Read by QxMD icon Read


Amber Kunkel, Forrest W Crawford, James Shepherd, Ted Cohen
OBJECTIVE: Extending the duration of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) may improve its effectiveness at both individual and population levels, but could also increase selective pressure in favor of isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis (TB) strains. The objective of this study was to determine the relative importance of these two effects. METHODS: Transmission dynamic model. DESIGN: We created a mathematical model of TB transmission incorporating HIV incidence and treatment, mixed strain latent TB infections, and four different phenotypes of TB drug resistance (pan-susceptible, isoniazid monoresistant, rifampicin monoresistant, and multidrug resistant)...
November 13, 2016: AIDS
Andrew F Auld, Tefera Agizew, Sherri Pals, Alyssa Finlay, Ndwapi Ndwapi, Rosanna Boyd, Heather Alexander, Anikie Mathoma, Joyce Basotli, Sambayawo Gwebe-Nyirenda, James Shepherd, Tedd V Ellerbrock, Anand Date
BACKGROUND: In 2012, as a pilot for Botswana's national Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) rollout plans, intensified tuberculosis (TB) case finding (ICF) activities were strengthened at 22 HIV treatment clinics prior to phased activation of 13 Xpert instruments. Together, the strengthened ICF intervention and Xpert activation are referred to as the "Xpert package". METHODS: The evaluation, called the Xpert Package Rollout Evaluation using a Stepped-wedge design (XPRES), has two key objectives: (1) to compare sensitivity of microscopy-based and Xpert-based pulmonary TB diagnostic algorithms in diagnosing sputum culture-positive TB; and (2) to evaluate impact of the "Xpert package" on all-cause, 6-month, adult antiretroviral therapy (ART) mortality...
October 26, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Anna Torriente, Alexander Tadion, Lee-Nah Hsu
Prisons and other closed settings are high-risk environments for HIV and tuberculosis (TB) transmission. Prisoners often experience overcrowded living conditions and violence-including sexual assault-increasing their vulnerability to HIV and TB. However, high infection rates in prisons affect both prisoners and prison employees. Both groups, in interacting with their families and their communities, represent a potential risk of HIV transmission outside the prison setting. National HIV and TB strategies should therefore include measures to prevent transmission and increase access to HIV-related services in prisons...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
Thomas Nicholson, Catherine Admay, Aaron Shakow, Salmaan Keshavjee
The human rights arguments that underpinned the fight against HIV over the last three decades were poised, but ultimately failed, to provide a similar foundation for success against multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and other diseases of the poor. With more than 1.5 million deaths since 2000 attributed to strains of MDR-TB, and with half a million new, and mostly untreated, MDR-TB cases in the world each year, the stakes could not be higher. The World Health Organization (WHO), whose mandate is to champion the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health, recommended unsound medical treatment for MDR-TB patients in resource-poor settings from 1993-2002...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Andrzej Zieliński, Mirosław P Czarkowski
PURPOSE of the STUDY: The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
L Petrone, A Cannas, V Vanini, G Cuzzi, F Aloi, M Nsubuga, J Sserunkuma, R A Nazziwa, L Jugheli, T Lukindo, E Girardi, A Antinori, L Pucci, K Reither, D Goletti
SETTING: Blood interferon-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10) has been proposed as a biomarker of disease activity for both tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Urine IP-10 has been detected in adults with active TB, and its level decreases after successful anti-tuberculosis treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate blood and urine IP-10 as biomarker of disease activity. DESIGN: Patients with HIV-TB and active TB were enrolled...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
J Noeske, A Nana Yakam, J-L Abena Foe
SETTING: The Cameroonian National Tuberculosis Programme. OBJECTIVES: To assess case surveillance data for the 9-year period between January 2006 and December 2014. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive analysis of tuberculosis (TB) case finding in Cameroon using routine surveillance data. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, disease category, clinical and laboratory variables, and geographic regions were analysed. RESULTS: The absolute number of TB cases (all forms) notified increased from 24 878 in 2006 to 26 517 in 2014; however, the population-adjusted annual case notification rate (CNR) of TB (all forms) as well as that of new smear-positive pulmonary TB cases decreased significantly, from 139 to 121 (P < 0...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
