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Christina A Buelow, April E Reside, Ronald Baker, Marcus Sheaves
Environmental heterogeneity can foster opportunistic foraging by mobile species, resulting in generalized resource and habitat use. Determining species' food web roles is important to fully understand how ecosystems function, and stable isotopes can provide insight into the foraging ecology of bird assemblages. We investigated flexibility of food choice in mangrove bird assemblages of northeast Australia by determining whether species' carbon and nitrogen isotopic values corresponded to foraging group classification described in the literature, such as groups of species that are omnivorous or insectivorous...
2018: PloS One
Enrico Guarnera, Igor N Berezovsky
Regardless of the diversity of systems, allosteic signalling is found to be always caused by perturbations. This recurring trait of allostery serves as a foundation for developing different experimental efforts and theoretical models for the studies of allosteric mechanisms. Among computational approaches considered here particular emphasis is given to the structure-based statistical mechanical model of allostery (SBSMMA), which allows one to study the causality and energetics of allosteric communication. We argue that the reverse allosteric signaling on the basis of SBSMMA can be used for predicting latent allosteric sites and inducing a tunable allosteric response...
November 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Bhakti Hansoti, Anna Kalbarczyk, Mina C Hosseinipour, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Joseph D Tucker, Jean Nachega, Lee Wallis, Jonathan K Stiles, Adriane Wynn, Chelsea Morroni
Capacity building in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) institutions hinges on the delivery of effective mentorship. This study presents an overview of mentorship toolkits applicable to LMIC institutions identified through a scoping review. A scoping review approach was used to 1) map the extent, range, and nature of mentorship resources and tools available and 2) to identify knowledge gaps in the current literature. To identify toolkits, we collected and analyzed data provided online that met the following criteria: written in English and from organizations and individuals involved in global health mentoring...
November 14, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Francisco Rivera Vasconcelos, Sebastian Diehl, Patricia Rodríguez, Per Hedström, Jan Karlsson, Pär Byström
Productivity and trophic structure of aquatic ecosystems result from a complex interplay of bottom-up and top-down forces that operate across benthic and pelagic food web compartments. Projected global changes urge the question how this interplay will be affected by browning (increasing input of terrestrial dissolved organic matter), nutrient enrichment and warming. We explored this with a process-based model of a shallow lake food web consisting of benthic and pelagic components (abiotic resources, primary producers, grazers, carnivores), and compared model expectations with the results of a browning and warming experiment in nutrient-poor ponds harboring a boreal lake community...
November 15, 2018: Global Change Biology
Kim F Dunphy, Tessa Hens
Healthcare and human services are increasingly required to demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency of their programs, with assessment and evaluation processes more regularly part of activity cycles. New approaches to service delivery, such as the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) scheme in Australia, require outcome-focused reporting that is responsive to the perspectives of clients. Eco-systematic approaches to service delivery and assessment consider the client as part of an interconnected web of stakeholders who all have responsibility for and contribute to their development and progress...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Liis Kolberg, Ivan Kuzmin, Priit Adler, Jaak Vilo, Hedi Peterson
BACKGROUND: A widely applied approach to extract knowledge from high-throughput genomic data is clustering of gene expression profiles followed by functional enrichment analysis. This type of analysis, when done manually, is highly subjective and has limited reproducibility. Moreover, this pipeline can be very time-consuming and resource-demanding as enrichment analysis is done for tens to hundreds of clusters at a time. Thus, the task often needs programming skills to form a pipeline of different software tools or R packages to enable an automated approach...
November 14, 2018: BMC Genomics
Mohammad H Abu Arja, Joseph R Stanek, Andrés E Morales La Madrid, Alvaro Lassaletta, Ute Bartels, Ibrahim Qaddoumi, Jonathan L Finlay, Diana S Osorio
PURPOSE: The Latin American Brain Tumor Board (LATB) is a weekly teleconference connecting pediatric neuro-oncologists from referral centers in high-income countries with pediatric subspecialists from 20 Latin American countries since 2013. This survey explored the participants' experience utilizing this resource. METHODS: A cross-sectional electronic questionnaire was distributed to 159 participants through email and Cure4Kids. RESULTS: Ninety-five respondents (60%) from all the participating countries completed the survey...
November 14, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Tyler B Wray, Christopher W Kahler, Erik M Simpanen, Don Operario
Background: Computers have tremendous potential for helping people change behaviors that put their health at risk. This potential has led to the development of a variety of health behavior intervention technologies (BITs) in recent years. While many of these BITs have been informed by scientific theories on behavior change, poor design can fail to engage intended users. User-centered, interaction design (IxD) research can help BIT developers create tools that are intuitive and enjoyable and that align with intended users' goals...
March 2019: Internet Interventions: the Application of Information Technology in Mental and Behavioural Health
Kristian Hansson, Björn Axel Johansson, Claes Andersson, Maria Rastam, Sophia Eberhard
BACKGROUND: New methods are needed for collecting data of in- and outpatients and for improving outpatient compliance after discharge. Mobile technologies, such as smartphone apps, have shown promising results, (eg, helping unwell people by offering support and resources). Screening for the condition, including comorbidities, is a vital part of psychiatric care. Comorbid conditions, especially in emergency evaluation, are often missed, leading to inaccurate diagnosis and treatment. One way of improving diagnostic accuracy is to use a structured diagnostic process...
November 12, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Muhammad Ali Chaudhary, Justin McCarty, Samir Shah, Zain Hashmi, Edward Caterson, Scott Goldberg, Craig Goolsby, Adil Haider, Eric Goralnick
BACKGROUND: In a decade, the US military reduced deaths from uncontrolled bleeding on the battlefield by 67%. This success, coupled with an increased incidence of mass shootings in the US, has led to multiple initiatives intent on translating hemorrhage-control readiness to the civilian sector. However, the best method to achieve widespread population-level hemorrhage-control readiness for civilians has not yet been elucidated. This study evaluates the implementation of American College of Surgeons Bleeding Control training at a National Football League stadium as a prospective model for general mass gathering site implementation...
