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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225346/cd4-count-and-risk-of-anti-tuberculosis-drug-associated-cutaneous-reactions-in-hiv-infected-thai-patients
#1
L Boonyagars, P Hirunwiwatkul, C P Hurst
OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. However, anti-tuberculosis drugs can cause cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs). This study was conducted to evaluate differences in CADR incidence between low and high CD4 cell count in patients with low and high CD4 cell count and to identify other risk factors for CADR in HIV-TB co-infected patients. DESIGN: In a retrospective cohort of adult HIV-TB co-infected patients receiving standard anti-tuberculosis treatment between January 2008 and December 2015 at Vajira Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, baseline demographic, clinical characteristics and factors associated with CADRs, including CD4 cell count status, were collected...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225344/tuberculosis-among-the-homeless-should-we-change-the-strategy
#2
M Dias, R Gaio, P Sousa, M Abranches, M Gomes, O Oliveira, M Correia-Neves, E Ferreira, R Duarte
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major concern among high-risk populations such as the homeless. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate TB incidence and treatment outcomes among homeless patients in Portugal and to identify predictors of unsuccessful TB treatment outcomes among the homeless. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of all TB patients notified in Portugal from 2008 to 2014. Characteristics of homeless TB patients were assessed and predictors of unsuccessful TB treatment were determined using logistic regression...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225342/outcomes-from-the-first-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-programme-in-kenya
#3
H Huerga, M Bastard, M Kamene, S Wanjala, A Arnold, N Oucho, I Chikwanha, F Varaine
SETTING: In March 2006, the first multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment programme was implemented in Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To describe patients' treatment outcomes and adverse events. DESIGN: A retrospective case note review of patients started on MDR-TB treatment at two Médecins Sans Frontières-supported sites and the national referral hospital of Kenya was undertaken. Sites operated an ambulatory model of care. Patients were treated for a minimum of 24 months with at least 4-5 drugs for the intensive phase of treatment, including an injectable agent...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225335/integrating-tuberculosis-screening-in-kenyan-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-programs
#4
L M Cranmer, A Langat, K Ronen, C J McGrath, S LaCourse, J Pintye, B Odeny, B Singa, A Katana, L Nganga, J Kinuthia, G John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) screening in Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) programs is important to improve TB detection, prevention and treatment. METHODS: As part of a national PMTCT program evaluation, mother-infant pairs attending 6-week and 9-month immunization visits were enrolled at 141 maternal and child health clinics throughout Kenya. Clinics were selected using population-proportion-to-size sampling with oversampling in a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence region...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225330/lessons-learned-from-the-hiv-care-cascade-can-help-end-tb
#5
Michael J A Reid, Eric Goosby
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223349/identification-of-antibody-targets-for-tuberculosis-serology-using-high-density-nucleic-acid-programmable-protein-arrays
#6
Lusheng Song, Garrick Wallstrom, Xiaobo Yu, Marika Hopper, Jennifer Van Duine, Jason Steel, Jin Park, Peter Wiktor, Peter Khan, Al Brunner, Douglas Wilson, Elizabeth R Jenny-Avital, Ji Qiu, Joshua LaBaer, D Mitchell Magee, Jacqueline M Achkar
Better and more diverse biomarkers for the development of simple point-of-care tests for active tuberculosis (TB), a clinically heterogeneous disease, are urgently needed. We generated a proteomic Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) High-Density Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Array (HD-NAPPA) that used a novel multiplexed strategy for expedited high-throughput screening for antibody responses to the Mtb proteome. We screened sera from HIV uninfected and co-infected TB patients and controls (n = 120) from the US and South Africa (SA) using the multiplex HD-NAPPA for discovery, followed by deconvolution and validation through single protein HD-NAPPA with biologically independent samples (n=124)...
February 21, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220322/serious-fungal-infections-in-the-philippines
#7
M C R Batac, D Denning
The Philippines is a low middle-income, tropical country in Southeast Asia. Infectious diseases remain the main causes of morbidity, including tuberculosis. AIDS/HIV prevalence is still low at <1%, but is rapidly increasing. Fungal disease surveillance has not been done, and its burden has never been estimated. This becomes more important as the population of immunocompromised patients increases, drawn from patients with AIDS, TB, malignancies, and autoimmune diseases requiring chronic steroid use. Using the methodology of the LIFE program ( www...
