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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431334/one-hundred-injured-patients-a-day-multicenter-emergency-room-surveillance-of-trauma-in-pakistan
#1
A A Hyder, S He, W Zafar, M U Mir, J A Razzak
OBJECTIVES: Injuries increasingly contribute to the global burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries. This study presents results from a large-scale surveillance study on injury from several urban emergency departments (EDs) in Pakistan. The objective is to document the burden of injuries that present to the healthcare system in Pakistan and to test the feasibility of an ED-based injury and trauma surveillance system. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study conducted using active surveillance approach...
April 18, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431259/allosteric-regulation-of-metabolism-in-cancer-endogenous-mechanisms-and-considerations-for-drug-design
#2
REVIEW
Jamie A Macpherson, Dimitrios Anastasiou
Alterations in metabolic processes have been linked to various diseases, including cancer. Although gene expression can dictate long-term metabolic adaptation, many metabolic changes found in cancer are associated with altered allosteric properties of the underlying enzymes. Small molecule-protein interactions and intracellular signalling converge to orchestrate these allosteric mechanisms, which, emerging evidence suggests, constitute a promising therapeutic avenue. In this review we focus on glucose and energy metabolism to illustrate the role of allostery in cancer physiology and we discuss approaches to streamline the process of targeting aberrant allosteric pathways with small molecules...
April 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431181/protective-effect-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-against-the-development-of-intracranial-aneurysm-rupture-in-mice
#3
Atsushi Kuwabara, Jia Liu, Yoshinobu Kamio, Airan Liu, Michael T Lawton, Jae-Woo Lee, Tomoki Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem or stromal cells found in multiple tissues. Intravenous MSC injections have been used to treat various diseases with an inflammatory component in animals and humans. Inflammation is emerging as a key component of pathophysiology of intracranial aneurysms. Modulation of inflammation by MSCs may affect sustained inflammatory processes that lead to aneurysmal rupture. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of MSCs on the development of aneurysm rupture using a mouse model...
April 19, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431070/emerging-molecular-therapies-targeting-myocardial-infarction-related-arrhythmias
#4
Helen E Driessen, Toon A B van Veen, Gerard J J Boink
Cardiac disease is the leading cause of death in the developed world. Ventricular arrhythmias associated with myocardial ischaemia and/or infarction are a major contributor to cardiovascular mortality, and require improved prevention and treatment. Drugs, devices, and radiofrequency catheter ablation have made important inroads, but have significant limitations ranging from incomplete success to undesired toxicities and major side effects. These limitations derive from the nature of the intervention. Drugs are frequently ineffective, target the entire heart, and often do not deal with the specific arrhythmia trigger or substrate...
April 1, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431008/diabetes-mellitus-as-the-major-risk-factor-for-mucormycosis-in-mexico-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-outcomes-of-reported-cases
#5
Dora E Corzo-León, Luis D Chora-Hernández, Ana P Rodríguez-Zulueta, Thomas J Walsh
Mucormycosis is an emerging infectious disease with high rates of associated mortality and morbidity. Little is known about the characteristics of mucormycosis or entomophthoromycosis occurring in Mexico. A search strategy was performed of literature published in journals found in available databases and theses published online at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) library website reporting clinical cases or clinical case series of mucormycosis and entomophthoromycosis occurring in Mexico between 1982 and 2016...
April 20, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430867/emerging-evidence-for-the-role-of-differential-tumor-microenvironment-in-breast-cancer-racial-disparity-a-closer-look-at-the-surroundings
#6
Sachin Kumar Deshmukh, Sanjeev K Srivastava, Nikhil Tyagi, Aamir Ahmad, Ajay P Singh, Ahmed Al Ghadhban, Donna L Dyess, James E Carter, Kari Dugger, Seema Singh
Although increased awareness leading to early detection and prevention, as well as advancements in treatment strategies, have resulted in superior clinical outcomes, African American women with breast cancer continue to have greater mortality rates, compared to Caucasian American counterparts. Moreover, African American women are more likely to have breast cancer at a younger age and be diagnosed with aggressive tumor sub-types. Such racial disparities can be attributed to socioeconomic differences, but it is increasingly being recognized that these disparities may indeed be due to certain genetic and other non-genetic biological differences...