A Daftary, N Padayatchi
OBJECTIVE: To examine influences on health care workers' (HCWs') capacity to deliver health care for multi- and/or extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in South Africa. DESIGN: Qualitative data were collected via group and individual interviews with a purposive sample of 17 HCWs at a centralised, tertiary TB facility and analysed using grounded theory. RESULTS: Four themes were identified: 1) personal infection control practices among HCWs may be weakened by a workplace culture comprising low motivation, disparate risk perceptions and practices across workforce hierarchies, physical discomfort, and problems managing patients with treatment-induced hearing loss...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
D J Mibei, J W Kiarie, A Wairia, M Kamene, M E Okumu
SETTING: Successful treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is crucial in preventing disease transmission and reducing related morbidity and mortality. A standardised DR-TB treatment regimen is used in Kenya. Although patients on treatment are monitored, no evaluation of factors affecting treatment outcomes has yet been performed. OBJECTIVE: To analyse treatment outcomes of DR-TB patients in Kenya and factors associated with successful outcome. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of secondary data from Kenya's National Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Lung disease programme...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
A J Garcia-Prats, L du Plessis, H R Draper, A Burger, J A Seddon, K Zimri, A C Hesseling, H S Schaaf
SETTING: Isoniazid-resistant rifampicin-susceptible (H(R)R(S)) tuberculosis (TB) is the most prevalent form of drug-resistant TB globally, and may be a risk factor for poor outcomes, but has been poorly described in children. OBJECTIVE: To characterise the clinical presentation, treatment, and clinical and microbiological outcomes among children with culture-confirmed H(R)R(S) TB. DESIGN: Retrospective hospital-based cohort study. RESULTS: Of the 72 children included in the study, the median age was 50...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
A Turkova, E Chappell, S Chalermpantmetagul, M Della Negra, A Volokha, N Primak, S Solokha, V Rozenberg, G Kiselyova, E Yastrebova, M Miloenko, N Bashakatova, S Kanjanavanit, J Calvert, P Rojo, S Ansone, G Jourdain, R Malyuta, R Goodall, A Judd, C Thorne
SETTING: Centres participating in the Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA), including Thailand and Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, presentation, treatment and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children. DESIGN: Observational study of TB diagnosed in HIV-infected children in 2011-2013. RESULTS: Of 4265 children aged <16 years, 127 (3%) were diagnosed with TB: 6 (5%) in Western Europe, 80 (63%) in Eastern Europe, 27 (21%) in Thailand and 14 (11%) in Brazil, with estimated TB incidence rates of respectively 239, 982, 1633 and 2551 per 100 000 person-years (py)...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Masoud Dara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Kathryn Schnippel, Rebecca H Berhanu, Andrew Black, Cynthia Firnhaber, Norah Maitisa, Denise Evans, Edina Sinanovic
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, South Africa ranks as one of the highest burden of TB, TB/HIV co-infection, and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) countries. DR-TB treatment is complicated to administer and relies on the use of multiple toxic drugs, with potential for severe adverse drug reactions. We report the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) during a standardised DR-TB treatment regimen at two outpatient, decentralized, public-sector sites in Johannesburg, South Africa...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Wang Wei, Zhang Wei-Sheng, Alayi Ahan, Yan Ci, Zhang Wei-Wen, Cao Ming-Qin
OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to find out epidemiologic characteristic of tuberculosis (TB) cases, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive cases among TB patients (TB/HIV co-infection) through demographic, temporal, and spatial study in Urumqi. METHODS: Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were applied to identify the epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic. All addresses of each TB case, TB/HIV co-infection case, and administrative street were transformed into geographical coordinate...
