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emergence disease

Christopher R Carpenter, Jay Banerjee, Daniel Keyes, Debra Eagles, Linda Schnitker, David Barbic, Susan Fowler, Michael A LaMantia
Cognitive dysfunction in older adults includes mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and delirium in addition to traumatic brain injury, intoxication, and central nervous system infections also encountered in younger populations. Delirium is an acute and reversible disturbance in attention with multiple potential precipitants, while mild cognitive impairment is an early form of Alzheimer's disease with memory and language problems only manifest with formal testing.1,2 On the other hand, dementia represents a chronic neurodegenerative disease that impairs executive functioning, memory, orientation, and judgment...
September 17, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Julia Izadora da Silva Martins, Isabela Maria Bertoglio, Amanda Carolina Damasceno Zanuto Guerra, Mariana Espiga Maioli, Vinicius Daher Alvares Delfino
INTRODUCTION: Purpura fulminans (PF) is a rapid progressive thrombotic disease in which hemorrhagic infarction of the skin and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) occurs. It can potentially cause acute kidney injury (AKI). However, there is no description in the medical literature of renal histological findings of PF. CASE REPORT: A 20-year-old female patient, previously healthy, was admitted to the emergency department (ED) with odynophagia, fever, generalized myalgia and anuria, which evolved with the appearance of purpuric plaques on the face and limbs...
September 13, 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Matthew Hum, Sunil Kalia, Robert Gniadecki
Conventional, full-body phototherapy equipment is costly and therefore patients are usually treated in dermatology centres. Such office-based therapy is often not feasible for those patients who live far away from a phototherapy centre due to lost time and wages, inability to travel because of extensive skin disease, or prohibitive travel costs. Home phototherapy has emerged as a modality that meets the needs of those patients. Our aim was to review available studies on UV sources, treatment protocols, efficacy, and safety of home phototherapy...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
Lise J Estcourt, Reem Malouf, Carolyn Doree, Marialena Trivella, Sally Hopewell, Janet Birchall
BACKGROUND: People with thrombocytopenia often require a surgical procedure. A low platelet count is a relative contraindication to surgery due to the risk of bleeding. Platelet transfusions are used in clinical practice to prevent and treat bleeding in people with thrombocytopenia. Current practice in many countries is to correct thrombocytopenia with platelet transfusions prior to surgery. Alternatives to platelet transfusion are also used prior surgery. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical effectiveness and safety of prophylactic platelet transfusions prior to surgery for people with a low platelet count...
September 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Zhijian Wang, Shengbing Liu, Weiwei Pan, Yanjun Guo, Zhongfei Shen
Major depression is a multifactorial disease. Emerging evidence has suggested that autophagy is involved in the pathological process of depressive disorders. Bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1), is an inhibitor of vacuolar H+‑ATPase that is frequently used at high concentrations to block late‑phase autophagy. However, whether Baf A1 has antidepressant effects remains to be elucidated. The current study aimed to evaluate the antidepressant effects of Baf A1 in rats with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and its potential mechanism...
September 3, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Elizabeth S Mearns, Aliki Taylor, Talia Boulanger, Kelly J Craig, Michele Gerber, Daniel A Leffler, Jennifer Drahos, David S Sanders, Benjamin Lebwohl
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) has rapidly increased over recent decades, but costs related to CD remain poorly quantified. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review assessed the economic burden of CD in North America and Europe. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, EconLit, and the Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched to identify English-language literature from 2007 to 2018 that assessed costs, cost effectiveness, and health resource utilization for CD...
September 17, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Lisa Tabacco, Shang-En Chung, Jamie Perin, Steven Huettner, Arlene Butz, Maria Trent
Adolescent and young adult women disproportionately experience Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) as a complication of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). This study seeks to understand the relationship context, changes in sexual behavior, and impact of partner sexual behavior on recurrent STI diagnoses at 3-months post-diagnosis. Adolescents and young adult women 13-25 were recruited from an outpatient disposition from an outpatient clinic, and pediatric and adult emergency rooms. Participants received treatment at baseline and follow-up at 2-weeks, 1-month and 3-month post-diagnosis, including interviews about personal and partner sexual behaviors and STI screening (n = 94)...
