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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913162/intranasal-delivery-of-antipsychotic-drugs
#1
REVIEW
Yogesh K Katare, Justin E Piazza, Jayant Bhandari, Ritesh P Daya, Kosalan Akilan, Madeline J Simpson, Todd Hoare, Ram K Mishra
Antipsychotic drugs are used to treat psychotic disorders that afflict millions globally and cause tremendous emotional, economic and healthcare burdens. However, the potential of intranasal delivery to improve brain-specific targeting remains unrealized. In this article, we review the mechanisms and methods used for brain targeting via the intranasal (IN) route as well as the potential advantages of improving this type of delivery. We extensively review experimental studies relevant to intranasal delivery of therapeutic agents for the treatment of psychosis and mental illnesses...
November 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912999/palliative-care-and-physiatry-in-the-oncology-care-spectrum-an-opportunity-for-distinct-and-collaborative-approaches
#2
REVIEW
Vishwa S Raj, Julie K Silver, Terrence M Pugh, Jack B Fu
As cancer evolves from a terminal illness to a chronic medical condition, so too does the view of clinical services. Palliative care and physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) will increase in acceptance because they provide a valuable resource. The overarching theme is improving cancer-related symptoms or treatment-related side effects, improving patient health-related quality of life, lessening caregiver burden, and valuing patient-centered care and shared decision making. Managing symptom burden may improve therapy participation/performance...
February 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912142/how-do-individuals-value-health-states-a-qualitative-investigation
#3
M Karimi, J Brazier, S Paisley
Despite the importance of health state values in informing resource allocation in health care, there is arguably little known about how individuals value health. Previous studies have shown that a variety of non-health factors and beliefs are important in valuing health, but there is less evidence in the literature about how individuals' beliefs affect their preferences or what role non-health factors play in the process of forming preferences. This study investigated the thought processes of 21 U.K. based participants in March 2013 who valued health states using semi-structured interviews and a think-aloud protocol, with the aim to better understand the relationship between health states, the individual's underlying beliefs, and the individual's preferences...
November 22, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909581/expansion-of-health-insurance-in-moldova-and-associated-improvements-in-access-and-reductions-in-direct-payments
#4
Thomas Hone, Jarno Habicht, Silviu Domente, Rifat Atun
BACKGROUND: Moldova is the poorest country in Europe. Economic constraints mean that Moldova faces challenges in protecting individuals from excessive costs, improving population health and securing health system sustainability. The Moldovan government has introduced a state benefit package and expanded health insurance coverage to reduce the burden of health care costs for citizens. This study examines the effects of expanded health insurance by examining factors associated with health insurance coverage, likelihood of incurring out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for medicines or services, and the likelihood of forgoing health care when unwell...
December 2016: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909470/clinical-and-economic-implications-of-af-related-stroke
#5
REVIEW
Dr Ali N Ali, Dr Ahmed Abdelhafiz
A major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) relates to the increased risk of stroke. The burden of illness that AF imparts on stroke is likely to increase with our aging populations and increasingly sophisticated cardiac monitoring techniques. Understanding the clinical and economic differences between AF related ischaemic stroke and non-AF related stroke is important if we are to improve future cost effectiveness analyses of potential preventative treatments, but also to help educate clinical and policy decision makers on use or availability of treatments to prevent AF related stroke...
February 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909070/informal-caregiving-and-intimate-relationships-the-experiences-of-spouses-of-uk-military-personnel
#6
Gursimran Thandi, S Oram, A Verey, N Greenberg, N T Fear
AIM: Currently, there is no research available on the experiences of spouses providing informal care to wounded, injured or sick (WIS) UK military personnel. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by investigating the relationship experiences of non-military partners caring for WIS UK military personnel. METHODS: Spouses of WIS military personnel (n=25) completed telephone interviews with the research team. The data were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907964/critical-care-neurology-perspective-on-delirium
#7
Matthew B Maas, Andrew M Naidech
The evidence linking delirium to poor outcomes after critical illness is compelling, including higher mortality, prolonged mechanical ventilation, longer length of intensive care unit stay, and long-term cognitive impairments. The attitude toward delirium in the neurologic community is shifting away from viewing it as an unmodifiable, inevitable consequence of severe illness to treating it is as a neurologic emergency, akin to seizures or encephalitis. Delirium, like other manifestations of critical illness encephalopathy, is an organ dysfunction syndrome...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907161/barriers-and-facilitators-to-safe-food-handling-among-consumers-a-systematic-review-and-thematic-synthesis-of-qualitative-research-studies
#8
Ian Young, Lisa Waddell
Foodborne illness has a substantial health and economic burden on society, and most cases are believed to be due to unsafe food handling practices at home. Several qualitative research studies have been conducted to investigate consumers' perspectives, opinions, and experiences with safe food handling at home, and these studies provide insights into the underlying barriers and facilitators affecting their safe food handling behaviours. We conducted a systematic review of previously published qualitative studies in this area to synthesize the main across-study themes and to develop recommendations for future consumer interventions and research...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905939/causes-of-death-in-vanuatu
#9
Karen Carter, Viran Tovu, Jeffrey Tila Langati, Michael Buttsworth, Lester Dingley, Andy Calo, Griffith Harrison, Chalapati Rao, Alan D Lopez, Richard Taylor
BACKGROUND: The population of the Pacific Melanesian country of Vanuatu was 234,000 at the 2009 census. Apart from subsistence activities, economic activity includes tourism and agriculture. Current completeness of vital registration is considered too low to be usable for national statistics; mortality and life expectancy (LE) are derived from indirect demographic estimates from censuses/surveys. Some cause of death (CoD) data are available to provide information on major causes of premature death...
