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emergence disease

Cody R Fisher, Deborah A Ferrington
AMD is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries. The dry form of AMD, also known as atrophic AMD, is characterized by the death of RPE and photoreceptors. Currently, there are no treatments for this form of the disease due in part to our incomplete understanding of the mechanism causing AMD. Strong experimental evidence from studies of human donors with AMD supports the emerging hypothesis that defects in RPE mitochondria drive AMD pathology. These studies, using different experimental methods, have shown disrupted RPE mitochondrial architecture and decreased mitochondrial number and mass, altered content of multiple mitochondrial proteins, increased mitochondrial DNA damage that correlates with disease severity, and defects in bioenergetics for primary RPE cultures from AMD donors...
March 20, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Mulusew Fikere, Denise M Barbulescu, Michelle M Malmberg, Fan Shi, Joshua C O Koh, Anthony T Slater, Iona M MacLeod, Phillip J Bowman, Phillip A Salisbury, German C Spangenberg, Noel O I Cogan, Hans D Daetwyler
Genomic prediction is becoming a popular plant breeding method to predict the genetic merit of lines. While some genomic prediction results have been reported in canola, none have been evaluated for blackleg disease. Here, we report genomic prediction for seedling emergence, survival rate, and internal infection), using 532 Spring and Winter canola lines. These lines were phenotyped in two replicated blackleg disease nurseries grown at Wickliffe and Green Lake, Victoria, Australia. A transcriptome genotyping-by-sequencing approach revealed 98,054 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after quality control...
July 2018: Plant Genome
Bartosz Nizynski, Hanna Nieznanska, Robert Dec, Solomiia Boyko, Wojciech Dzwolak, Krzysztof Nieznanski
Amyloid aggregates of Tau protein have been implicated in etiology of many neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). When amyloid growth is induced by seeding with preformed fibrils assembled from the same protein, structural characteristics of the seed are usually imprinted in daughter generations of fibrils. This so-called conformational memory effect may be compromised when the seeding involves proteins with non-identical sequences leading to the emergence of distinct structural variants of fibrils (amyloid 'strains')...
2018: PloS One
Molly Duman-Scheel, Kathleen K Eggleson, Nicole L Achee, John P Grieco, Limb K Hapairai
The tourist-based economy of Belize, a tropical hub for eco-tourism, is at high risk to be disproportionately impacted by established and emerging mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika. An online survey was used to probe economic stakeholders working in the Belize tourism industry about their mosquito control practices and perceptions. Responses demonstrated that the respondents have good working knowledge of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne illnesses. Most businesses surveyed engage in some means of mosquito control, either through larval source reduction or use of insecticides on the premises...
2018: PloS One
Kevin Louis Bardosh
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, implementation research and a science of global health delivery have emerged as important vehicles to improve the effectiveness of interventions. Efforts to control neglected tropical diseases (NTD) operate in challenging circumstances and with marginalized populations, making attention to context-specific details particularly relevant. Socio-anthropological insights have much to offer a science of NTD delivery. In this paper, an accessible and actionable framework for understanding NTD intervention effectiveness, based on socio-anthropological research, is presented and its utility for program planning and monitoring and evaluation is outlined...
July 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Malbor Asllani, Paul Expert, Timoteo Carletti
Many collective phenomena in Nature emerge from the -partial- synchronisation of the units comprising a system. In the case of the brain, this self-organised process allows groups of neurons to fire in highly intricate partially synchronised patterns and eventually lead to high level cognitive outputs and control over the human body. However, when the synchronisation patterns are altered and hypersynchronisation occurs, undesirable effects can occur. This is particularly striking and well documented in the case of epileptic seizures and tremors in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease...
July 19, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
M Antonelli, M L Burzo, G Pecorini, G Massi, R Landolfi, A Flex
OBJECTIVE: Scurvy is defined as a deficiency of ascorbic acid, which is an essential exogenous vitamin in humans. Vitamin C is involved in collagen synthesis and its deficit can cause disorders of connective tissue. The most frequent symptoms are weakness, arthralgias, anorexia and depression, commonly associated with follicular hyperkeratosis and perifollicular hemorrhage, with purpura. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A young woman, with a history of malnutrition, manifested purpura and hematoma of the left lower limb...