2018: Int Arch Nurs Health Care
Satoshi Motoya, Mamoru Watanabe, Kori Wallace, Andreas Lazar, Yasuko Nishimura, Morio Ozawa, Roopal Thakkar, Anne M Robinson, Ravi Shankar Prasad Singh, Nael M Mostafa, Yasuo Suzuki, Toshifumi Hibi
Background: Dose escalation is often recommended for loss of response in anti-TNFα-treated patients with Crohn's disease (CD). This 52-week phase 3, multicenter study investigated the efficacy and safety of escalation to adalimumab 80 mg every other week (EOW) in Japanese patients with CD who lost response to maintenance adalimumab 40 mg EOW. Methods: Twenty-eight patients aged ≥15 years with moderately to severely active CD who had previously attained and subsequently lost clinical response to maintenance ada limumab received open-label adalimumab 80 mg EOW during weeks 0-50...
July 2018: Inflammatory Intestinal Diseases
Eamon Maloney, Sachin Srinivasan, Timothy Shaver
Chronic ankylosing spondylitis can lead to several rare long-term complications including cauda equina syndrome and inflammatory discitis especially without treatment. These complications are uncommon, but there is evidence that they can be treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors. We present a case of a 52-year-old male with a 30-year history of undiagnosed ankylosing spondylitis with cauda equina syndrome on initial outpatient presentation with a negative lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
July 12, 2018: Curēus
Satoru Hayashi, Koji Hosoda, Yo Nishimoto, Motonobu Nonaka, Shinya Higuchi, Toshifumi Miki, Masatoshi Negishi
Background: Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) is an uncommon vascular disease, which manifests as catastrophic intraabdominal hemorrhage caused by rupture of visceral dissecting aneurysms in most cases. The etiology of SAM is still unclear, but SAM may be a vasospastic disorder and the responsible pressor agent is norepinephrine. Recently, abdominal SAM coexisting with intracranial dissecting aneurysms has been reported, but the relationship between intraabdominal and intracranial aneurysms in SAM remains unclear, as no cases of concomitant abdominal SAM and ruptured intracranial saccular aneurysm have been reported...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Jan-Paul Bohn, Michael Steurer
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired autoimmune phenomenon resulting in low platelet count and increased bleeding risk. Goals of upfront management include prompt control of severe bleeding-which is rare-as well as induction and maintenance of a hemostatic platelet count. Thus, optimal management of ITP patients is often challenging and requires a highly individualized approach. Many patients may not suffer significant bleeding despite severe thrombocytopenia and the risk of toxicity associated with treatment may outweigh its benefit...
2018: Memo
Meg L McFetridge, Mark P Del Borgo, Marie-Isabel Aguilar, Sharon D Ricardo
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major and growing public health concern with increasing incidence and prevalence worldwide. The therapeutic potential of stem cell therapy, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) holds great promise for treatment of CKD. However, there are significant bottlenecks in the clinical translation due to the reduced number of transplanted cells and the duration of their presence at the site of tissue damage. Bioengineered hydrogels may provide a route of cell delivery to enhance treatment efficacy and optimise the targeting effectiveness while minimising any loss of cell function...
September 14, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Arom Choi, Yoo Seok Park, Tae Gun Shin, Kap Su Han, Won Young Kim, Gu Hyun Kang, Kyuseok Kim, Sung-Hyuk Choi, Tae Ho Lim, Gil Joon Suh
BACKGROUND: An accurate disease severity score that can quickly predict the prognosis of patients with sepsis in the emergency department (ED) can aid clinicians in distributing resources appropriately or making decisions for active resuscitation measures. This study aimed to compare the prognostic performance of quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) with that of other disease severity scores in patients with septic shock presenting to an ED. METHODS: We performed a prospective, observational, registry-based study...