2016: PloS One
Madhukar Pai, Mark P Nicol, Catharina C Boehme
Rapid and accurate diagnosis is critical for timely initiation of anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment, but many people with TB (or TB symptoms) do not have access to adequate initial diagnosis. In many countries, TB diagnosis is still reliant on sputum microscopy, a test with known limitations. However, new diagnostics are starting to change the landscape. Stimulated, in part, by the success and rollout of Xpert MTB/RIF, an automated, molecular test, there is now considerable interest in new technologies. The landscape looks promising with a pipeline of new tools, particularly molecular diagnostics, and well over 50 companies actively engaged in product development, and many tests have been reviewed by WHO for policy endorsement...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Jan-Willem Alffenaar, Onno W Akkerman, Richard Anthony, Simon Tiberi, Scott Heysell, M P Grobusch, Frank Cobelens, Dick van Soolingen
Success rates for treatment of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) are low due to limited treatment options, delayed diagnosis and inadequate health care infrastructure. Areas covered: This review analyses existing programmes of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of XDR-TB. Improved diagnostic procedures and rapid molecular tests help to select appropriate drugs and dosages. Drugs dosages can be further tailored to the specific conditions of the patient based on quantitative susceptibility testing of the M...
October 20, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Prerna K Chawla, Zarir F Udwadia, Rajeev Soman, Ashok A Mahashur, Rohit A Amale, Alpa J Dherai, Rohan V Lokhande, Prasad R Naik, Tester F Ashavaid
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is a routinely practised clinical laboratory technique which aids the clinicians with a clear clinical judgement of the drug therapy and optimize the doses if necessary. Rifampicin is the most important and potent component of first line therapy of tuberculosis (TB). Several factors like age, weight, gender, doses and formulations, gastro-intestinal disorders, ethnicity etc alter the absorption and bioavailability of rifampicin thus altering the drug levels. Low plasma levels of rifampicin may play a plausible role in slow response to therapy, treatment failure or relapse or acquired drug resistance...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Keertan Dheda, Kwok Chiu Chang, Lorenzo Guglielmetti, Jennifer Furin, H Simon Schaaf, Dumitru Chesov, Aliasgar Esmail, Christoph Lange
Globally there is a burgeoning epidemic of drug mono-resistant tuberculosis (TB), multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB). Almost 20% of all TB strains worldwide are resistant to at least 1 major TB drug including isoniazid. In several parts of the world there is an increasing incidence of MDR-TB, and alarmingly almost a third of MDR-TB cases globally are resistant to either a fluoroquinolone or aminoglycocide. This trend cannot be ignored because DR-TB is associated with greater morbidity compared to drug-sensitive TB, it accounts for almost 25% of global TB mortality, is extremely costly to treat, consuming substantial portions of budgets allocated to national TB programmes in TB endemic countries, and is a major threat to healthcare workers who are already in short supply in resource-poor settings...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Teklay Gebrecherkos, Baye Gelaw, Belay Tessema
BACKGROUND: In correctional settings tuberculosis is a public health concern. The incarcerated population is at greater risk for tuberculosis (TB) than the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and associated risk factors in prison settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among prisoners of North Gondar zone where all inmates with a history of cough for ≥ 2 weeks were included...
October 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
Marieke J Van Der Werf, Csaba Ködmön, Phillip Zucs, Vahur Hollo, Andrew J Amato-Gauci, Anastasia Pharris
OBJECTIVE: To better understand the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB)/HIV co-infection in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) for planning of prevention and control measures. DESIGN: Analysis of surveillance data. METHODS: We performed an analysis of the 2014 TB and AIDS data to assess the burden of TB/HIV co-infection and we applied multivariable logistic regression to evaluate predictors for co-infection. RESULTS: Twenty-one of 31 EU/EEA countries reported HIV testing results for 64...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"