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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911140/effect-of-secondary-preventive-therapy-on-recurrence-of-tuberculosis-in-hiv-infected-individuals-a-systematic-review
#1
Wassilis Sc Bruins, Frank van Leth
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals successfully treated for tuberculosis (TB) remain at risk of recurrence of the disease, especially in high TB incidence settings. We performed a systematic review, investigating whether secondary preventive therapy (sPT) with anti-TB drugs (preventive therapy in former TB patients with treatment success) is an effective strategy to prevent recurrence of TB in this patient group. We searched the databases PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science and Google Scholar using the keywords HIV-infections, HIV, human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS, isoniazid, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), tuberculosis, TB, recurrence and recurrent disease, resulting in 253 potential publications...
December 2, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906986/cost-effectiveness-of-community-based-tb-hiv-screening-and-linkage-to-care-in-rural-south-africa
#2
Jennifer A Gilbert, Sheela V Shenoi, Anthony P Moll, Gerald H Friedland, A David Paltiel, Alison P Galvani
South Africa has one of the highest burdens of TB worldwide, driven by the country's widespread prevalence of HIV, and further complicated by drug resistance. Active case finding within the community, particularly in rural areas where healthcare access is limited, can significantly improve diagnosis and treatment coverage in high-incidence settings. We evaluated the potential health and economic consequences of implementing community-based TB/HIV screening and linkage to care. Using a dynamic model of TB and HIV transmission over a time horizon of 10 years, we compared status quo TB/HIV control to community-based TB/HIV screening at frequencies of once every two years, one year, and six months...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906024/rate-of-initial-highly-active-anti-retroviral-therapy-regimen-change-and-its-predictors-among-adult-hiv-patients-at-university-of-gondar-referral-hospital-northwest-ethiopia-a-retrospective-follow-up-study
#3
Degefaye Zelalem Anlay, Zinahbizu Abay Alemayehu, Berihun Assefa Dachew
BACKGROUND: Regimen change is a major challenge for the sustainability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment program. In a resource limited setting where treatment options are limited, designing strategies to increase the durability of original regimen are essential. However, information's on rate of initial regimen change and its predictors is scarce in Ethiopia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the rate of initial highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART) regimen change and its predictors among adult HIV patients at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia...
February 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906018/hiv-sero-discordance-among-married-hiv-patients-initiating-anti-retroviral-therapy-in-northern-vietnam
#4
Vu Van Tam, Do Duy Cuong, Tobias Alfven, Ho Dang Phuc, Nguyen Thi Kim Chuc, Nguyen Phuong Hoa, Vinod Diwan, Mattias Larsson
BACKGROUND: In many countries in Asia, the HIV epidemic is in a concentrated phase, with high prevalence in certain risk groups, such as men who inject drugs. There is also a rapid increase of HIV among women. The latter might be due to high levels of sero-discordant couples and increasing transmission from male to female partners over time. METHODS: All adult married patients initiating antiretroviral treatment at four out-patient clinics in Quang Ninh province in north-eastern Vietnam between 2007 and 2009 were asked to participate in the study...
November 15, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906009/current-trends-and-intricacies-in-the-management-of-hiv-associated-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#5
REVIEW
Narendran Gopalan, Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran, Soumya Swaminathan, Srikanth Tripathy
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has undoubtedly increased the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) globally, posing a formidable global health challenge affecting 1.2 million cases. Pulmonary TB assumes utmost significance in the programmatic perspective as it is readily transmissible as well as easily diagnosable. HIV complicates every aspect of pulmonary tuberculosis from diagnosis to treatment, demanding a different approach to effectively tackle both the diseases. In order to control these converging epidemics, it is important to diagnose early, initiate appropriate therapy for both infections, prevent transmission and administer preventive therapy...
September 26, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906006/integrated-therapy-for-hiv-and-tuberculosis
#6
REVIEW
Weerawat Manosuthi, Surasak Wiboonchutikul, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Tuberculosis (TB) has been the most common opportunistic infection and cause of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. Clinical manifestations of TB vary and depend on the degree of immunodeficiency. Sputum microscopy and culture with drug-susceptibility testing are recommended as a standard method for diagnosing active TB. TB-related mortality in HIV-infected patients is high especially during the first few months of treatment. Integrated therapy of both HIV and TB is feasible and efficient to control the diseases and yield better survival...
May 12, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905997/the-adult-prevalence-of-hiv-in-zambia-results-from-a-population-based-mobile-testing-survey-conducted-in-2013-2014
#7
Pascalina Chanda-Kapata, Nathan Kapata, Eveline Klinkenberg, Ngosa William, Liwewe Mazyanga, Katoba Musukwa, Elizabeth Chizema Kawesha, Felix Masiye, Peter Mwaba
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the adult prevalence of HIV among the adult population in Zambia and determine whether demographic characteristics were associated with being HIV positive. METHODS: A cross sectional population based survey to asses HIV status among participants aged 15 years and above in a national tuberculosis prevalence survey. Counselling was offered to participants who tested for HIV. The prevalence was estimated using a logistic regression model. Univariate and multivariate associations of social demographic characteristics with HIV were determined...