March 15, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905186/severe-asthma-current-management-targeted-therapies-and-future-directions-a-roundtable-report
#10
REVIEW
Vanessa M McDonald, Steven Maltby, Helen K Reddel, Gregory G King, Peter A B Wark, Lorraine Smith, John W Upham, Alan L James, Guy B Marks, Peter G Gibson
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by respiratory symptoms, airway inflammation, airway obstruction and airway hyper-responsiveness. Asthma is common and directly affects 10% of Australians, 1-5% of adults in Asia and 300 million people worldwide. It is a heterogeneous disorder with many clinical, molecular, biological and pathophysiological phenotypes. Current management strategies successfully treat the majority of patients with asthma who have access to them. However, there is a subset of an estimated 5-10% of patients with asthma who have severe disease and are disproportionately impacted by symptoms, exacerbations and overall illness burden...
November 30, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902744/delirium-detection-and-impact-of-comorbid-health-conditions-in-a-post-acute-rehabilitation-hospital-setting
#11
Julija Stelmokas, Nicolette Gabel, Jennifer M Flaherty, Katherine Rayson, Kathileen Tran, Jason R Anderson, Linas A Bieliauskas
Misdiagnosis and under-detection of delirium may occur in many medical settings. This is important to address as delirium clearly increases risk of morbidity and mortality in such settings. This study assessed whether Veterans who screened positive on a delirium severity measure (Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale; MDAS) differed from those with and without corresponding medical documentation of delirium in terms of cognitive functioning, psychiatric/medical history, and medication use. A medical record review of 266 inpatients at a VA post-acute rehabilitation unit found that 10...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902648/incidence-and-burden-of-pertussis-among-infants-less-than-1-year-of-age
#12
Cristina Masseria, Carolyn K Martin, Girishanthy Krishnarajah, Laura K Becker, Ami Buikema, Tina Q Tan
BACKGROUND: Infant-specific pertussis data, especially among neonates, are limited and variable. This study (NCT01890850) provides overall and age-specific pertussis incidence and associated healthcare utilization and costs among commercially insured infants in the United States. METHODS: Nearly 1.2 million infants born from 2005-2010 with commercial health plan coverage were followed during their first 12 months of life. Pertussis cases were identified from medical claims (ICD-9-CM 033...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902409/prevention-of-herpes-zoster-and-its-complications-from-the-clinic-to-the-real-life-experience-with-the-vaccine
#13
Giovanni Gabutti, Nicoletta Valente, Parvanè Kuhdari, Silvia Lupi, Armando Stefanati
The Herpes Zoster (HZ) is an acute viral illness characterized by a vesicular rash, with unilateral distribution, which can eventually cause severe complications, such as the post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), the ophthalmic zoster, stroke or other neurological complications. In Europe, an incidence between 2.0 and 4.6 cases per 1,000 persons-year is estimated, with an increase after 50 years of age. Currently, the therapeutic options for HZ are only partially effective to limit the acute phase, while the management of complications is frequently complex and not satisfactory...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899096/estimating-the-mental-health-costs-of-racial-discrimination
#14
Amanuel Elias, Yin Paradies
BACKGROUND: Racial discrimination is a pervasive social problem in several advanced countries such as the U.S., U.K., and Australia. Public health research also indicates a range of associations between exposure to racial discrimination and negative health, particularly, mental health including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the direct negative health impact of racial discrimination has not been costed so far although economists have previously estimated indirect non-health related productivity costs...
