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Longfei Chen, Kun Lang, Shoudong Bi, Jiapeng Luo, Feiling Liu, Xinhai Ye, Jiadan Xu, Kang He, Fei Li, Gongyin Ye, Xuexin Chen
Insect pests reduce yield and cause economic losses, which are major problems in agriculture. Parasitic wasps are the natural enemies of many agricultural pests and thus have been widely used as biological control agents. Plants, phytophagous insects and parasitic wasps form a tritrophic food chain. Understanding the interactions in this tritrophic system should be helpful for developing parasitic wasps for pest control and deciphering the mechanisms of parasitism. However, the genomic resources for this tritrophic system are not well organized...
January 1, 2018: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Michael R Kendrick, Alexander D Huryn, William B Bowden, Linda A Deegan, Robert H Findlay, Anne E Hershey, Bruce J Peterson, Josh Benes, Elissa Schuett
Rapidly increasing air temperatures across the Arctic are thawing permafrost and exposing vast quantities of organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus to microbial processing. Shifts in the absolute and relative supplies of these elements will likely alter patterns of ecosystem productivity and change the way carbon and nutrients are delivered from upland areas to surface waters such as rivers and lakes. The ultra-oligotrophic nature of surface waters across the Arctic renders these ecosystems particularly susceptible to changes in productivity and food web dynamics as permafrost thaw alters terrestrial-aquatic linkages...
September 15, 2018: Global Change Biology
Peter C Marks, Marc Bigler, Eric B Alsop, Adrien Vigneron, Bart P Lomans, Renato De Paula, Brett Geissler, Nicolas Tsesmetzis
The ever-increasing metagenomic data necessitate appropriate cataloguing in a way that facilitates the comparison and better contextualization of the underlying investigations. To this extent, information associated with the sequencing data as well as the original sample and the environment where it was obtained from is crucial. To date, there are not any publicly available repositories able to capture environmental metadata pertaining to hydrocarbon-rich environments. As such, contextualization and comparative analysis among sequencing datasets derived from these environments is to a certain degree hindered or cannot be fully evaluated...
January 1, 2018: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Randy P Auerbach, Philippe Mortier, Ronny Bruffaerts, Jordi Alonso, Corina Benjet, Pim Cuijpers, Koen Demyttenaere, David D Ebert, Jennifer Greif Green, Penelope Hasking, Elaine Murray, Matthew K Nock, Stephanie Pinder-Amaker, Nancy A Sampson, Dan J Stein, Gemma Vilagut, Alan M Zaslavsky, Ronald C Kessler
Increasingly, colleges across the world are contending with rising rates of mental disorders, and in many cases, the demand for services on campus far exceeds the available resources. The present study reports initial results from the first stage of the WHO World Mental Health International College Student project, in which a series of surveys in 19 colleges across 8 countries (Australia, Belgium, Germany, Mexico, Northern Ireland, South Africa, Spain, United States) were carried out with the aim of estimating prevalence and basic sociodemographic correlates of common mental disorders among first-year college students...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Azhar Hussain, Elsa Tabrez, Amitabha Basu, Caron S M D'Silva
BACKGROUND: Lecture recording software is a useful reference tool that allows students to revisit lectures and understand complicated concepts in higher education. It is also a useful tool for students with learning difficulties, allowing them to reference and learn the material at their own pace. A significant advantage of this tool is the accessibility of course material to the students off campus. This study attempted to learn the students' perception of the purpose, use, and benefit of lecture recording software at a medical school...
July 11, 2018: Curēus
Ben Goldacre, Nicholas J DeVito, Carl Heneghan, Francis Irving, Seb Bacon, Jessica Fleminger, Helen Curtis
OBJECTIVES: To ascertain compliance rates with the European Commission's requirement that all trials on the EU Clinical Trials Register (EUCTR) post results to the registry within 12 months of completion (final compliance date 21 December 2016); to identify features associated with non-compliance; to rank sponsors by compliance; and to build a tool for live ongoing audit of compliance. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: EUCTR. PARTICIPANTS: 7274 of 11 531 trials listed as completed on EUCTR and where results could be established as due...