August 21, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Anissia Ait Saada, Sarah A E Lambert, Antony M Carr
Flaws in the DNA replication process have emerged as a leading driver of genome instability in human diseases. Alteration to replication fork progression is a defining feature of replication stress and the consequent failure to maintain fork integrity and complete genome duplication within a single round of S-phase compromises genetic integrity. This includes increased mutation rates, small and large scale genomic rearrangement and deleterious consequences for the subsequent mitosis that result in the transmission of additional DNA damage to the daughter cells...
August 25, 2018: DNA Repair
Gregg S Gonsalves, Forrest W Crawford
BACKGROUND: In November, 2014, a cluster of HIV infections was detected among people who inject drugs in Scott County, IN, USA, with 215 HIV infections eventually attributed to the outbreak. This study examines whether earlier implementation of a public health response could have reduced the scale of the outbreak. METHODS: In this modelling study, we derived weekly case data from the HIV outbreak in Scott County, IN, and on the uptake of HIV testing, treatment, and prevention services from publicly available reports from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and researchers from Indiana...
September 13, 2018: Lancet HIV
Robert A Carter, Laure Bihannic, Celeste Rosencrance, Jennifer L Hadley, Yiai Tong, Timothy N Phoenix, Sivaraman Natarajan, John Easton, Paul A Northcott, Charles Gawad
The cerebellum develops from a restricted number of cell types that precisely organize to form the circuitry that controls sensory-motor coordination and some higher-order cognitive processes. To acquire an enhanced understanding of the molecular processes that mediate cerebellar development, we performed single-cell RNA-sequencing of 39,245 murine cerebellar cells at twelve critical developmental time points. Using recognized lineage markers, we confirmed that the single-cell data accurately recapitulate cerebellar development...
September 10, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Aicha Bah, Marcia Cardoso, Jerard Seghatchian, Raymond P Goodrich
Blood transfusion safety has been increasingly improving during the past two decades. However, threats from both known and emerging pathogens require continual improvement and re-assessment of blood safety measures. In this respect, we are currently witnessing the broader implementation of Pathogen reduction technology (PRT) for blood complements. These methods, combined with existing safety measures, have helped to reduce the pathogen risks of transfusion-transmitted infections. Currently multiple reviews have compared levels of inactivation between different commercialized PRTs...
September 11, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Mattias Delpont, Vincent Blondel, Luc Robertet, Hugues Duret, Jean-Luc Guerin, Jean-Pierre Vaillancourt, Mathilde C Paul
On-farm biosecurity can be assessed by analyzing patterns of practices to better tailor technical advice to producers. Given their close contact with environmental and wildlife disease reservoirs, free-range duck farms are exposed to multiple risk factors of pathogen exposure that are rare or absent in indoor production. The recurrent emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) viruses in Southeast Asia and Europe has emphasized the importance of farm-level biosecurity on free-range duck farms. This study was conducted on 46 French duck farms...
October 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Tianxi Zhang, Peng Ye, Wentai Tang, Kaifei Zhao, Anping Liu, Anyong Yu
The etiology of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is complicated and difficult to diagnose, unexplained HLH often with hematological malignancies. Invasive biopsy can help to find etiology, the results may be affected by the technique and the location of the puncture site. Multiangle puncture can improve the success rate, but the corresponding risk increases. A patient with HLH was admitted to Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College. The etiology was unknown. Active symptomatic support treatment was conducted, at the same time, finding the evidence of viral infection, autoimmune disease related detection, blood culture, bone marrow puncture smear and spleen biopsy were performed respectively to find the pathogen basis...
August 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Min Jiang, Jun Wang, Shuangshuang Gu, Nan Cai, Yao Liu, Qiuling Zhang, Peng Xu, Fei He
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features and prognosis risk factors of the elderly and youth patients with acute severe poisoning. METHODS: Adult patients with acute severe poisoning in the emergency intensive care unit (EICU) of Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital from January 2008 to December 2017 were enrolled. The patients were divided into the elderly group (age ≥ 60 years) and the youth group (16 years ≤ age < 60 years), the clinical data of the two groups were analyzed...
August 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
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