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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542441/dot-or-sat-for-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-a-non-randomized-comparison-in-a-high-hiv-prevalence-setting
#1
Erika Mohr, Johnny Daniels, Busisiwe Beko, Petros Isaakidis, Vivian Cox, Sarah Jane Steele, Odelia Muller, Leigh Snyman, Virginia De Azevedo, Amir Shroufi, Laura Trivino Duran, Jennifer Hughes
BACKGROUND: Daily directly-observed therapy (DOT) is recommended for rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) patients throughout treatment. We assessed the impact of self-administered treatment (SAT) in a South African township with high rates of RR-TB and HIV. METHODS: Community-supported SAT for patients who completed the intensive phase was piloted in five primary care clinics in Khayelitsha. We compared final treatment outcomes among RR-TB patients initiating treatment before (standard-of-care (SOC)-cohort, January 2010-July 2013) and after the implementation of the pilot (SAT-cohort, January 2012-December 2014)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542255/detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-the-stool-of-hiv-sero-positive-individuals-suspected-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#2
Gizaw E Abaye, Tamrat Abebe, Adane Worku, Debela Tolessa, Gobena Ameni, Adane Mihret
BACKGROUND: The impact of tuberculosis (TB) is exacerbated in Africa because of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosis is difficult in HIV-infected patients and negative sputum results are more common which leads to diagnostic delay and increases morbidity and mortality. Extra-pulmonary samples such as stool may be easier to obtain and our approach may therefore significantly improve PTB detection in people living with HIV. OBJECTIVE: To detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the stool of HIV sero-positive individuals suspected of pulmonary TB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536578/expansion-of-cd25-negative-forkhead-box-p3-positive-t-cells-during-hiv-and-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#3
Matías T Angerami, Guadalupe V Suarez, María B Vecchione, Natalia Laufer, Diego Ameri, Graciela Ben, Hector Perez, Omar Sued, Horacio Salomón, María F Quiroga
Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV alter the immune system, and coinfected (HIV-TB) individuals usually present deregulations of T-lymphocytic immune response. We previously observed an increased frequency of "unconventional" CD4(+)CD25(-)FoxP3(+) Treg (uTreg) population during HIV-TB disease. Therefore, we aimed to explore the phenotype and function of uTreg and conventional CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) Treg subsets (cTreg) in this context. We evaluated the expression of CD39, programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR), and the effector/memory distribution by flow cytometry in cTreg and uTreg...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531276/impact-of-vitamin-a-and-carotenoids-on-the-risk-of-tuberculosis-progression
#4
Omowunmi Aibana, Molly F Franke, Chuan-Chin Huang, Jerome T Galea, Roger Calderon, Zibiao Zhang, Mercedes C Becerra, Emily R Smith, Alayne G Ronnenberg, Carmen Contreras, Rosa Yataco, Leonid Lecca, Megan B Murray
Background: Low and deficient levels of vitamin A are common in low and middle income countries where tuberculosis (TB) burden is high. We assessed the impact of baseline levels of vitamins A and carotenoids on TB disease risk. Methods: We conducted a case-control study nested within a longitudinal cohort of household contacts of pulmonary TB cases in Lima, Peru. We defined cases as HIV-negative household contacts with blood samples who developed TB disease at least 15 days after enrollment of index patient...