July 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Jingyang Yin, Zuojin Liu, Kang Yang
RATIONALE: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a malignant tumor with striated muscle differentiation, is the most common type of soft-tissue sarcoma in children and adolescents, but rarely occurs in adults, and especially in human livers. Moreover, this disease has a very poor prognosis. Here we report a case of primary RMS of the liver in a 66-year-old woman. This case is rare with respect to the location and clinical course of the tumor. The tumor had enlarged rapidly, ruptured, and eventually caused the patient's death after a long history of a stable abdominal mass that indicated a hepatic cyst...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Gisele Aaltonen, Ilona Keränen, Monika Carpelan-Holmström, Anna Lepistö
OBJECTIVE: Ileocaecal resection is the most common operation performed in Crohn's disease. Our study aimed to identify the risk factors for anastomotic recurrence following primary ileocaecal resection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed data from all Crohn's disease surgical patients in a single colorectal unit between 2006 and 2016, including all patients who underwent primary ileocaecal resection. We defined anastomotic recurrence as the postoperative need for endoscopic dilatation of the ileocolic anastomosis or neoterminal ileal resection, and used Cox regression to determine the risk factors for such recurrence...
July 18, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Anil Dangi, Shuangjin Yu, Xunrong Luo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article is aimed to provide readers with an updated review on the applicability, efficacy, and challenges of employing donor apoptotic cell-based therapies to promote transplantation tolerance in various experimental and clinical settings. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, donor apoptotic cell-based therapies have been employed in various models of cell (including pancreatic islets and bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells) and solid organ (heart and kidney) transplantation to promote donor-specific tolerance...
July 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Şahin Avşar, Ahmet Öz, Aydan Köken Avşar, Adnan Kaya, Edibe Betül Börklü
Clomiphene citrate is a drug that stimulates ovulation and is commonly used in cases of female infertility. Generally, it is recognized as a safe agent for ovulation induction, but rarely, it is associated with life-threatening conditions. A 36-year-old woman who had been prescribed clomiphene citrate for infertility was admitted to the emergency department for chest pain lasting for 2 hours. She had no history of smoking, and she did not have any cardiac risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI). An electrocardiogram performed on admission revealed ST-elevation in the precordial leads...
July 2018: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
Cheng Wang, Zhijia Tan, Ben Niu, Kwok Yeung Tsang, Andrew Tai, Wilson C W Chan, Rebecca L K Lo, Keith K H Leung, Nelson W F Dung, Nobuyuki Itoh, Michael Q Zhang, Danny Chan, Kathryn Song Eng Cheah
The integrated stress response (ISR) is activated by diverse forms of cellular stress, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and is associated with diseases. However, the molecular mechanism(s) whereby the ISR impacts on differentiation is incompletely understood. Here, we exploited a mouse model of Metaphyseal Chondrodysplasia type Schmid (MCDS) to provide insight into the impact of the ISR on cell fate. We show the protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) pathway that mediates preferential synthesis of ATF4 and CHOP, dominates in causing dysplasia by reverting chondrocyte differentiation via ATF4-directed transactivation of Sox9 ...
July 19, 2018: ELife
Kathleen Bornhoeft
Background and Problem Statement: Obesity is a prevalent chronic disease associated with decreased life expectancy, increased morbidity and mortality, and escalating health care costs. PURPOSE: To explore perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors toward obesity management by providers in primary care. METHOD: Data were collected through a descriptive qualitative design using semi-structured face-to-face interviews at primary care practices. RESULTS: Common barriers to obesity management were identified and three major themes emerged; provider centered obstacles, perceived organizational obstacles, and provider perception of patient obstacles...
July 2018: Journal of Community Health Nursing
Ling-Xue Yu, Xin Wang, Hai Yu, Yi-Feng Jiang, Fei Gao, Wu Tong, Li-Wei Li, Hui-Chun Li, Shen Yang, Peng-Fei Chen, De-Qiang Yang, Wen-Chao Zhang, Guang-Zhi Tong, Yan-Jun Zhou
Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (HP-PRRS), which emerged in China in 2006, was characterized by high fever, high morbidity and high mortality. The causative agent of the disease was a highly pathogenic variant of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (also called HP-PRRSV), which has a discontinuous deletion of 1 + 29 amino acids (aa) in the Nsp2 coding region, compared to classical PRRSV. In 2014, fattened pigs on a pig farm in Jiangxi Province suffered from clinical symptoms of high fever, dyspnoea and death...
