailored to those who pose the highest threat to community safety...
March 21, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Jesse Lowe, Rohan Bansal, Stephen Badylak, Bryan Brown, William Chung, Alejandro Almarza
A subset of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders are attributed to joint degeneration. The pig has been considered the preferred in-vivo model for the evaluation of potential therapies for TMJ disorders, and practical considerations such as cost and husbandry issues have favored the use of young, skeletally immature animals. However, the effect of growth on the biochemical and biomechanical properties of the TMJ disc and articulating cartilage has not been examined. The present study investigates the effect of age on the biochemical and biomechanical properties of healthy porcine TMJs at 3, 6, and 9 months of age...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Gouri Chaubal, Prasad Sarkale, Pravin Kore, Pragya Yadav
Background: Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD), a tick borne flavivirus, which was earlier endemic to Karnataka state, India, has been confirmed and detected from neighboring states of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Goa and Kerala states in India. Increased human and vector surveillance therefore becomes essential for the identification of KFD affected regions and control of further spread of the disease. Currently, available KFD detection assays include realtime RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR assays...
February 2018: Heliyon
Wolfram Wiest, Alexander Rack, Simon Zabler, Alex Schaer, Michael Swain, Katja Nelson
State-of-the art, two-piece dental implants made from titanium alloys exhibit a complex micromechanical behavior under dynamical load. Its understanding, especially the formation of microgaps, is of crucial importance in order to predict and improve the long-term performance of such implants. Microgap formation in a loaded dental implant with a conical implant-abutment connection can be studied and quantified by synchrotron radiography with micrometer accuracy. Due to the high costs and limited access to synchrotron radiation sources, alternative approaches are needed in order to depict the microgap formation...
February 2018: Heliyon
Damien Christophe Jacques, Eduardo Marinho, Raphaël d'Andrimont, François Waldner, Julien Radoux, Frédéric Gaspart, Pierre Defourny
In sub-Saharan Africa, transaction costs are believed to be the most significant barrier that prevents smallholders and farmers from gaining access to markets and productive assets. In this study, we explore the impact of social capital on millet prices for three contrasted years in Senegal. Social capital is approximated using a unique data set on mobile phone communications between 9 million people allowing to simulate the business network between economic agents. Our approach is a spatial equilibrium model that integrates a diversified set of data...
January 2018: Heliyon
Faisal Akhtar, Sabah Rehman
Congenital syphilis is one of the preventable diseases caused by the gram-negative bacteria Treponema pallidum; yet, it imposes a serious global health and economic burden, with more than half of the cases resulting in serious adverse outcomes, including infant mortality. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of syphilis is estimated at 3.6 million adjusted life years (DALYs) and around $309 million in medical costs. In 2006, an estimated 9.7 million children of age less than five years died in developing countries; almost four million were neonatal deaths...
January 16, 2018: Curēus
John Q Wong, Nel Jason Haw, Jhanna Uy, Diana Beatriz Bayani
The World Health Organization (WHO) launched the OneHealth Tool (OHT) to help low and middle income countries to develop their capacities for sector-wide priority setting. In 2016, we sought to use the OHT to aid the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PHIC), the national health insurer of the Philippines, in decisions to expand benefit packages using cost-effectiveness analyses. With technical support from the WHO, we convened health planning officers from the Philippine Department of Health (DOH) and the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PHIC) conduct generalized cost-effective analyses (GCEA) of selected un-financed noncommunicable disease interventions using OHT...
2018: F1000Research
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