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Misaki Wayengera, David P Kateete, Benon Asiimwe, Moses L Joloba
BACKGROUND: Precise designation of high risk forms of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis-M.tb infections (LTBI) is impossible. Delineation of high-risk LTBI can, however, allow for chemoprophylaxis and curtail majority cases of active tuberculosis (ATB). There is epidemiological evidence to support the view that LTBI in context of HIV-1 co-infection is high-risk for progression to ATB relative to LTBI among HIV-ve persons. We recently showed that assays of M.tb thymidylate kinase (TMKmt) antigen and host specific IgG can differentiate ATB from LTBI and or no TB (NTB, or healthy controls)...
March 16, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Lyle W Murray, Iman Satti, Jodi Meyerowitz, Matthew Jones, Christian B Willberg, James E Ussher, Dominique Goedhals, Jacob Hurst, Rodney E Phillips, Helen McShane, Cloete van Vuuren, John Frater
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have a higher risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) than HIV-uninfected individuals, but the mechanisms underpinning this are unclear. We hypothesized that depletion of specific components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses contributed to this increased risk. Methods: Mtb-specific T-cell responses in 147 HIV-infected and 44 HIV-uninfected control subjects in a TB-endemic setting in Bloemfontein, South Africa, were evaluated...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Noemia Teixeira de Siqueira-Filha, Maria de Fatima Militao de Albuquerque, Laura Cunha Rodrigues, Rosa Legood, Andreia Costa Santos
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to measure the costs of people living with HIV (PLHIV) as well as active tuberculosis (TB/HIV), latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI/HIV) or without TB (HIV/AIDS). METHODS: We analysed the costs through the entire pathway of care during the prediagnosis and treatment periods from the Brazilian public health system perspective. We applied a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches to capture and estimate direct medical and non-medical costs...
March 15, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Alain Bruno Tagne Nouemssi
Tuberculosis (TB) continues to represent an important public health challenge in the world and the USA, especially given its association with HIV infection and population migration. Cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis represents the most common extrapulmonary presentation of TB in the USA. Considerations for other causes of neck mass often contribute to delay in diagnosis. In this report, we describe the case of a 41-year-old man who presented with painful swelling of the neck and was diagnosed with tuberculous lymphadenitis, complicated by HIV therapy-associated immune reconstitution syndrome...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Ank E Nijhawan, Princess A Iroh, Esmaeil Porsa
Incarcerated individuals are at high risk of HIV and tuberculosis (TB), though combined screening in the criminal justice system is limited. Newer blood tests for TB provide a unique opportunity to combine HIV and TB testing in corrections. Entering jail inmates were offered routine opt-out HIV testing along with TB screening, both via blood draw. Of the 529 individuals enrolled, 524 (99%) agreed to HIV testing. Testing identified 13 (2.5%) previously diagnosed HIV infections and one new positive. One quarter (138, 26%) of participants had never been tested for HIV and were more likely to be young, Hispanic, born outside of the United States, and incarcerated for the first time...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Correctional Health Care
Galateia J Kazakia, Julio Carballido-Gamio, Andrew Lai, Lorenzo Nardo, Luca Facchetti, Courtney Pasco, Chiyuan A Zhang, Misung Han, Amanda Hutton Parrott, Phyllis Tien, Roland Krug