February 21, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218770/the-prevalence-and-radiological-findings-of-pulmonary-embolism-in-hiv-positive-patients-referred-for-computed-tomography-pulmonary-angiography-in-the-western-cape-of-south-africa
#8
Raksha Ramlakhan, Savvas Andronikou, Ashmitha Rajkumar
AIM: To provide imaging data and report associations between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in a South African population that underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for suspected PE. METHODS: A validated Qanadli severity scoring system for PE was used for 164 CTPA scans, and parenchymal, pleural and cardiovascular complications were reported. Serological confirmation of HIV testing and microbiological confirmation of TB were recorded...
February 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217219/clinical-outcomes-of-tenofovir-versus-zidovudine-based-regimens-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-a-two-years-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
Teshale Ayele, Habtemu Jarso, Girma Mamo
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir (TDF) based regimen is one of the first line agents that has been utilized routinely since 2013 in Ethiopia. Unfortunately, there is limited information regarding the Clinical outcomes and associated risk factors in this setting, where patients generally present late, have high rates of TB and other infectious conditions. METHODS: A two year retrospective cohort study was conducted from February 10/2015 to March 10/2015 at Jimma University Specialized Hospital...
2017: Open AIDS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215501/serial-quantiferon-testing-and-tuberculosis-disease-risk-among-young-children-an-observational-cohort-study
#10
Jason R Andrews, Elisa Nemes, Michele Tameris, Bernard S Landry, Hassan Mahomed, J Bruce McClain, Helen A Fletcher, Willem A Hanekom, Robin Wood, Helen McShane, Thomas J Scriba, Mark Hatherill
BACKGROUND: The value of quantitative interferon-γ release assay results for predicting progression from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to active disease is unknown. We aimed to investigate the relation between QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) conversion interferon-γ values and risk of subsequent active tuberculosis disease and of QFT reversion. METHODS: We analysed data from a reported vaccine efficacy trial of the tuberculosis vaccine MVA85A in South Africa...
February 16, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213689/serious-fungal-infections-in-egypt
#11
S M Zaki, D W Denning
We aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Egypt, currently unknown, based on the size of the populations at risk and available epidemiological data. Data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and published reports with clearcut denominators. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. The population of Egypt in 2011 was ∼82,500,000; 31% children, and 8% women >60 years of age...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210500/drug-release-characteristics-and-tissue-distribution-of-rifapentine-polylactic-acid-sustained-release-microspheres-in-rabbits-after-paravertebral-implantation
#12
Zheng Zhang, Linbo Wu, Haijian Li, Zhicheng Long, Xinghua Song
BACKGROUND: Rates of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and TB associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have increased dramatically, intensifying challenges in TB control. New formulations of TB treatment drugs that control drug release and increase local drug concentrations will have a significant impact on mitigating the toxic side effects and increasing the clinical efficacy of anti-TB drugs. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to observe the sustained release characteristics of rifapentine polylactic acid sustained-release microspheres in vivo and the accumulation of rifapentine in other tissues following paravertebral implantation...
