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gene expression in embryonic development

Julien Richard Albert, Tasuku Koike, Hamid Younesy, Richard Thompson, Aaron B Bogutz, Mohammad M Karimi, Matthew C Lorincz
BACKGROUND: Allele-specific transcriptional regulation, including of imprinted genes, is essential for normal mammalian development. While the regulatory regions controlling imprinted genes are associated with DNA methylation (DNAme) and specific histone modifications, the interplay between transcription and these epigenetic marks at allelic resolution is typically not investigated genome-wide due to a lack of bioinformatic packages that can process and integrate multiple epigenomic datasets with allelic resolution...
June 15, 2018: BMC Genomics
Syed Aoun Ali, Deeba N Baig
Ezrin, Radixin and Moesin (ERM) are critical membranous component involved in cross-linking of actin filaments. Moesin (Msn) is recognized as a pivotal protein involved in regulation of cell signalling events associated with the maintenance of epithelial integrity, actin organization and polarity. Radixin (Rad) is known to cell-to-cell adherens junction as a barbed end-capping protein whereas ezrin (Ezr) is recognized at cell adhesion, motility, apoptosis and phagocytosis. The current study for the first time reports the transcriptional and RNA secondary structural variations among brain-specific ERM genes...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Satoshi Oikawa, Shogo Wada, Minjung Lee, Seiji Maeda, Takayuki Akimoto
The capillary network is distributed throughout the body, and its reconstruction is induced under various pathophysiological conditions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression via post-transcriptional mechanisms and are involved in many biological functions including angiogenesis. Previous studies have shown that each miRNA of the miR-23 cluster, composed of the miR-23a cluster (miR-23a~27a~24-2) and miR-23b cluster (miR-23b~27b~24-2), regulates angiogenesis in vitro. However, the role of the endothelium-specific miR-23 cluster, located within a single transcription unit, in angiogenesis in vivo has not been elucidated...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Alba Manresa-Arraut, Flemming Fryd Johansen, Cord Brakebusch, Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas, Henrik Hasseldam
T-cells are known to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). T-cell activation is controlled by a range of intracellular signaling pathways regulating cellular responses such as proliferation, cytokine production, integrin expression, and migration. These processes are crucial for the T-cells' ability to mediate inflammatory processes in autoimmune diseases such as MS. RhoA is a ubiquitously expressed small GTPase well described as a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Cornelis J Boogerd, Xiaoming Zhu, Ivy Aneas, Noboru J Sakabe, Lunfeng Zhang, Debora R Sobreira, Lindsey E Montefiori, Julius Bogomolovas, Amelia C Joslin, Bin Zhou, Ju Chen, Marcelo Nobrega, Sylvia M Evans
<u>Rationale:</u> Mutations in the transcription factor TBX20 are associated with congenital heart disease. Germline ablation of Tbx20 results in abnormal heart development and embryonic lethality by E9.5. As Tbx20 is expressed in multiple cell lineages required for myocardial development, including pharyngeal endoderm, cardiogenic mesoderm, endocardium, and myocardium, the cell type specific requirement for Tbx20 in early myocardial development remains to be explored. <u>Objective:</u> Here, we investigated roles of Tbx20 in mid-gestation cardiomyocytes for heart development...
June 14, 2018: Circulation Research
Manaki Mimura, Toru Kudo, Shan Wu, Donald R McCarty, Masaharu Suzuki
In plants, establishment of the basic body plan during embryogenesis involves complex processes of axis formation, cell fate specification and organ differentiation. While molecular mechanisms of embryogenesis have been well studied in the eudicot Arabidopsis, only a small number of genes regulating embryogenesis has been identified in grass species. Here, we show that a RKD-type RWP-RK transcription factor encoded by Shohai1 (Shai1) is indispensable for embryo and endosperm development in maize. Loss of Shai1 function causes variable morphological defects in the embryo including small scutellum, shoot axis bifurcation and arrest during early organogenesis...
June 14, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Hye Ji Kim, Jihoon Shin, Sangho Lee, Tae Wan Kim, Hyonchol Jang, Min Young Suh, Jae-Hwan Kim, In-Young Hwang, Deog Su Hwang, Eun-Jung Cho, Hong-Duk Youn
Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) is indispensable for embryonic stem cell (ESC) maintenance and embryo development. Even though some reports have described a connection between Cdk1 and Oct4, there is no evidence that Cdk1 activity is directly linked to the ESC pluripotency transcription program. We recently reported that Aurkb/PP1-mediated Oct4 resetting is important to cell cycle maintenance and pluripotency in mouse ESCs (mESCs). In this study, we show that Cdk1 is an upstream regulator of the Oct4 phosphorylation state during cell cycle progression, and it coordinates the chromatin associated state of Oct4 for pluripotency-related gene expression within the cell cycle...