September 12, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Suzanne M Kosina, Annette M Greiner, Rebecca K Lau, Stefan Jenkins, Richard Baran, Benjamin P Bowen, Trent R Northen
BACKGROUND: As microbiome research becomes increasingly prevalent in the fields of human health, agriculture and biotechnology, there exists a need for a resource to better link organisms and environmental chemistries. Exometabolomics experiments now provide assertions of the metabolites present within specific environments and how the production and depletion of metabolites is linked to specific microbes. This information could be broadly useful, from comparing metabolites across environments, to predicting competition and exchange of metabolites between microbes, and to designing stable microbial consortia...
September 12, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Rushaunda A Farmer
Military spouses are at an increased vulnerability with regard to the potential of being sexually victimized. They are twice as likely as their civilian counterparts to experience sexual victimization. Despite the increased probability of sexual assault, not all military spouses perceive sexual assault and its prevention through the same lens. Recognizing that reality is subjective, the theoretical framework for this study was a constructivist paradigm. A qualitative case study was executed for the purpose of querying the perceptions of military spouses as it relates to sexual assault, its prevalence, and its prevention...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Ziying Hong, Zhaohua Deng, Wei Zhang
With the development of Web 2.0 technologies, an increasing number of websites are providing online healthcare services, and they have potential to alleviate problems of overloaded medical resources in China. However, some patients are reluctant to trust and continue using online healthcare services, partly due to the immature development of healthcare websites. Previous research has argued that online trust is significantly associated with the risk or benefit perceived by users. This study aims to extend prior research and examine how perceptual factors influence patients' online trust and intention to continue using online healthcare services...
September 7, 2018: Health Informatics Journal
F Doubal, E Cowey, F Bailey, S A Murray, S Borthwick, M Somerville, C Lerpiniere, L Reid, K Boyd, G Hynd, G E Mead
BACKGROUND: Communication between professionals, patients and families about palliative and end-of-life care after stroke is complex and there is a need for educational resources in this area. METHODS: To explore the key learning needs of healthcare professionals, a multidisciplinary, expert group developed a short electronic survey with open and closed questions, and then distributed it to six UK multiprofessional networks and two groups of local clinicians. RESULTS: A total of 599 healthcare professionals responded...
September 2018: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Thaw Htet, S Cassar, Jacqueline A Boyle, Millicent Kuczynska-Burggraf, Melanie Gibson-Helm, Wei-Ling Chiu, N K Stepto, Lisa J Moran
Lifestyle (diet, physical activity [PA], and/or behavioral) interventions are recommended for all women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in international guidelines. The internet is a widely used health information resource. However, the accuracy of lifestyle information on PCOS websites is unknown and is reviewed here to inform translation of the international guideline on PCOS. An internet search was conducted with three search engines across different web browsers and countries. Accuracy was assessed through a checklist of 29 questions based on international guidelines for diet, PA, or weight management for the general population and for PCOS with higher scores indicating greater accuracy...
January 2018: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Alexandra Pacurariu, Kelly Plueschke, Patricia McGettigan, Daniel R Morales, Jim Slattery, Dagmar Vogl, Thomas Goedecke, Xavier Kurz, Alison Cave
OBJECTIVE: Electronic healthcare databases (EHDs) are useful tools for drug development and safety evaluation but their heterogeneity of structure, validity and access across Europe complicates the conduct of multidatabase studies. In this paper, we provide insight into available EHDs to support regulatory decisions on medicines. METHODS: EHDs were identified from publicly available information from the European Network of Centres for Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance resources database, textbooks and web-based searches...
September 5, 2018: BMJ Open
Guang Xuan Han, Zhen Guo Niu, Zhao Qing Luan, Guang Mei Wang, Li Wen Zhang, Bo Guan
The health of wetland ecosphere in an estuarine delta is determined by many factors, such as continuity of natural processes, ecosystem connectivity, habitat heterogeneity, and food web diversity. The contradiction between ecological and environmental protection and regional development in the estuarine delta is becoming more and more prominent. A series of man-made and natural processes directly and indirectly resulted in habitat fragmentation of wetlands, which has direct and strong impacts on the ecosphere health and the habitat function of wetlands...
