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emergence disease

Candela Paesani, Emiliano Salvucci, Malena Moiraghi, Liliana Fernandez Canigia, Gabriela T Pérez
Arabinoxylans are part of dietary fiber and have received attention given their emergent prebiotic character. Four arabinoxylans extracts were obtained from Argentinian soft and hard wheat. In vitro assays were performed to describe the extent to which the extracts from whole wheat flour support selective growth of Bifidobacterium breve and probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC23272 in a defined media. The prebiotic effect was evaluated by three quantitative scores: relative growth, prebiotic activity score and prebiotic index...
November 16, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
I Monsellato, A Morello, G Argenio, M C Canepa, L M Lenti, F Priora
Spontaneous urinary bladder perforation is a very rare disease. The main cause of urinary perforation, indeed, is a damage to the urinary bladder wall by blunt or penetrating trauma. There are only few idiopathic spontaneous rupture of urinary bladder (ISRUB) cases reported in the literature. Pre-operative diagnosis is very difficult due to similar symptoms, laboratory and imaging findings of a gastrointestinal perforation that is usually excluded intraoperatively. Herein we report a case of a 91-year-old man presented to the emergency department with a spontaneous bladder perforation mimicking an ileal perforation...
September 2018: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
C Koutserimpas, G Samonis, M N Plataki, C Bikis, G Kontakis, D P Kofteridis
AIM: Few series of osteomyelitis due to multi-drug (MDR) or extensively-drug resistant (XDR) gram-negative bacteria exist. A retrospective study of MDR and XDR gram-negative osteomyelitis cases was performed, aiming to investigate causative organisms, proper surgical and medical management, as well as outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients, treated at the University hospital of Crete between 2007 and 2016 for acute osteomyelitis, due to MDR or XDR gram-negative pathogens were evaluated...
September 2018: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
Catharina Borna, Knut Kollberg, David Larsson, Arash Mokhtari, Ulf Ekelund
OBJECTIVES: Chest pain is a common complaint in the emergency department (ED), and it is a challenge to identify low-risk chest pain patients eligible for early discharge. We aimed to develop a simple objective decision rule to exclude 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in ED chest pain patients. DESIGN: We analyzed prospectively included patients presenting with chest pain. Low risk patients were identified with the clinical objective rule-out evaluation (CORE)...
November 16, 2018: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal: SCJ
Ahmed Morsy, Paul C Trippier
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common dementia. No cure exists and current treatment only manages early symptoms. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of amyloid-beta (Aβ) neurotoxicity, the pathogenic protein implicated in AD. This is due in part to the interaction between Aβ and amyloid-binding alcohol dehydrogenase (ABAD). This mitochondrial protein is a vital energy regulator, that following Aβ binding, activates signaling cascades that lead to neuronal death. One of the most significant roles of ABAD is to maintain the balance of estradiol/estrone in neurons...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Dan Allman, Bridget Haire, Aminu Yakubu, Muhammed O Afolabi, Joseph Cooper
Community engagement in research, including public health related research, is acknowledged as an ethical imperative. While medical care and public health action take priority over research during infectious disease outbreaks, research is still required in order to learn from epidemic responses. The World Health Organisation developed a guide for community engagement during infectious disease epidemics called the Good Participatory Practice for Trials of Emerging (and Re-emerging) Pathogens that are Likely to Cause Severe Outbreaks in the Near Future and for which Few or No Medical Counter-Measures Exist (GPP-EP)...