November 29, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898294/longitudinal-changes-in-and-modifiable-predictors-of-the-prevalence-of-severe-depressive-symptoms-for-family-caregivers-of-terminally-ill-cancer-patients-over-the-first-two-years-of-bereavement
#15
Su-Ching Kuo, Wen-Chi Chou, Jen-Shi Chen, Wen-Cheng Chang, Ming-Chu Chiang, Ming-Mo Hou, Siew Tzuh Tang
BACKGROUND: Bereaved families endure tremendous grief. However, few studies have longitudinally investigated caregivers' bereavement grief for more than one year postloss and none is from family-oriented Asian countries. OBJECTIVES: We explored longitudinal changes in and modifiable predictors of severe depressive symptoms for Taiwanese family caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients over the first two years postloss. DESIGN: For this descriptive, longitudinal study, severe depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score ≥16) were measured 1, 3, 6, 13, 18, and 24 months postloss...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895832/clostridium-difficile-a-healthcare-associated-infection-of-unknown-significance-in-adults-in-sub-saharan-africa
#16
REVIEW
Alexander J Keeley, Nicholas J Beeching, Katharine E Stott, Paul Roberts, Alastair J Watson, Michael Bj Beadsworth
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes a high burden of disease in high-resource healthcare systems, with significant morbidity, mortality, and financial implications. CDI is a healthcare-associated infection for which the primary risk factor is antibiotic usage, and it is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoea in HIV-infected patients in the United States. Little is known about the disease burden of CDI in sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV and healthcare-associated infections are more prevalent and antibiotic usage is less restricted...
June 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895102/delaying-and-seeking-care-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea-the-role-of-gender-family-and-morality
#17
Dana Zarhin
Social scientists have proposed various theories as to when, why, and how people come to seek medical care for multiple conditions. Yet, there is still little empirical research to illustrate the pathways into and out of care, especially for chronic illness. This article contributes to this body of work by exploring individuals' reasons for delaying and seeking care for obstructive sleep apnea, which despite being the most diagnosed sleep disorder, has been largely neglected by social scientists. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 65 Jewish-Israeli obstructive sleep apnea patients, this study shows how intersections of gender, family, and morality shape and are shaped by care-seeking behavior...
November 28, 2016: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893810/antiviral-efficacy-of-verdinexor-in-vivo-in-two-animal-models-of-influenza-a-virus-infection
#18
Olivia Perwitasari, Scott Johnson, Xiuzhen Yan, Emery Register, Jackelyn Crabtree, Jon Gabbard, Elizabeth Howerth, Sharon Shacham, Robert Carlson, Sharon Tamir, Ralph A Tripp
Influenza A virus (IAV) causes seasonal epidemics of respiratory illness that can cause mild to severe illness and potentially death. Antiviral drugs are an important countermeasure against IAV; however, drug resistance has developed, thus new therapeutic approaches are being sought. Previously, we demonstrated the antiviral activity of a novel nuclear export inhibitor drug, verdinexor, to reduce influenza replication in vitro and pulmonary virus burden in mice. In this study, in vivo efficacy of verdinexor was further evaluated in two animal models or influenza virus infection, mice and ferrets...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893204/estimating-the-economic-burden-of-lung-cancer-in-iran
#19
Satar Rezaei, Ali Akbari Sari, Abraha Woldemichael, Moslem Soofi, Ali Kazemi, Behzad Karami Matin
Objectives: Lung cancer is a major public health problem and one of the most costly illnesses. The study aimed to estimate the economic burden of lung cancer in Iran in 2014. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the direct and indirect costs for patients with lung cancer using a prevalence-based approach. A human capital approach was employed to estimate the indirect costs. Data were obtained from several sources such as through patient interview using structured questionnaire, medical records, the GLOBOCAN databases, the Iranian Statistical Center, the Iranian Ministry of Cooperation, Labor and Social Welfare, and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME)...
January 10, 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893131/association-between-palliative-care-and-patient-and-caregiver-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Dio Kavalieratos, Jennifer Corbelli, Di Zhang, J Nicholas Dionne-Odom, Natalie C Ernecoff, Janel Hanmer, Zachariah P Hoydich, Dara Z Ikejiani, Michele Klein-Fedyshin, Camilla Zimmermann, Sally C Morton, Robert M Arnold, Lucas Heller, Yael Schenker
Importance: The use of palliative care programs and the number of trials assessing their effectiveness have increased. Objective: To determine the association of palliative care with quality of life (QOL), symptom burden, survival, and other outcomes for people with life-limiting illness and for their caregivers. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane CENTRAL to July 2016. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials of palliative care interventions in adults with life-limiting illness...
November 22, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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