August 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Susan Higman, Vikas Dwivedi, Alpha Nsaghurwe, Moses Busiga, Hermes Sotter Rulagirwa, Dasha Smith, Chris Wright, Ssanyu Nyinondi, Edwin Nyella
BACKGROUND: Enterprise Architecture (EA) integrates business and technical processes in health information systems (HIS). Low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) use EA to combine management components with disease tracking and health care service monitoring. Using an EA approach differs by country, addressing specific needs. METHODS: Articles in this review referenced EA, were peer-reviewed or gray literature reports published in 2010 to 2016 in English, and were identified using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar...
September 5, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Mick A Phillips, David M Susano Pinto, Ian M Dobbie
Advanced fluorescence imaging methods require careful matching of excitation sources, dichroics, emission filters, detectors, and dyes to operate at their best. This complex task is often left to guesswork, preventing optimal dye:filter combinations, particularly for multicolour applications. To overcome this challenge we developed SPEKcheck, a web application to visualise the efficiency of the light path in a fluorescence microscope. The software reports values for the excitation efficiency of a dye, the collection efficiency of the emitted fluorescence, and a "brightness" score, allowing easy comparison between different fluorescent labels...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Toyofumi Fujiwara, Yasunori Yamamoto, Jin-Dong Kim, Orion Buske, Toshihisa Takagi
Recently, to speed up the differential-diagnosis process based on symptoms and signs observed from an affected individual in the diagnosis of rare diseases, researchers have developed and implemented phenotype-driven differential-diagnosis systems. The performance of those systems relies on the quantity and quality of underlying databases of disease-phenotype associations (DPAs). Although such databases are often developed by manual curation, they inherently suffer from limited coverage. To address this problem, we propose a text-mining approach to increase the coverage of DPA databases and consequently improve the performance of differential-diagnosis systems...
September 6, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Jenny Carolina Vivas Muñoz, Sabine Hilt, Petr Horák, Klaus Knopf
In freshwater ecosystems, snails can significantly influence the competition between primary producers through grazing of periphyton. This activity can potentially be modified by trematodes, a large group of parasites which mostly use molluscs as the first intermediate host. Available studies, however, show contradictory effects of trematodes on snail periphyton grazing. Here, we used four different freshwater snail-trematode systems to test whether a general pattern can be detected for the impact of trematode infections on snail periphyton grazing...
September 1, 2018: Parasitology Research
Tiffany A Suragh, Smaragda Lamprianou, Noni E MacDonald, Anagha R Loharikar, Madhava R Balakrishnan, Oleg Benes, Terri B Hyde, Michael M McNeil
BACKGROUND: Adverse events following immunization (AEFI) arising from anxiety have rarely been reported as a cluster(s) in the setting of a mass vaccination program. Reports of clusters of anxiety-related AEFIs are understudied. Social media and the web may be a resource for public health investigators. METHODS: We searched Google and Facebook separately from Atlanta and Geneva to identify reports of cluster anxiety-related AEFIs. We reviewed a sample of reports summarizing year, country/setting, vaccine involved, patient symptoms, clinical management, and impact to vaccination programs...
September 25, 2018: Vaccine
Abbas Mardani, Dalia Streimikiene, Fausto Cavallaro, Nanthakumar Loganathan, Masoumeh Khoshnoudi
Understanding the nexus CO2 emissions and economic growth helps economies in formulating energy policies and developing energy resources in sustainable ways. Although during recent years, numerous of the previous studies have been very thoroughly investigated the nexus between economic growth and CO2 emissions, there is a lack of research regarding the qualitative systematic review and meta-analysis in these areas. The main purpose of this review paper is to present the comprehensive overview of the relationship between CO2 emissions and economic growth...
August 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Istvan Ladunga
The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is the first resource to computationally characterize a novel amino acid or nucleic acid sequence. BLAST plays important roles in genomics, transcriptomics, and protein science. For numerous academic and commercial researchers, neither BLAST Web servers nor cloud resources satisfy the requirements of high-throughput comparative genomic pipelines or company policies. For such users, this unit describes how to install BLAST locally, either on a standalone workstation, or preferably on a compute cluster...
August 31, 2018: Current Protocols in Bioinformatics
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