November 15, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Rahul Mittal, Frank W Woo, Carlo S Castro, Madeline A Cohen, Joana Karanxha, Jeenu Mittal, Tanya Chhibber, Vasanti M Jhaveri
Before a lead compound goes through a clinical trial, preclinical studies utilize two-dimensional (2D) in vitro models and animal models to study the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of that lead compound. However, these current preclinical studies may not accurately represent the efficacy and safety of a lead compound in humans, as there has been a high failure rate of drugs that enter clinical trials. All of these failures and the associated costs demonstrate a need for more representative models of human organ systems for screening in the preclinical phase of drug development...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Mariola Klepadlo, Christine S Balk, Tri D Vuong, Anne E Dorrance, Henry T Nguyen
Two novel QTL for resistance to Pythium ultimum var. ultimum were identified in soybean using an Illumina SNP Chip and whole genome re-sequencing. Pythium ultimum var. ultimum is one of numerous Pythium spp. that causes severe pre- and post-emergence damping-off of seedlings and root rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. The objective of this research was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to P. ultimum var. ultimum in a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross of 'Magellan' (moderately resistant) and PI 438489B (susceptible)...
November 15, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Ahmed Al Hazmi, Sara Manning
A 61-year-old male with a recent diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris was brought to the emergency department for altered mental status. He had recently started taking prednisone to manage his autoimmune disease and had a progressive decline in his mental status along with decreased oral intake. Evaluation revealed hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) and occlusive arterial thrombosis, a rare but known complication of HHS. He was resuscitated aggressively with intravenous fluids, insulin, and heparin and admitted to the intensive care unit...
November 2018: Clinical practice and cases in emergency medicine
Alexandra Chitty, Kevin Taylor
Historically epiglottitis has been considered a childhood disease. However, the introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine has decreased the incidence of epiglottitis in children. It is important to recognize modern epiglottitis as a disease of adults. This report describes a case of acute bacterial epiglottitis in an adult patient secondary to infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes , a group A streptococcal infection. This case demonstrates the importance of early recognition of epiglottitis in adults, as they can experience rapid clinical decline...
November 2018: Clinical practice and cases in emergency medicine
Carrie Vargo, Beth-Ann Olliviere-Baptiste, Jay M Brenner, Derek R Cooney, Elliot Rodriguez
Fungal rhino-orbital cerebritis is a devastating opportunistic invasive disease. Survival requires urgent diagnosis. Thus, all patients at risk who present with rhinosinusitis-type symptoms and have co-morbid conditions that decrease their immunocompetence should trigger the clinician's consideration of this disease. Treatment includes antifungals and emergent surgical debridement.
November 2018: Clinical practice and cases in emergency medicine
Andrew R Albert, Ronald Valencia, Janet A Smereck
Acute liver failure is defined as severe acute liver injury, concurrent with encephalopathy and loss of hepatic synthetic function, in a patient without known pre-existing liver disease. Evaluation of acute liver failure in the emergency department should focus on identification of treatable causes. Acute liver failure from acute hepatitis B infection is a rare but potentially lethal occurrence. Multi-organ dysfunction from acute liver failure may be exacerbated by metabolic and inflammatory reactions associated with acute pancreatitis, which accompanies approximately 5% of cases of acute viral hepatitis...
November 2018: Clinical practice and cases in emergency medicine
Jawaid A Sial, Naveedullah Khan, Waheed Murad, Musa Karim
Introduction The number of cardiac patients increases on a daily basis, and emergency departments bear much of the burden of non-cardiac patients due to pathological fears of the aftermath of the disease. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the burden of non-cardiac patients on the emergency department of a cardiac center in a rural area of Sindh, Pakistan. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at the emergency department of Chandka Medical College Hospital in Larkana. Consecutive patients who presented with cardiac symptoms with no previous history of cardiac disease were included...