November 10, 2018: Surgery
Marco Fernandes, Alisha Patel, Holger Husi
The cardiovascular disease (C/VD) database is an integrated and clustered information resource that covers multi-omic studies (microRNA, genomics, proteomics and metabolomics) of cardiovascular-related traits with special emphasis on coronary artery disease (CAD). This resource was built by mining existing literature and public databases and thereafter manual biocuration was performed. To enable integration of omic data from distinct platforms and species, a specific ontology was applied to tie together and harmonise multi-level omic studies based on gene and protein clusters (CluSO) and mapping of orthologous genes (OMAP) across species...
2018: PloS One
Christopher P Ober
Radiographic lesion identification and differential diagnosis list generation can be difficult for veterinary students; thus, a novel means of distributing cases for study could improve students' engagement and learning. The goal of this study was to determine whether using Twitter as an adjunct means of studying diagnostic imaging would improve student outcomes on the final exam for a radiology course. A secondary goal was to determine students' preferred means of accessing additional cases for study. Twitter was used in a third-year veterinary radiology course to provide additional optional radiographic cases that were relevant to the topics covered in the course...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Thomas D Newport, Mark S P Sansom, Phillip J Stansfeld
Integral membrane proteins fulfil important roles in many crucial biological processes, including cell signalling, molecular transport and bioenergetic processes. Advancements in experimental techniques are revealing high resolution structures for an increasing number of membrane proteins. Yet, these structures are rarely resolved in complex with membrane lipids. In 2015, the MemProtMD pipeline was developed to allow the automated lipid bilayer assembly around new membrane protein structures, released from the Protein Data Bank (PDB)...
November 12, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Miriam Posselt, Heather Eaton, Monika Ferguson, David Keegan, Nicholas Procter
The purpose of this systematic review was to locate and synthesise existing peer-reviewed quantitative and qualitative evidence regarding enablers of psychological well-being among refugees and asylum seekers living in transitional countries and for whom migration status is not final. Systematic searches were conducted in nine databases: Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, Embase, Emcare, Medline, Psychology and Behavioral Science, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science. Search terms were related to refugees and asylum seekers, enablers, and psychological well-being...
November 11, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Rei Goto, Takeshi Mori
BACKGROUND: Setting priorities for limited public resources has become a topic of heated discussion the world over. Assigning different weights for the health gains of different population groups allows for equity considerations in cost-effectiveness analysis. However, only a few empirical works have elicited the preferences of the general public. OBJECTIVE: To compare the equity preferemce assigned by Japanese and Koreans. METHODS: We conducted a Web-based survey in March 2013, including a discrete choice experiment, to elicit the equity preferences of the general public for the life expectancy gains of different population groups...
November 6, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
Theresa Aves, Joshua Tambe, Reed Ac Siemieniuk, Lawrence Mbuagbaw
BACKGROUND: Resistance to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) compromises treatment effectiveness, often leading to virological failure and mortality. Antiretroviral drug resistance tests may be used at the time of initiation of therapy, or when treatment failure occurs, to inform the choice of ART regimen. Resistance tests (genotypic or phenotypic) are widely used in high-income countries, but not in resource-limited settings. This systematic review summarizes the relative merits of resistance testing in treatment-naive and treatment-exposed people living with HIV...
November 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Said Nasser Al Harthy, Cyruz P Tuppal, Ana E Sta Ana, Jenny Reynecke, Imad Al Husami, Abdallah Al Rubaiey
Objectives: This study aimed to develop the required interprofessional competencies for health service managers in Oman. Methods: Experts (n = 20) were selected based on their years' experience, position, fluency in English (both verbal and written), and who had completed higher education at either masters or doctorate levels in the relevant field. The data collection consisted of three rounds. Responses were collected and extracted from a web-based designed survey and subsequently analyzed...
November 2018: Oman Medical Journal
Jiahua Ma, Jun Huang, Shiyao Hua, Yan Zhang, Yiwei Zhang, Tingting Li, Lin Dong, Qinghan Gao, Xueyan Fu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Angelica biserrata (R.H.Shan & C.Q.Yuan) C.Q.Yuan & R.H.Shan (Angelica pubescens Maxim. f. biserrata Shan et Yuan) (A.biserrata) is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine; its roots known as 'Duhuo' in China. The herb is used for expelling wind, eliminating dampness, and terminating pain. Moreover, it is used for treating the onset of anemofrigid-damp arthralgia, pain of the waist and knee and headache caused by latent wind pathogenic factor or damp-cold pathogenic factor...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Lara Lusa, David Bukovšek
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Many hospitals provide some type of real time publicly available information about the crowding of the emergency departments (EDs). For example, at the time of writing, the number of patients waiting and in treatment is publicly available for EDs that cover more than half of the Italian population. However, usually, these data do not provide the key information that low-priority patients are seeking, which is the time they might expect to wait before being seen by a doctor...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Huaiyu Mi, Anushya Muruganujan, Dustin Ebert, Xiaosong Huang, Paul D Thomas
PANTHER (Protein Analysis Through Evolutionary Relationships, is a resource for the evolutionary and functional classification of genes from organisms across the tree of life. We report the improvements we have made to the resource during the past two years. For evolutionary classifications, we have added more prokaryotic and plant genomes to the phylogenetic gene trees, expanding the representation of gene evolution in these lineages. We have refined many protein family boundaries, and have aligned PANTHER with the MEROPS resource for protease and protease inhibitor families...
November 8, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
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