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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781696/barriers-to-tuberculosis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-treatment-guidelines-adherence-among-nurses-initiating-and-managing-anti-retroviral-therapy-in-kwazulu-natal-and-north-west-provinces
#1
Lufuno Makhado, Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele, Jason E Farley
BACKGROUND:  Nurses, as front-line care providers in the South Africa's health care system, are called upon to deliver integrated interventions for tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (TB and HIV) including nurse-initiated management of anti-retroviral therapy (NIMART) and anti-TB treatment. Adherence to treatment guidelines and factors associated with non-adherence to treatment guidelines among nurses remain under explored. PURPOSE:  To explore and describe barriers to treatment guidelines adherence among nurses initiating and managing anti-retroviral therapy and anti-TB treatment in KwaZulu-Natal and North West provinces...
March 26, 2018: Curationis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778672/defective-myd88-and-irak4-but-not-tlr-2-expression-in-hiv-individuals-with-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#2
Kamakshi Prudhula Devalraju, Venkata Sanjeev Kumar Neela, Ramulu Gaddam, Arunabala Chaudhury, Abhinav Van, Siva Sai Krovvidi, Ramakrishna Vankayalapati, Vijaya Lakshmi Valluri
HIV infection markedly increases the likelihood of latent tuberculosis infection progressing to active TB. Information on expression of TLR-2, myeloid differentiation factor (MyD88), IL-1R- associated kinase-4 (IRAK4) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) in HIV+LTBI+ and HIV+ patients with active TB disease is limited. We found significantly higher percentages of CD14+TLR2+ cells in PBMCs of HIV+LTBI+ patients compared to HIV-LTBI+ individuals. γ-irradiated Mtb was unable to induce MyD88, IRAK4 expression and IL-1β, MCP-1, IP-10 production in HIV+LTBI+ patients...
May 17, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768503/high-uptake-of-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-positive-tb-patients-receiving-co-located-services-in-swaziland
#3
Ishani Pathmanathan, Munyaradzi Pasipamire, Sherri Pals, E Kainne Dokubo, Peter Preko, Trong Ao, Sikhathele Mazibuko, Janet Ongole, Themba Dhlamini, Samson Haumba
BACKGROUND: Swaziland has the highest adult HIV prevalence and second highest rate of TB/HIV coinfection globally. Recently, the Ministry of Health and partners have increased integration and co-location of TB/HIV services, but the timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) relative to TB treatment-a marker of program quality and predictor of outcomes-is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of programmatic data from 11 purposefully-sampled facilities to evaluate timely ART provision for HIV-positive TB patients enrolled on TB treatment between July-November 2014...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764370/-tuberculosis-in-advanced-hiv-infection-is-associated-with-increased-expression-of-ifn%C3%AE-and-its-downstream-targets
#4
Sheetal Verma, Peicheng Du, Damalie Nakanjako, Sabine Hermans, Jessica Briggs, Lydia Nakiyingi, Jerrold J Ellner, Yukari C Manabe, Padmini Salgame
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the major cause of death in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals. However, diagnosis of TB in HIV remains challenging particularly when HIV infection is advanced. Several gene signatures and serum protein biomarkers have been identified that distinguish active TB from latent infection. Our study was designed to assess if gene expression signatures and cytokine levels would distinguish active TB in advanced HIV. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of whole blood RNA-Seq and plasma cytokine/chemokine analysis in HIV-infected with CD4+ T cell count of ≤ 100 cells/μl, with and without active TB...
May 15, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762345/neutrophil-activation-and-enhanced-release-of-granule-products-in-hiv-tb-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-erratum
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757583/what-immunological-defects-predispose-to-non-tuberculosis-mycobacterial-infections
#6
Esmaeil Mortaz, Milad Moloudizargari, Mohammad Varahram, Mehrnaz Movassaghi, Johan Garssen, Mehdi Kazempour Dizagie, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Ian M Adcock
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are categorized as one of the large and diverse groups of environmental organisms which are abundant in water and soil.  NTM cause a variety of diseases in humans that mainly affect the lung. A predisposition to pulmonary NTM is evident in patients with parenchymal structural diseases including bronchiectasis, emphysema, tuberculosis (TB), cystic fibrosis (CF), rheumatologic lung diseases and other chronic diseases with pulmonary manifestations. Lung infections are not the only consequences of being infected by NTM as they can also infect skin and soft tissue and may also cause lymphadenitis (predominantly in young children) and disseminated disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients or those with severely compromised immune system...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755620/human-genomic-loci-important-in-common-infectious-diseases-role-of-high-throughput-sequencing-and-genome-wide-association-studies
#7
REVIEW
Gerald Mboowa, Ivan Sserwadda, Marion Amujal, Norah Namatovu
HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria are 3 major global public health threats that undermine development in many resource-poor settings. Recently, the notion that positive selection during epidemics or longer periods of exposure to common infectious diseases may have had a major effect in modifying the constitution of the human genome is being interrogated at a large scale in many populations around the world. This positive selection from infectious diseases increases power to detect associations in genome-wide association studies (GWASs)...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753126/23-valent-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine-elicits-hierarchical-antibody-and-cellular-responses-in-healthy-and-tuberculosis-cured-elderly-and-hiv-1-infected-subjects
#8
Huichang Huang, Xiaohua Qian, Rong Pan, Ling Shen, Shanshan Liang, Feifei Wang, Peng Zhang, Hongbo Shen, Zheng W Chen
The PPV23 immunizes healthy elderly and other high-risk populations against pneumococcal disease. Immune mechanisms whereby these populations differently mount antibody(Ab) and cellular responses to PPV23 vaccination remain unknown. Here, healthy elderly, those elderly with prior tuberculosis-cured history (TB-cured), and HIV-infected humans were vaccinated with PPV23, and assessed for opsonophagocytic Ab responses and potential cellular mechanisms. PPV23 vaccination elicited hierarchical responses of opsonophagocytic Ab...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751798/clinic-flow-for-sti-hiv-and-tb-patients-in-an-urban-infectious-disease-clinic-offering-point-of-care-testing-services-in-durban-south-africa
#9
Katrina J Stime, Nigel Garrett, Yukteshwar Sookrajh, Jienchi Dorward, Ntuthu Dlamini, Ayo Olowolagba, Monisha Sharma, Ruanne V Barnabas, Paul K Drain
BACKGROUND: Many clinics in Southern Africa have long waiting times. The implementation of point-of-care (POC) tests to accelerate diagnosis and improve clinical management in resource-limited settings may improve or worsen clinic flow and waiting times. The objective of this study was to describe clinic flow with special emphasis on the impact of POC testing at a large urban public healthcare clinic in Durban, South Africa. METHODS: We used time and motion methods to directly observe patients and practitioners...
May 11, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749875/missed-opportunities-for-tuberculosis-prevention-among-patients-accessing-a-uk-hiv-service
#10
Hannah M Rickman, Robert F Miller, Stephen Morris-Jones, Lusha Kellgren, Simon G Edwards, Alison D Grant
United Kingdom guidelines recommend screening for and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in HIV-positive patients at high risk of active tuberculosis (TB) disease, but implementation is suboptimal. We investigated potential missed opportunities to identify and treat LTBI among HIV-positive patients accessing a large HIV outpatient service in London. Case records of all adult patients attending our service for HIV care diagnosed with active TB between 2011 and 2015 were reviewed to determine whether they met criteria for LTBI screening and whether screening was undertaken...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746295/the-transition-to-dolutegravir-and-other-new-antiretrovirals-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-what-are-the-issues
#11
Marco Vitoria, Andrew Hill, Nathan Ford, Meg Doherty, Polly Clayden, Francois Venter, David Ripin, Charles Flexner, Paul Domanico
: There are currently approximately 16 million people taking NNRTI-based first-line treatment in low- and middle-income countries. Most of these patients are using the combination of tenofovir (TDF), lamivudine (3TC) and efavirenz (EFV). The integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) has shown an improved safety profile compared to EFV in randomised studies. DTG also has a high barrier to development of drug resistance. New co-formulated tablets with TDF/3TC/DTG are being introduced into LMICs, for a median price of $75 per person-year...
May 9, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740714/xpert-mtb-rif-diagnosis-of-childhood-tuberculosis-from-sputum-and-stool-samples-in-a-high-tb-hiv-prevalent-setting
#12
Patrick Orikiriza, Margaret Nansumba, Dan Nyehangane, Mathieu Bastard, Ivan Taremwa Mugisha, Denis Nansera, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Yap Boum, Elias Kumbakumba, Maryline Bonnet
The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a major advance for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in high-burden countries but is limited in children by their difficulty to produce sputum. We investigated TB in sputum and stool from children with the aim of improving paediatric TB diagnosis. A prospective cohort of children with presumptive TB, provided two sputum or induced sputum at enrolment in a regional referral hospital in Uganda. Stool was collected from those started on TB treatment. All specimen were tested for Xpert MTB/RIF, mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT), Lowenstein Jensen cultures and microscopy (except stool)...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739378/higher-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-are-associated-with-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-hospitalised-hiv-infected-patients-in-a-low-income-tropical-setting-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Cuthbert Musarurwa, Lynn Sodai Zijenah, Doreen Zvipo Mhandire, Tsitsi Bandason, Kudakwashe Mhandire, Maria Mary Chipiti, Marshall Wesley Munjoma, Witmore Bayayi Mujaji
BACKGROUND: The inherent risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) in HIV- infected individuals is further enhanced by hypovitaminosis D. Interventions that offset HIV-associated immune deterioration potentially arrest disease progression and incidence of opportunistic infections including TB. Despite conflicting reports on association between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and risk of TB, vitamin D (VD) supplementation remains a promising intervention. METHODS: We conducted a comparative cross-sectional study on 145 HIV+ /pulmonary TB+ (PTB) and 139 HIV+ /PTB- hospitalised patients to investigate association of vitamin D status and risk of PTB...