January 19, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903602/whole-genome-sequencing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-provides-insight-into-the-evolution-and-genetic-composition-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-belarus
#8
Kurt R Wollenberg, Christopher A Desjardins, Aksana Zalutskaya, Vervara Slodovnikova, Andrew J Oler, Mariam Quiñones, Thomas Abeel, Sinead B Chapman, Michael Tartakovsky, Andrei Gabrielian, Sven Hoffner, Aliaksandr Skrahin, Bruce W Birren, Alexander Rosenthal, Alena Skrahina, Ashlee M Earl
The emergence and spread of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a critical global health issue. Eastern Europe has some of the highest incidences of DR-TB, particularly multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB. To better understand the genetic composition and evolution of MDR- and XDR-TB in the region, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 138 M. tuberculosis isolates from 97 patients sampled between 2010 and 2013 in Minsk, Belarus. MDR and XDR-TB isolates were significantly more likely to belong to the Beijing lineage than to the Euro-American lineage, and known resistance-conferring loci accounted for the majority of phenotypic resistance to first- and second-line drugs in MDR and XDR-TB...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899066/predictive-factors-for-unfavorable-outcomes-of-tuberculous-pericarditis-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-uninfected-patients-in-an-intermediate-tuberculosis-burden-country
#9
In Young Jung, Young Goo Song, Jun Yong Choi, Moo Hyun Kim, Woo Yong Jeong, Dong Hyun Oh, Yong Chan Kim, Je Eun Song, Eun Jin Kim, Ji Un Lee, Su Jin Jeong, Nam Su Ku, June Myung Kim
BACKGROUND: In areas where Mycobacterium tuberculosis is endemic, tuberculosis is known to be the most common cause of pericarditis. However, the difficulty in diagnosis may lead to late complications such as constrictive pericarditis and increased mortality. Therefore, identification of patients at a high risk for poor prognosis, and prompt initiation of treatment are important in the outcome of TB pericarditis. The aim of this study is to identify the predictive factors for unfavorable outcomes of TB pericarditis in HIV-uninfected persons in an intermediate tuberculosis burden country...
November 29, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894985/factors-influencing-treatment-default-among-tuberculosis-patients-in-a-high-burden-province-of-south-africa
#10
G Kigozi, C Heunis, P Chikobvu, S Botha, D van Rensburg
OBJECTIVE: To determine and describe the factors influencing treatment default of tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Free State Province of South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective record review of pulmonary TB cases-older than 15 years, with a recorded pre-treatment smear result-captured in the electronic TB register (ETR.net) between 2003 and 2012. The demographic and clinical characteristics of defaulters were described. Multiple logistic regression technique were used to determine the factors associated with treatment default...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893799/tobacco-smoking-and-tuberculosis-among-men-living-with-hiv-in-johannesburg-south-africa-a-case-control-study
#11
Liza Bronner Murrison, Neil Martinson, Rachael M Moloney, Regina Msandiwa, Mondiwana Mashabela, Jonathan M Samet, Jonathan E Golub
SETTING: Although there is ample evidence that smoking increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB), the magnitude of impact on TB risk among HIV-infected persons is poorly described. Given that a high proportion of patients with TB are co-infected with HIV in South Africa, the risks arising from the intersection of smoking, TB, and HIV/AIDS have key relevance for tobacco control policies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) with current tobacco smoking among men with HIV in South Africa...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891160/hiv-sero-discordance-among-married-hiv-patients-initiating-anti-retroviral-therapy-in-northern-vietnam
#12
Vu Van Tam, Do Duy Cuong, Tobias Alfven, Ho Dang Phuc, Nguyen Thi Kim Chuc, Nguyen Phuong Hoa, Vinod Diwan, Mattias Larsson
BACKGROUND: In many countries in Asia, the HIV epidemic is in a concentrated phase, with high prevalence in certain risk groups, such as men who inject drugs. There is also a rapid increase of HIV among women. The latter might be due to high levels of sero-discordant couples and increasing transmission from male to female partners over time. METHODS: All adult married patients initiating antiretroviral treatment at four out-patient clinics in Quang Ninh province in north-eastern Vietnam between 2007 and 2009 were asked to participate in the study...