April 18, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430857/repurposed-drugs-targeting-eif2%C3%AE-p-mediated-translational-repression-prevent-neurodegeneration-in-mice
#7
Mark Halliday, Helois Radford, Karlijn A M Zents, Collin Molloy, Julie A Moreno, Nicholas C Verity, Ewan Smith, Catharine A Ortori, David A Barrett, Martin Bushell, Giovanna R Mallucci
Signalling through the PERK/eIF2α-P branch of the unfolded protein response plays a critical role in controlling protein synthesis rates in cells. This pathway is overactivated in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders and has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic target for these currently untreatable conditions. Thus, in mouse models of neurodegenerative disease, prolonged overactivation of PERK/eIF2α-P signalling causes sustained attenuation of protein synthesis, leading to memory impairment and neuronal loss...
April 19, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430774/is-nintedanib-effective-for-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#8
Alejandro Jeldres, Gonzalo Labarca
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has poor prognosis and effective therapies are scarce. In the search for treatments that can modify the course of the disease, nintedanib (BIBF 1120), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has emerged as an alternative. However, its role is still unclear. To answer this question, we searched in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple sources of information. We identified seven systematic reviews including seven randomized trials overall. We extracted data, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach...
April 10, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430660/screening-differential-circular-rna-expression-profiles-reveals-hsa_circ_0004018-is-associated-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#9
Liyun Fu, Ting Yao, Qingqing Chen, Xiaoyan Mo, Yaoren Hu, Junming Guo
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been emerged as an indispensable part of endogenous RNA network. However, the expression significance of circRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rarely revealed. The aim of this study was to determine the circRNA expression profile in HCC, and to investigate their clinical significances and relevant mechanisms for cancer progression. The global circRNA expression profile in HCC was measured by circRNA microarray. Levels of one representative circRNAs, hsa_circ_0004018, were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430580/expression-status-of-folate-receptor-alpha-is-a-predictor-of-survival-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#10
Lei Cai, Theodoros Michelakos, Cristina R Ferrone, Liyuan Zhang, Vikram Deshpande, Qi Shen, Albert De Leo, Teppei Yamada, Gong Zhang, Soldano Ferrone, Xinhui Wang
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has one of the poorest prognosis among malignancies. Thus, the identification of markers useful in developing innovative diagnostic and therapeutic methods is an imperative need. Folate receptor alpha (FRα) has been associated with prognosis in several cancers and has served as a target of novel anti-tumor therapies. However, FRα expression in PDAC and its correlation with the clinical course of the disease has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we analyzed FRα expression in 140 PDAC specimens and 7 PDAC cell lines in order to define the significance of FRα expression in PDAC and its potential role as a target for immunotherapy...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430558/lower-esophageal-sphincter-augmentation-for-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-the-safety-of-a-modern-implant
#11
C Daniel Smith, Robert A Ganz, John C Lipham, Reginald C Bell, David W Rattner
INTRODUCTION: Use of the magnetic sphincter augmentation device (MSAD) for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is increasing. As this innovative treatment for GERD gains widespread use and adoption, an assessment of its safety since U.S. market introduction is presented. METHODS: Events were collected from the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database, which reports events submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of suspected device-associated deaths, serious injuries, and malfunctions...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430540/demystifying-orbital-emergencies-a-pictorial-review
#12
Viet D Nguyen, Achint K Singh, Wilson B Altmeyer, Bundhit Tantiwongkosi
Imaging of the orbit plays an important role in the workup of orbital emergencies. Orbital imaging is particularly useful in the emergency department, where clinical history and physical examination may be limited or delayed until the exclusion or treatment of more life-threatening conditions. Cross-sectional orbital imaging with multidetector computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is commonly performed in addition to ultrasonography. In an emergent setting, CT is the preferred modality when evaluating for intraorbital foreign bodies, fractures, or calcifications within a mass lesion...
April 21, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430301/towards-a-bioengineered-kidney-recellularization-strategies-for-decellularized-native-kidney-scaffolds
#13
Michele Fedecostante, Oana G Onciu, Koen G C Westphal, Rosalinde Masereeuw
Patients with end-stage renal disease often undergo dialysis as a partial substitute for kidney function while waiting for their only treatment option: a kidney transplant. Several research directions emerged for alternatives in support of the ever-growing numbers of patients. Recent years brought big steps forward in the field, with researchers questioning and improving the current dialysis devices as well as moving towards the design of a bioengineered kidney. Whole-organ engineering is also being explored as a possibility, making use of animal or human kidney scaffolds for engineering a transplantable organ...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430168/classical-swine-fever-an-updated-review
#14
REVIEW
Sandra Blome, Christoph Staubach, Julia Henke, Jolene Carlson, Martin Beer
Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization...