May 8, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732382/common-variation-in-nlrp3-is-associated-with-early-death-and-elevated-inflammasome-biomarkers-among-advanced-hiv-tb-co-infected-patients-in-botswana
#14
Shruthi Ravimohan, Kebatshabile Nfanyana, Neo Tamuhla, Caroline T Tiemessen, Drew Weissman, Gregory P Bisson
Background: Elevated inflammation is associated with early mortality among HIV/tuberculosis (TB) patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART); however, the sources of immune activation are unclear. We hypothesized that common variation in innate immune genes contributes to excessive inflammation linked to death. As single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inflammasome pathway genes can increase risk for inflammatory diseases, we investigated their association with early mortality among a previously described cohort of HIV/TB patients initiating ART in Botswana...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732379/tuberculosis-in-visceral-leishmaniasis-human-immunodeficiency-virus-coinfection-an-evidence-gap-in-improving-patient-outcomes
#15
Johan van Griensven, Rezika Mohammed, Koert Ritmeijer, Sakib Burza, Ermias Diro
Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection remains a major problem in Ethiopia, India, and Brazil. Tuberculosis (TB), a treatable factor, could contribute to high mortality (up to 25%) in VL-HIV coinfection. However, the current evidence on the prevalence and clinical impact of TB in VL-HIV coinfection is very limited. In previous reports on routine care, TB prevalence ranged from 5.7% to 29.7%, but information on how and when TB was diagnosed was lacking...
April 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731933/latent-tuberculosis-infection-diagnosis-and-treatment
#16
Biljana Ilievska-Poposka, Marija Metodieva, Maja Zakoska, Cveta Vragoterova, Dejan Trajkov
INTRODUCTION: Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is defined as a state of persistent immune response to stimulation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens without evidence of clinically manifested active tuberculosis (TB). Diagnosis and treatment for LTBI are important for TB, especially in high-risk populations. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) are used to diagnose LTBI. AIM: The study aims to present the first results with IGRA test compared with TST in the screening of LTBI and the treatment results in the cases with LTBI in Macedonia...
April 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724920/delamanid-for-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-a-retrospective-study-from-south-africa
#17
Erika Mohr, Jennifer Hughes, Anja Reuter, Laura Trivino Duran, Gabriella Ferlazzo, Johnny Daniels, Virginia De Avezedo, Yulene Kock, Sarah Jane Steele, Amir Shroufi, Serge Ade, Natavan Alikhanova, Guido Benedetti, Jeffrey Edwards, Helen Cox, Jennifer Furin, Petros Isaakidis
BACKGROUND: Experience with delamanid (Dlm) is limited, particularly among HIV-positive individuals. We describe early efficacy and safety from a programmatic setting in South Africa. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients receiving Dlm-containing treatment regimens between November 2015 and August 2017. Twelve-month interim outcomes, sputum culture conversion (SCC) by months-2 and 6, serious adverse events (SAEs), and QTcF data were reported...
May 3, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720095/addressing-knowledge-gaps-and-prevention-for-tuberculosis-infected-indian-adults-a-vital-part-of-elimination
#18
Andrea DeLuca, Gauri Dhumal, Mandar Paradkar, Nishi Suryavanshi, Vidya Mave, Rewa Kohli, Shri Vijay Bala Yogendra Shivakumar, Vidula Hulyolkar, Archana Gaikwad, Ashwini Nangude, Geeta Pardeshi, Dileep Kadam, Amita Gupta
BACKGROUND: India plans to eliminate tuberculosis (TB) by 2025, and has identified screening and prevention as key activities. Household contacts (HHCs) of index TB cases are a high-risk population that would benefit from rapid implementation of these strategies. However, best practices for TB prevention and knowledge gaps among HHCs have not been studied. We evaluated TB knowledge and understanding of prevention among tuberculin skin-test (TST) positive HHCs. While extensive information is available in other high-burden settings regarding TB knowledge gaps, identifying how Indian adult contacts view their transmission risk and prevention options may inform novel screening algorithms and education efforts that will be part of the new elimination plan...
May 2, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718906/explaining-the-heterogeneity-in-average-costs-per-hiv-aids-patient-in-nigeria-the-role-of-supply-side-and-service-delivery-characteristics
#19
Sergio Bautista-Arredondo, M Arantxa Colchero, Ogbonna O Amanze, Gina La Hera-Fuentes, Omar Silverman-Retana, David Contreras-Loya, Gregory A Ashefor, Kayode M Ogungbemi
OBJECTIVE: We estimated the average annual cost per patient of ART per facility (unit cost) in Nigeria, described the variation in costs across facilities, and identified factors associated with this variation. METHODS: We used facility-level data of 80 facilities in Nigeria, collected between December 2014 and May 2015. We estimated unit costs at each facility as the ratio of total costs (the sum of costs of staff, recurrent inputs and services, capital, training, laboratory tests, and antiretroviral and TB treatment drugs) divided by the annual number of patients...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716917/rocketing-smoking-rates-across-africa-stoke-tb-and-hiv-fears
#20
Hannah McNeish
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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