2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890954/prevalence-of-vitamin-b12-and-folic-acid-deficiency-in-hiv-positive-patients-and-its-association-with-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-and-immunological-response
#13
Prabha M R Adhikari, Mukta N Chowta, John T Ramapuram, Satish Rao, Karthik Udupa, Sahana Devdas Acharya
BACKGROUND: Deficiency of micronutrients is prevalent even before the development of symptoms of HIV disease and is associated with accelerated HIV disease progression. AIMS: This study evaluates the prevalence of folate and Vitamin B12 deficiency in HIV-positive patients with or without tuberculosis (TB) and its association with neuropsychiatric symptoms and immunological response. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study in an outpatient setting...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890948/study-of-infections-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome-patients-in-shadan-hospital-telangana-india
#14
Sukumar Gajjala Reddy, Syed Yousuf Ali, Azheel Khalidi
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemicity is a major concern today as it causes greater loss of productivity than any other disease. HIV infection leads to profound immune deficiency and patients become highly susceptible to opportunistic infections (OIs). HIV epidemic in India is heterogeneous in nature, both in terms of routes of transmission as well as geographical spread. AIMS: (1) Determine prevalence of OIs among HIV-seropositive patients and their relation to CD4 count and to focus on the routes of transmission...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889593/prevalence-and-patterns-of-cigarette-smoking-among-patients-co-infected-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-tuberculosis-in-tanzania
#15
Ramadhani Stephano Mwiru, Tumaini Joseph Nagu, Pamela Kaduri, Ferdinand Mugusi, Wafaie Fawzi
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking is one of the major risk factors for non-AIDS related morbidities and is highly prevalent among HIV infected people. However, no reports exist from Tanzania, one of the countries highly affected by the HIV pandemic and one of Africa's biggest tobacco producer. METHODS: We examined the patterns and prevalence of cigarette smoking among HIV and TB co-infected adult patients in Dar es Salaam using a cross sectional study design. Proportions were used to describe the pattern of cigarette smoking...
November 12, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888179/predicting-tuberculosis-risk-in-the-foreign-born-population-of-british-columbia-canada-study-protocol-for-a-retrospective-population-based-cohort-study
#16
Lisa A Ronald, Jonathon R Campbell, Robert F Balshaw, David Z Roth, Kamila Romanowski, Fawziah Marra, Victoria J Cook, James C Johnston
INTRODUCTION: Improved understanding of risk factors for developing active tuberculosis (TB) will better inform decisions about diagnostic testing and treatment for latent TB infection (LTBI) in migrant populations in low-incidence regions. We aim to examine TB risk factors among the foreign-born population in British Columbia (BC), Canada, and to create and validate a clinically relevant multivariate risk score to predict active TB. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This retrospective population-based cohort study will include all foreign-born individuals who acquired permanent resident status in Canada between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2013 and acquired healthcare coverage in BC at any point during this period...
November 25, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887646/it-s-complicated-why-do-tuberculosis-patients-not-initiate-or-stay-adherent-to-treatment-a-qualitative-study-from-south-africa
#17
Donald Skinner, Mareli Claassens
BACKGROUND: Individuals who test positive for active tuberculosis (TB) but do not initiate treatment present a challenge to TB programmes because they contribute to ongoing transmission within communities. To better understand why individuals do not initiate treatment, or are adherent after initiating treatment, South African respondents were approached to obtain insights as to which factors enabled and inhibited the treatment process. METHODS: This qualitative work was nested in a larger study investigating initial loss to follow-up (LTFU) amongst new smear positive TB patients across five provinces of South Africa...
November 25, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887600/individual-household-and-community-level-factors-associated-with-keeping-tuberculosis-status-secret-in-ghana
#18
Joshua Amo-Adjei
BACKGROUND: In tuberculosis (TB) control, early disclosure is recommended for the purposes of treatment as well as a means of reducing or preventing person-to-person transmission of the bacteria. However, disclosure maybe avoided as a means of escaping stigma, and possible discrimination. This study aimed at providing insights into factors associated with intentions of Ghanaians to keep positive TB diagnosis in their families' a secret. METHODS: The paper was based on data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey...
November 25, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872756/prevalence-of-hypertension-and-its-associated-risk-factors-among-34-111-haart-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-adults-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#19
Marina Njelekela, Alfa Muhihi, Akum Aveika, Donna Spiegelman, Claudia Hawkins, Catharina Armstrong, Enju Liu, James Okuma, Guerino Chalamila, Sylvia Kaaya, Ferdinand Mugusi, Wafaie Fawzi
Background. Elevated blood pressure has been reported among treatment naïve HIV-infected patients. We investigated prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors in a HAART naïve HIV-infected population in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among HAART naïve HIV-infected patients. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg. Overweight and obesity were defined as body mass index (BMI) between 25...
2016: International Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870882/immune-activation-at-sites-of-hiv-tb-co-infection-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-1-disease
#20
Qinglai Meng, Ismail Sayin, David H Canaday, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Joy Baseke, Zahra Toossi
Systemic immune activation is critical to the pathogenesis of HIV-1 disease, and is accentuated in HIV/TB co-infected patients. The contribution of immune activation at sites of HIV/TB co-infection to viral activity, CD4 T cell count, and productive HIV-1 infection remain unclear. In this study, we measured markers of immune activation both in pleural fluid and plasma, and in T cells in pleural fluid mononuclear cell (PFMC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in HIV/TB co-infected subjects. The relationship between soluble and T cell activation markers with viral load in pleural fluid and blood CD4 T cell count were assessed...
2016: PloS One
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