May 20, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529205/effectiveness-and-safety-of-bedaquiline-containing-regimens-in-the-treatment-of-mdr-and-xdr-tb-a-multicentre-study
#5
Sergey E Borisov, Keertan Dheda, Martin Enwerem, Rodolfo Romero Leyet, Lia D'Ambrosio, Rosella Centis, Giovanni Sotgiu, Simon Tiberi, Jan-Willem Alffenaar, Andrey Maryandyshev, Evgeny Belilovski, Shashank Ganatra, Alena Skrahina, Onno Akkerman, Alena Aleksa, Rohit Amale, Janina Artsukevich, Judith Bruchfeld, Jose A Caminero, Isabel Carpena Martinez, Luigi Codecasa, Margareth Dalcolmo, Justin Denholm, Paul Douglas, Raquel Duarte, Aliasgar Esmail, Mohammed Fadul, Alexey Filippov, Lina Davies Forsman, Mina Gaga, Julia-Amaranta Garcia-Fuertes, José-María García-García, Gina Gualano, Jerker Jonsson, Heinke Kunst, Jillian S Lau, Barbara Lazaro Mastrapa, Jorge Lazaro Teran Troya, Selene Manga, Katerina Manika, Pablo González Montaner, Jai Mullerpattan, Suzette Oelofse, Martina Ortelli, Domingo Juan Palmero, Fabrizio Palmieri, Antonella Papalia, Apostolos Papavasileiou, Marie-Christine Payen, Emanuele Pontali, Carlos Robalo Cordeiro, Laura Saderi, Tsetan Dorji Sadutshang, Tatsiana Sanukevich, Varvara Solodovnikova, Antonio Spanevello, Sonam Topgyal, Federica Toscanini, Adrian R Tramontana, Zarir Farokh Udwadia, Pietro Viggiani, Veronica White, Alimuddin Zumla, Giovanni Battista Migliori
Large studies on bedaquiline used to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) are lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of bedaquiline-containing regimens in a large, retrospective, observational study conducted in 25 centres and 15 countries in five continents.428 culture-confirmed MDR-TB cases were analysed (61.5% male; 22.1% HIV-positive, 45.6% XDR-TB). MDR-TB cases were admitted to hospital for a median (interquartile range (IQR)) 179 (92-280) days and exposed to bedaquiline for 168 (86-180) days...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527280/-performance-of-led-fluorescence-microscopy-for-the-detection-of-acid-fast-bacilli-from-respiratory-samples-in-peripheral-laboratories-in-argentina
#6
María Imaz, Sonia Allassia, Mónica Aranibar, Alba Gunia, Susana Poggi, Ana Togneri, Lidia Wolff, Group Of Implementation Of Fluorescence
INTRODUCTION: Light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy (LED-FM) has been endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for tuberculosis diagnosis, but its accuracy in HIV-infected patients remains controversial, and only some few studies have explored procedural factors that may affect its performance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of LED-FM for tuberculosis diagnosis in patients with and without HIV infection using a newer, less expensive LED lamp...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521786/role-of-routine-abdominal-ultrasonography-in-intensified-tuberculosis-case-finding-algorithms-at-hiv-clinics-in-high-tb-burden-settings
#7
Sonam Spalgais, Upasna Agarwal, Rohit Sarin, Devesh Chauhan, Anita Yadav, Anand Jaiswal
BACKGROUND: High proportion of TB in people living with HIV (PLHIV) is undiagnosed. Due to this active TB case finding is recommended for HIV clinics in high TB burden countries. Presently sputum examination and chest radiography are frontline tests recommended for HIV infected TB presumptives. Abdominal TB which occurs frequently in PLHIV may be missed even by existing programmatic intensified case finding protocols. This study evaluated the routine use of ultrasonography (USG) for active case finding of abdominal TB in HIV clinics...
May 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521672/revision-and-implementation-of-clinical-guideline-for-tuberculosis-and-hiv-in-prisons-great-tehran-prison-iran
#8
Behnam Farhoudi, SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi, Minoo Mohraz, Raheleh Golrokhy, Marzieh Farnia, Mohammad Shahbazi, Ramin Alasvand, Bahman Ebrahimi, Jafar Esfehani, Mehrzad Tashakoriyan
AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of the revised "Clinical Guideline for HIV and TB" in the Great Tehran Prison during October 2013 to June 2014. METHODS: The guideline includes all aspects of HIV/TB diagnosis based on active case finding (ACF), treatment and care services. Before the implementation, a focus group discussion was conducted, and attended by experts on jail diseases. The objective was to identify defects and limitations of the guideline. After the discussion, the guideline was revised...