September 12, 2018: Curēus
Atul Munish Chander, Hariom Yadav, Shalini Jain, Sanjay Kumar Bhadada, Devinder Kumar Dhawan
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine, caused by gluten induced inflammation in some individuals susceptible to genetic and environmental influences. To date, pathophysiology of CD in relation to intestinal microbiota is not known well. This review relies on contribution of intestinal microbiome and oral microbiome in pathogenesis of CD based on their interactions with gluten, thereby highlighting the role of upper gastrointestinal microbiota. It has been hypothesized that CD might be triggered by additive effects of immunotoxic gluten peptides and intestinal dysbiosis (microbial imbalance) in the people with or without genetic susceptibilities, where antibiotics may be deriving dysbiotic agents...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Eric L Campbell, Sean P Colgan
Redox signalling in the gastrointestinal mucosa is held in an intricate balance. Potent microbicidal mechanisms can be used by infiltrating immune cells, such as neutrophils, to protect compromised mucosae from microbial infection through the generation of reactive oxygen species. Unchecked, collateral damage to the surrounding tissue from neutrophil-derived reactive oxygen species can be detrimental; thus, maintenance and restitution of a breached intestinal mucosal barrier are paramount to host survival. Redox reactions and redox signalling have been studied for decades with a primary focus on contributions to disease processes...
November 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
James D Chalmers, Anne B Chang, Sanjay H Chotirmall, Raja Dhar, Pamela J McShane
Bronchiectasis refers to abnormal dilatation of the bronchi. Airway dilatation can lead to failure of mucus clearance and increased risk of infection. Pathophysiological mechanisms of bronchiectasis include persistent bacterial infections, dysregulated immune responses, impaired mucociliary clearance and airway obstruction. These mechanisms can interact and self-perpetuate, leading over time to impaired lung function. Patients commonly present with productive cough and recurrent chest infections, and the diagnosis of bronchiectasis is based on clinical symptoms and radiological findings...
November 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Karina Raimundo, Joshua J Solomon, Amy L Olson, Amanda M Kong, Ashley L Cole, Aryeh Fischer, Jeffrey J Swigris
OBJECTIVE: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is commonly associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and can have significant morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to calculate the prevalence, incidence, healthcare costs, and mortality of RA-related ILD (RA-ILD) in the United States. METHODS: This retrospective cohort analysis used the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial and Medicare Supplemental health insurance databases from 2003 to 2014 and the Social Security Administration death database...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
Andrea Di Francesco, Clara Di Germanio, Michel Bernier, Rafael de Cabo
Nutrient composition and caloric intake have traditionally been used to devise optimized diets for various phases of life. Adjustment of meal size and frequency have emerged as powerful tools to ameliorate and postpone the onset of disease and delay aging, whereas periods of fasting, with or without reduced energy intake, can have profound health benefits. The underlying physiological processes involve periodic shifts of metabolic fuel sources, promotion of repair mechanisms, and the optimization of energy utilization for cellular and organismal health...
November 16, 2018: Science
Suzanne Trudel, Nikoletta Lendvai, Rakesh Popat, Peter M Voorhees, Brandi Reeves, Edward N Libby, Paul G Richardson, Larry D Anderson, Heather J Sutherland, Kwee Yong, Axel Hoos, Michele M Gorczyca, Soumi Lahiri, Zangdong He, Daren J Austin, Joanna B Opalinska, Adam D Cohen
BACKGROUND: B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is a cell-surface receptor of the tumour necrosis superfamily required for plasma cell survival. BMCA is universally detected on patient-derived myeloma cells and has emerged as a selective antigen to be targeted by novel treatments in multiple myeloma. We assessed the safety, tolerability, and preliminary clinical activity of GSK2857916, a novel anti-BCMA antibody conjugated to microtubule-disrupting agent monomethyl auristatin F, in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma...
November 12, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Pau Llàcer, Antoni Bayés-Genís, Julio Núñez
In recent years, we have seen a great interest in the search for new biomarkers in heart failure (HF), fundamentally in the field of diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring and as a therapeutic guide. However, most of them do not meet the required criteria for daily clinical practice. The carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA 125) is the mucin 16 glycoprotein (MUC16) antibody, and its use has been restricted to the therapeutic monitoring of ovarian cancer; however, its elevation is confirmed in other non-tumour processes such as HF...
November 12, 2018: Medicina Clínica
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