Background: There is evidence that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are independent risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture which is not solely explained by changes in bone mineral density. Thus, we hypothesized that the assessment of trabecular microstructure might play an important role for bone quality in this population and might explain the increased fracture risk. In this study, we have assessed bone microstructure in the proximal femur using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as in the extremities using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in HIV-infected men and healthy controls and compared these findings to those based on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) derived from dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) which is the standard clinical parameter for the diagnosis of osteoporosis...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Prakash Shrestha, Hemanta Khanal, Prasanna Dahal, Pranita Dongol
Background: In Nepal, introduction of GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert assay) as an initial confirmation test for tuberculosis (TB) has been considered to have impact as a significant decrease in number of clinically diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases than previous years. This study aims to find out the distribution profile of suspected tuberculosis cases according to patients age, gender, treatment history and HIV status as well as to evaluate the utility of the Xpert assay over conventional acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining method for the proper diagnosis of M...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
Cong Chen, Tao Yan, Liguo Liu, Jianmin Wang, Qi Jin
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major comorbidity in HIV patients as well as a serious co-epidemic. Traditional detection methods are not effective or sensitive for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the early stage. TB has become a major cause of lethal on HIV patients. We employed isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology to identify the different host responses in HIV-noTB and HIV-TB patients' sera. Given the diversity of HIV subtypes, which results in a variety of host responses in different human populations, we focused on the Chinese patients...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sanata Bamba, Adama Zida, Ibrahim Sangaré, Mamoudou Cissé, David W Denning, Christophe Hennequin
Because of the limited access to more powerful diagnostic tools, there is a paucity of data regarding the burden of fungal infections in Burkina Faso. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in this sub-Saharan country. We primarily used the national demographic data and performed a PubMed search to retrieve all published papers on fungal infections from Burkina Faso and its surrounding West African countries. Considering the prevalence of HIV infection (0...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Francles Blanco-Guillot, M Lucía Castañeda-Cediel, Pablo Cruz-Hervert, Leticia Ferreyra-Reyes, Guadalupe Delgado-Sánchez, Elizabeth Ferreira-Guerrero, Rogelio Montero-Campos, Miriam Bobadilla-Del-Valle, Rosa Areli Martínez-Gamboa, Pedro Torres-González, Norma Téllez-Vazquez, Sergio Canizales-Quintero, Mercedes Yanes-Lane, Norma Mongua-Rodríguez, Alfredo Ponce-de-León, José Sifuentes-Osornio, Lourdes García-García
BACKGROUND: Genotyping and georeferencing in tuberculosis (TB) have been used to characterize the distribution of the disease and occurrence of transmission within specific groups and communities. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that diabetes mellitus (DM) and pulmonary TB may occur in spatial and molecular aggregations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients with pulmonary TB. The study area included 12 municipalities in the Sanitary Jurisdiction of Orizaba, Veracruz, México...
2018: PloS One
N T de Siqueira Filha, M de Fatima Pessoa Militao de Albuquerque, R Legood, L Rodrigues, A C Santos
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the direct and indirect costs of tuberculosis (TB) (active and latent TB [LTB]) and HIV co-infection from the patient perspective. STUDY DESIGN: Costing study conducted alongside a pragmatic clinical trial. METHODS: The study was conducted in Brazil in a referral service for HIV/AIDS. We applied a standardised questionnaire to collect data about out-of-pocket expenses and indirect cost...
March 10, 2018: Public Health
Maddalena Cordioli, Fulvia Mazzaferri, Giada Fasani, Paola Del Bravo, Emanuele Lattuada, Sandro Vento, Ercole Concia, Massimiliano Lanzafame
Not available.