May 17, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513865/diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-hiv-co-infected-individuals-current-status-challenges-and-opportunities-for-the-future
#9
REVIEW
P Méndez-Samperio
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most important causes of death amongst people co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The diagnosis of TB remains challenging in HIV co-infected individuals, due to a high frequency of smear-negative disease and high rates of extrapulmonary TB. Accurate, ease of use, and rapid diagnosis of active TB is critical to the World Health Organization (WHO) End TB Strategy by 2050. Traditional laboratory techniques do not provide rapid and accurate results to effectively manage HIV co-infected patients...
May 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507961/total-hip-arthroplasty-indicated-for-a-tuberculous-coxitis-complicating-a-controlled-acquired-imunodefficiency-syndrom-condition-a-preliminary-report-concerning-a-case
#10
Handy Eone Daniel, Jean Emile Bayiha, Théophyle Chunteng Nana, Olivier Kennedy Muluem, Jean Bahebeck
INTRODUCTION: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains controversial in active tuberculosis (TB) infection because of the risks of septic loosening and reactivation of the infection. We present a rare case of THA in a patient positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with active tuberculous coxitis. The aim of this work is to share our experience and our preliminary results. CASE REPORT: The patient was a 53-year-old Black African woman, positive for the HIV, who was operated for implantation of a THA via the Hardinge approach indicated for a severe painful hip with restriction of joint movement and limp...
November 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506258/health-care-waste-management-in-community-based-care-experiences-of-community-health-workers-in-low-resource-communities-in-south-africa
#11
Lydia Hangulu, Olagoke Akintola
BACKGROUND: In South Africa, community health workers (CHWs) working in community-based care (CBC) programmes provide care to patients most of whom are living with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB). Although studies have shown that the caregiving activities provided by the CHWs generate health care waste (HCW), there is limited information about the experiences of CHWs on health care waste management (HCWM) in CBC. This study explored HCWM in CBC in Durban, South Africa from the perspectives CHWs...
May 15, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502224/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-paediatric-tuberculosis-an-insight-review
#12
Nityananda Mandal, Parveen Kumar Anand, Subhash Gautam, Shritam Das, Tahziba Hussain
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem, invading all age groups world-wide. It is an opportunistic infection affecting the individuals alone or with co-infections. Childhood TB is a neglected aspect and a significant health problem in epidemic areas. It constitutes more than 20% of TB incidence. Pediatric TB exists in the shadow of adult TB. The clinicians concentrate on pulmonary manifestation of TB, whereas it is a major problem in both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary infections. The rate of infection with this disease is mostly associated with poverty, social disruption and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499418/early-morning-urine-collection-to-improve-urinary-lateral-flow-lam-assay-sensitivity-in-hospitalised-patients-with-hiv-tb-co-infection
#13
Phindile Gina, Philippa J Randall, Tapuwa E Muchinga, Anil Pooran, Richard Meldau, Jonny G Peter, Keertan Dheda
BACKGROUND: Urine LAM testing has been approved by the WHO for use in hospitalised patients with advanced immunosuppression. However, sensitivity remains suboptimal. We therefore examined the incremental diagnostic sensitivity of early morning urine (EMU) versus random urine sampling using the Determine® lateral flow lipoarabinomannan assay (LF-LAM) in HIV-TB co-infected patients. METHODS: Consenting HIV-infected inpatients, screened as part of a larger prospective randomized controlled trial, that were treated for TB, and could donate matched random and EMU samples were included...