November 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210462/accuracy-of-a-new-rapid-antigen-detection-test-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#13
Rasoul Aliannejad, Ahmadreza Bahrmand, Hamidreza Abtahi, Mahnaz Seifi, Enayat Safavi, Farid Abdolrahimi, Shahriyar Shahriaran
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major problem in the world. Treatment and control of TB needs detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) in the proper samples. While smear doesn't have enough sensitivity, culture and PCR are expensive, time consuming and unavailable in many centers. Recent development of a rapid TB antigen detection test (PrTBK) at Pasteur Institute of Iran could give a simple way for diagnosis of TB in about two hours. In this test the antigen-antibody complex will change color when gold conjugated mouse anti-rabbit antibody detects specific MT cell wall antigen in suspected samples...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208927/tuberculosis-of-glans-penis-a-rare-presentation
#14
C Gangalakshmi, Sankaramahalingam
Tuberculosis (TB) of penis is a very rare entity, even in developing countries. It may present as primary or secondary to Pulmonary TB (PTB). Penile TB mimics carcinoma penis, granulomatous penile ulcer, genital herpes simplex, granuloma inguinale and HIV infection. We, hereby, present the case of a 57-year-old male patient who presented to us with ulcerative growth over glans penis and was clinically diagnosed as carcinoma penis, however biopsy of the lesion showed evidence of tuberculosis which was supported by chest X-ray...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204500/the-patient-costs-of-care-for-those-with-tb-and-hiv-a-cross-sectional-study-from-south-africa
#15
Don Mudzengi, Sedona Sweeney, Piotr Hippner, Tendesayi Kufa, Katherine Fielding, Alison D Grant, Gavin Churchyard, Anna Vassall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203772/elevated-pre-art-cd39-cd8-t-cell-frequency-is-associated-with-early-mortality-in-advanced-hiv-tb
#16
Shruthi Ravimohan, Neo Tamuhla, Kebatshabile Nfanyana, Houping Ni, Andrew P Steenhoff, Robert Gross, Drew Weissman, Gregory P Bisson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202091/isolation-unit-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-a-low-endemic-country-a-step-towards-the-world-health-organization-end-tb-strategy
#17
M C Payen, J P VAN Vooren, O Vandenberg, N Clumeck, S DE Wit
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a threat to public health and is the second cause of death due to a single infectious agent after HIV/AIDS. The worldwide distribution of TB is heterogeneous. The incidence is decreasing in most high-income regions, but the situation remains worrying in many parts of the world. The emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to key agents used in treatment (rifampin and isoniazid) contributes to TB transmission around the world. To achieve TB elimination, both high and low endemic countries must upscale their efforts to decrease disease transmission and improve cure rates...
February 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193650/interaction-of-rifampicin-and-darunavir-ritonavir-or-darunavir-cobicistat-in-vitro
#18
Owain Roberts, Saye Khoo, Andrew Owen, Marco Siccardi
Treatment of HIV patients co-infected with tuberculosis (TB) is challenging due to drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between antiretrovirals (ARVs) and anti-TB drugs. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of cobicistat (COBI), or ritonavir (RTV), in modulating DDIs between darunavir (DRV) and rifampicin (RIF) in a human hepatocyte-based in vitro model. Human primary hepatocyte cultures were incubated with RIF alone, or in combination with either COBI or RTV for three days, followed by co-incubation with DRV for one hour...
February 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193202/association-of-high-serum-vitamin-d-concentrations-with-active-pulmonary-tb-in-an-hiv-co-endemic-setting-harare-zimbabwe
#19
Cuthbert Musarurwa, Lynn Sodai Zijenah, Doreen Zvipo Duri, Kudzie Mateveke-Dangaiso, Kudakwashe Mhandire, Maria Mary Chipiti, Marshall Wesley Munjoma, Witmore Bayayi Mujaji
BACKGROUND: There is paucity data on the association of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and active tuberculosis (TB) in southern Africa where the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is co-endemic. We examined the association of serum vitamin D concentrations with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in HIV-infected (n = 284) and uninfected (n = 267) Black Zimbabweans, in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 551 participants comprising 145 HIV(+)/PTB (+), 139 HIV(+)/PTB(-), 134 HIV(-)/PTB(+) and 133 HIV(-)/PTB(-)...
February 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193183/factors-associated-with-the-length-of-delay-with-tuberculosis-diagnosis-and-treatment-among-adult-tuberculosis-patients-attending-at-public-health-facilities-in-gondar-town-northwest-ethiopia
#20
Selamsew Bogale, Ermias Diro, Atsede Mazengia Shiferaw, Melaku Kindie Yenit
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is essential for an effective tuberculosis (TB) control program. However, significant proportion of cases remains undiagnosed and untreated. Delay in diagnosis and treatment increases transmission. Hence, the study assessed the length of delay and associated factors with tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment among adults attending public health facilities in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. METHOD: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May, 2016...
February 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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