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Oksana Pasechnik, Anna Vyazovaya, Stanislav Vitriv, Marina Tatarintseva, Aleksey Blokh, Vladimir Stasenko, Igor Mokrousov
This population-based study characterized Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from HIV-positive and HIV-negative tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Omsk region in Western Siberia, Russia. We sought to gain insight into the major genotype families and epidemic and endemic clones of M. tuberculosis in the area with a high burden and adverse trend of TB/HIV coinfection. The study collection included M. tuberculosis isolates from 207 newly-diagnosed patients with pulmonary TB; 55 (26.5%) of patients were HIV-infected...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
Ilana C van Rensburg, Andre G Loxton
Regulatory B cells (Bregs) have been shown to be present during several disease states. The phenotype of the cells is not completely defined and the function of these cells differ between disease. The presence of FASL expressing (killer) B cells during latent and successfully treated TB disease have been shown but whether these cells are similar to regulatory B cells remain unclear. We assessed the receptor expression of FASL/IL5 (killer B cells), CD24/CD38 (regulatory B cells) on whole peripheral blood of participants with untreated active TB and healthy controls...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
Payal Dande, Purva Samant
Tuberculosis [TB] has afflicted numerous nations in the world. As per a report by the World Health Organization [WHO], an estimated 1.4 million TB deaths in 2015 and an additional 0.4 million deaths resulting from TB disease among people living with HIV, were observed. Most of the TB deaths can be prevented if it is detected at an early stage. The existing processes of diagnosis like blood tests or sputum tests are not only tedious but also take a long time for analysis and cannot differentiate between different drug resistant stages of TB...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
Mathieu Bastard, Elisabeth Sanchez-Padilla, Philipp du Cros, Atadjan Karimovich Khamraev, Nargiza Parpieva, Mirzagaleg Tillyashaykov, Armen Hayrapetyan, Kamene Kimenye, Shazina Khurkhumal, Themba Dlamini, Santiago Fadul Perez, Alex Telnov, Cathy Hewison, Francis Varaine, Maryline Bonnet
BACKGROUND: The emergence of resistance to anti-tuberculosis (DR-TB) drugs and the HIV epidemic represent a serious threat for reducing the global burden of TB. Although data on HIV-negative DR-TB treatment outcomes are well published, few data on DR-TB outcomes among HIV co-infected people is available despite the great public health importance. METHODS: We retrospectively reported and compared the DR-TB treatment outcomes of HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients treated with an individualized regimen based on WHO guidelines in seven countries: Abkhazia, Armenia, Colombia, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Swaziland and Uzbekistan...
2018: PloS One
Shuwei Zheng, Humaira Shafi
Paradoxical reactions during tuberculosis (TB) treatment are well-described in the HIV seropositive population but less so in the HIV seronegative group. Abdominal TB rarely presents as spontaneous perforation; cases occurring during anti-TB therapy are even rarer. We describe the clinical progress of a case of an HIV-negative patient who developed acute peritonitis while on anti-TB treatment for peritoneal TB through a series of clinical, radiological and histological images. Visceral perforation can occur as a complication of TB treatment...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Anna Starshinova, Viacheslav Zhuravlev, Irina Dovgaluk, Alexandr Panteleev, Vera Manina, Ulia Zinchenko, Evgenia Istomina, Maria Pavlova, Piotr Yablonskiy
Background: The WHO strategy for eradication of tuberculosis (TB) by 2035 (The End TB Strategy) is aimed at an early and precise diagnosis and subsequent effective treatment of TB patients. Currently, there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of latent TB infection. This study evaluated the diagnostic capabilities of a new intradermal test using recombinant TB allergen (Diaskintest) compared with tuberculin skin test (TST) and commercial TB interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). Methods: A post-hoc data analysis that involved examining 860 HIV-negative, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated persons aged 1-65 years who visited the TB health-care institutions of Saint Petersburg to rule out or confirm an active TB was conducted from 2011 to 2016...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Ketema Tafess, Teresa Kisi Beyen, Adugna Abera, Geremew Tasew, Shimelis Mekit, Solomon Sisay, Legesse Tadesse, Gilman K H Siu
Background: Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) has been one of the major strategies to combat the epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) globally. This study aimed to evaluate TB treatment outcomes between September 2004 and July 2014 under the DOTS program at one of the largest public hospitals in Ethiopia. Methods: A retrospective data of TB patients registered at Asella Teaching Hospital between September 2004 and July 2014 were obtained from hospital registry...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Elizabeth A Ashley, Judith Recht, Arlene Chua, David Dance, Mehul Dhorda, Nigel V Thomas, Nisha Ranganathan, Paul Turner, Philippe J Guerin, Nicholas J White, Nicholas P Day
Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) shoulder the bulk of the global burden of infectious diseases and drug resistance. We searched for supranational networks performing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance in LMICs and assessed their organization, methodology, impacts and challenges. Since 2000, 72 supranational networks for AMR surveillance in bacteria, fungi, HIV, TB and malaria have been created that have involved LMICs, of which 34 are ongoing. The median (range) duration of the networks was 6 years (1-70) and the number of LMICs included was 8 (1-67)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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