July 19, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Kristen M Wilding, J Porter Hunt, Joshua W Wilkerson, Parker J Funk, Rebecca L Swensen, William C Carver, M Lance Christian, Bradley C Bundy
Approximately one third of protein therapeutics are produced in E. coli, targeting a wide variety of diseases. However, due to immune recognition of endotoxin (a lipid component in the E. coli cell membrane), these protein products must be extensively purified before application to avoid adverse reactions such as septic shock. E. coli-based cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS), which has emerged as a promising platform for the development and production of enhanced protein therapeutics, provides a unique opportunity to remove endotoxins prior to protein expression due to its open environment and the absence of live cells...
July 19, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Ziyi Wang, Mu He, Elianna Bier, Leith Rankine, Geoffry Schrank, Sudarshan Rajagopal, Yuh-Chin Huang, Christopher Kelsey, Samantha Womack, Joseph Mammarappallil, Bastiaan Driehuys
PURPOSE: Hyperpolarized 129 Xe MRI depicting 3D ventilation, interstitial barrier uptake, and transfer to red blood cells (RBCs) has emerged as a powerful new means of detecting pulmonary disease. However, given the challenging susceptibility environment of the lung, such gas transfer imaging has, thus far, only been implemented at 1.5T. Here, we seek to demonstrate the feasibility of Dixon-based 129 Xe gas transfer MRI at 3T. METHODS: Seven healthy subjects and six patients with pulmonary disorders were recruited to characterize 129 Xe spectral structure, optimize acquisition parameters, and acquire representative images...
July 19, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Sandeep Palvai, Meenu Mahesh Kuman, Poulomi Sengupta, Sudipta Basu
Colon cancer has emerged as one of the most devastating diseases in the whole world. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-phosphatidylinsitol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling hub has gained lots of attention due to its deregulation in colon cancer cells. However, selective targeting of oncogenic MAPK-PI3K hub in colon cancer has remained highly challenging, hence it has mostly been unexplored. To address this, we have engineered a hyaluronic acid layered lipid-based chimeric nanoparticle (HA-CNP) consisting of AZD6244 (MAPK inhibitor), PI103 (PI3K inhibitor), and cisplatin (DNA impairing drug) ratiometrically in a single particle...
November 30, 2017: ACS Omega
Nuria Oliva-Vilarnau, Simona Hankeova, Sabine U Vorrink, Souren Mkrtchian, Emma R Andersson, Volker M Lauschke
The liver fulfills central roles in metabolic control and detoxification and, as such, is continuously exposed to a plethora of insults. Importantly, the liver has a unique ability to regenerate and can completely recoup from most acute, non-iterative insults. However, multiple conditions, including viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), long-term alcohol abuse and chronic use of certain medications, can cause persistent injury in which the regenerative capacity eventually becomes dysfunctional, resulting in hepatic scaring and cirrhosis...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Vishnu Hosur, Michelle L Farley, Benjamin E Low, Lisa M Burzenski, Leonard D Shultz, Michael V Wiles
Tylosis with esophageal cancer syndrome (TOC) is a rare autosomal dominant proliferative skin disease caused by missense mutations in the rhomboid 5 homolog 2 (RHBDF2) gene. TOC is characterized by thickening of the skin in the palms and feet and is strongly linked with the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Murine models of human diseases have been valuable tools for investigating the underlying genetic and molecular mechanisms of a broad range of diseases. Although current mouse models do not fully recapitulate all aspects of human TOC, and the molecular mechanisms underlying TOC are still emerging, the available mouse models exhibit several key aspects of the disease, including a proliferative skin phenotype, a rapid wound healing phenotype, susceptibility to epithelial cancer, and aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Katsuji Sawai, Takanori Goi, Yumi Takegawa, Yoshihiko Ozaki, Seiichi Taguchi, Hidetaka Kurebayashi, Hiroyuki Suto
A 74-year-old man visited our hospital complaining of abdominal pain. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed multiple wall thickness of the small bowel. Capsule endoscopy was recommended for further evaluation, and patency capsule examination was performed. Eighteen hours after patency capsule ingestion, he experienced small bowel perforation with severe peritonitis caused by intestinal pressure rising because of the patency capsule trapped in his terminal ileum. An ileocolic resection was performed, including the removal of the sclerotic ileum as an emergency surgery...
May 2018: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
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