May 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493270/public-health-alternatives-to-incarceration-for-drug-offenders
#14
REVIEW
Nicholas Clark, Kate Dolan, David Farabee
Drug users are vastly overrepresented in prison populations. Once inside they face increased risks of acquiring infections such as HIV, hepatitis and TB, and on release they face an elevated risk of fatal overdose. Relapse and recidivism are the norm following release from prison. The implementation of evidence-based drug treatment programmes in prison is rare, yet drug treatment in prison reduces the transmission of infections, recidivism and fatal overdose on release. Recognising the negative returns associated with incarceration, many jurisdictions have begun to consider alternatives such as depenalisation of the personal use of illicit drugs, provision of treatment and social reintegration of drug offenders, and a shift in focus from supply reduction to demand and harm reduction measures in the community and in prison...
May 1, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492777/tuberculosis-and-diabetes-probabilistic-linkage-of-databases-to-study-the-association-between-both-diseases
#15
Ricardo Gadelha de Abreu, Artur Iuri Alves de Sousa, Maria Regina Fernandes de Oliveira, Mauro Niskier Sanchez
OBJECTIVE: to describe the profile of cases of tuberculosis and diabetes comorbidity in Brazil. METHODS: this is a descriptive study with data from the Brazilian Information System for Notifiable Diseases - tuberculosis (Sinan-TB) and from the System of Registration and Monitoring of Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus (Hiperdia), from 2007 to 2011; probabilistic linkage was carried out with Reclink software. RESULTS: 24,443 cases of comorbidity were found, including 3,181 cases not registered on Sinan-TB; of the total number of recovered cases, mostly were males (57...
April 2017: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492776/tuberculosis-mortality-in-brazilian-capitals-2008-2010
#16
Roger Flores Ceccon, Rosana Maffacciolli, Andréia Burille, Stela Nazareth Meneghel, Dora Lúcia Leidens Correa de Oliveira, Tatiana Engel Gerhardt
OBJECTIVE: to analyze the association between tuberculosis mortality and socio-demographics and health indicators in the capitals of Brazilian states and the Federal District. METHODS: this is an ecological study whose outcome was the standardized coefficient of tuberculosis mortality in the 2008-2010 period; the independent variables comprised 16 indicators, grouped into three blocks; Pearson correlation test and multiple linear regression were applied for analysis...
April 2017: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492125/influence-of-hiv-and-other-risk-factors-on-tuberculosis
#17
Sana Mahtab, David Coetzee
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) notification in South Africa has increased six-fold over the past two decades, mainly because of the HIV epidemic. OBJECTIVES: To describe the sociodemographic and outcome characteristics of TB patients, and to identify risk factors associated with TB treatment outcomes stratified by HIV status. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was used to analyse data from the Cape Town Metro East geographical service area (GSA) electronic TB register (ETR...
April 25, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490669/hiv-associated-anaerobes-ferment-tb-risk
#18
Jennifer A Philips
Short-chain fatty acids produced by anaerobic bacteria increase the risk of TB in HIV-infected, antiretroviral drug-treated people.
May 10, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490345/post-2015-why-delay-to-seek-healthcare-perceptions-and-field-experiences-from-tb-healthcare-providers-in-northern-malawi-a-qualitative-study
#19
Nathan B W Chimbatata, Chang-Ming Zhou, Chikondi M Chimbatata, Biao Xu
BACKGROUND: Malawi is a low-income country with high Tuberculosis (TB) burden. TB diagnosis delay and untimely initiation of treatment is still a major problem in Malawi which could increase the risk of tuberculosis transmission in the communities. This study investigated factors related to the diagnostic delay of tuberculosis from TB healthcare providers in the northern region of Malawi. METHODS: Nine focus group discussions were conducted with 57 participants in total...
May 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487695/regulatory-t-cells-and-pro-inflammatory-responses-predominate-in-children-with-tuberculosis
#20
Elizabeth Whittaker, Mark Nicol, Heather J Zar, Beate Kampmann
BACKGROUND: Following infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), children are more susceptible to develop disease particularly extrapulmonary disease than adults. The exact mechanisms required for containment of M.tb are not known, but would be important to identify correlates of protection. OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively analyze key immune responses to mycobacteria between HIV-negative children with extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) compared to children with pulmonary TB (PTB) or healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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