April 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430097/zika-virus-update-more-on-an-emerging-arboviral-disease-in-the-western-hemisphere
#15
Kelly G Vest
Zika virus has captivated the world with its quick spread throughout the Western Hemisphere. Increased emphasis has been placed on the infection of pregnant women and subsequent adverse and severe effects in the developing fetus and newborn. This article supplements a previous article and provides updated information on new and evolving evidence that strengthens the association between Zika virus and unique congenital and neurologic diseases, updates what is known about the epidemiology of the disease, and provides new and updated material for primary care providers as they counsel patients who may be exposed or infected...
April 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430095/window-of-opportunity-for-new-disease-surveillance-developing-keyword-lists-for-monitoring-mental-health-and-injury-through-syndromic-surveillance
#16
Ursula Lauper, Jian-Hua Chen, Shao Lin
Studies have documented the impact that hurricanes have on mental health and injury rates before, during, and after the event. Since timely tracking of these disease patterns is crucial to disaster planning, response, and recovery, syndromic surveillance keyword filters were developed by the New York State Department of Health to study the short- and long-term impacts of Hurricane Sandy. Emergency department syndromic surveillance is recognized as a valuable tool for informing public health activities during and immediately following a disaster...
April 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429724/clonal-evolution-in-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#17
Pedro da Silva-Coelho, Leonie I Kroeze, Kenichi Yoshida, Theresia N Koorenhof-Scheele, Ruth Knops, Louis T van de Locht, Aniek O de Graaf, Marion Massop, Sarah Sandmann, Martin Dugas, Marian J Stevens-Kroef, Jaroslav Cermak, Yuichi Shiraishi, Kenichi Chiba, Hiroko Tanaka, Satoru Miyano, Theo de Witte, Nicole M A Blijlevens, Petra Muus, Gerwin Huls, Bert A van der Reijden, Seishi Ogawa, Joop H Jansen
Cancer development is a dynamic process during which the successive accumulation of mutations results in cells with increasingly malignant characteristics. Here, we show the clonal evolution pattern in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients receiving supportive care, with or without lenalidomide (follow-up 2.5-11 years). Whole-exome and targeted deep sequencing at multiple time points during the disease course reveals that both linear and branched evolutionary patterns occur with and without disease-modifying treatment...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429626/promising-immunotherapy-against-fungal-diseases
#18
Wilfried Posch, Marion Steger, Doris Wilflingseder, Cornelia Lass-Flörl
Despite the relatively high efficacy of antifungal drugs, invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are still associated with tremendous morbidity and mortality, since late diagnosis makes an antifungal drug therapy inefficient. Therefore, antifungal immunotherapies to specifically strengthen the host´s own immune mechanisms constitute an additional promising strategy in taking action against fungal pathogens. Areas covered: The authors summarize efforts in research and clinical trials to provide safe and efficient immunotherapeutic options against invasive fungal diseases...
April 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429582/obesity-and-addiction-can-a-complication-of-surgery-help-us-understand-the-connection
#19
REVIEW
V Ivezaj, L E Stoeckel, N M Avena, S C Benoit, A Conason, J F Davis, A N Gearhardt, R Goldman, J E Mitchell, C N Ochner, K K Saules, K J Steffen, E Stice, S Sogg
Obesity is a multifactorial, chronic disease that has proven difficult to treat. An increased understanding of aetiological mechanisms is critical to the development of more effective obesity prevention and treatment strategies. A growing body of empirical evidence has demonstrated parallels between obesity, overeating and substance abuse, including shared behavioural, psychological and neurophysiological factors implicated in the excessive intake of both food and substances of abuse. Several different lines of research have recently emerged that hold the potential to shed light on the connection between obesity, food reward and addiction, with studies examining changes in alcohol use/misuse after weight loss surgery providing a particularly interesting perspective on these interrelationships...
April 21, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429491/bringing-the-human-pancreas-into-focus-new-paradigms-for-the-understanding-of-type-1-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
N G Morgan
Type 1 diabetes affects increasingly large numbers of people globally (including at least half a million children under the age of 14 years) and it remains an illness with life-long and often devastating consequences. It is surprising, therefore, that the underlying aetiology of Type 1 diabetes remains poorly understood. This is largely because the cellular and molecular processes leading to the loss of β cells in the pancreas have rarely been studied at, or soon after, the onset of disease. Where such studies have been undertaken, a number of surprises have emerged which serve to challenge conventional wisdom...
April 20, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
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