June 13, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Abdul Aziz Khan, Seok-Jin Ham, Le Ngoc Yen, Haeng Lim Lee, Jounghyun Huh, Hyeongrin Jeon, Myoung Hee Kim, Tae-Young Roh
Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is known to play an important role in the regulation of early embryonic development, differentiation, and cellular proliferation by introducing methyl groups onto lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3). PRC2 is tightly associated with silencing of Hox gene clusters and their sequential activation, leading to normal development and differentiation. To investigate epigenetic changes induced by PRC2 during differentiation, deposition of PRC2 components and levels of H3K27me3 were extensively examined using mouse F9 cells as a model system...
May 29, 2018: Oncotarget
Bjorg Gudmundsdottir, Kristbjorn O Gudmundsson, Kimberly D Klarmann, Satyendra K Singh, Lei Sun, Shweta Singh, Yang Du, Vincenzo Coppola, Luke Stockwin, Nhu Nguyen, Lino Tessarollo, Leifur Thorsteinsson, Olafur E Sigurjonsson, Sveinn Gudmundsson, Thorunn Rafnar, John F Tisdale, Jonathan R Keller
Fetal globin genes are transcriptionally silenced during embryogenesis through hemoglobin switching. Strategies to derepress fetal globin expression in the adult could alleviate symptoms in sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia. We identified a zinc-finger protein, pogo transposable element with zinc-finger domain (POGZ), expressed in hematopoietic progenitor cells. Targeted deletion of Pogz in adult hematopoietic cells in vivo results in persistence of embryonic β-like globin expression without affecting erythroid development...
June 12, 2018: Cell Reports
Erica L L Warkus, Yusuke Marikawa
Fluoxetine is one of the most commonly prescribed antidepressants in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. Epidemiologic studies have suggested a link between maternal fluoxetine use during pregnancy and an increased incidence of birth defects. However, the mechanisms by which fluoxetine adversely impacts embryonic development are unknown. Here, we used the mouse P19C5 embryoid body (EB) as a 3-dimensional morphogenesis model to investigate the developmental toxicity of fluoxetine. Morphological and molecular changes in P19C5 EBs replicate the processes of axial elongation and patterning seen in early embryos, and these changes are specifically and sensitively altered by exposure to developmental toxicants...
June 8, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Harshyaa Makhija, Suki Roy, Shawn Hoon, Farid John Ghadessy, Desmond Wong, Rahul Jaiswal, Dario Campana, Peter Dröge
Advances in stem cell engineering, gene therapy and molecular medicine often involve genome engineering at a cellular level. However, functionally large or multi transgene cassette insertion into the human genome still remains a challenge. Current practices such as random transgene integration or targeted endonuclease-based genome editing are suboptimal and might pose safety concerns. Taking this into consideration, we previously developed a transgenesis tool derived from phage λ integrase (Int) that precisely recombines large plasmid DNA into an endogenous sequence found in human Long INterspersed Elements-1 (LINE-1)...
June 11, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Juan Bernal, Beatriz Morte
The actions of thyroid hormones on brain development and function are due primarily to regulation of gene expression. Identification of direct transcriptional responses requires cell culture approaches given the difficulty of in vivo studies. Here, we describe the use of primary cells in culture obtained from embryonic mouse cerebral cortex, to identify the set of genes regulated directly and indirectly by T3 using RNA-Seq.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Li Bian, Changlin Liu, Siqing Chen, Fazhen Zhao, Jianlong Ge, Jie Tan
Golden cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta) is an important economic species in China. Because of the rapid decline of its natural resource, researchers are exploring breeding technique for this species. The major obstacle that hinders artificial breeding of S. esculenta is the low larvae survival rate. Mortality is especially high during the mouth-opening stage. Investigating the embryogenesis before the first feed could provide theoretical guidance for reproduction control and breeding of S. esculenta and other Sepia species...
March 2018: Genes & Genomics
Yusuke Suzuki, Masaaki Ii, Takashi Saito, Yoshito Terai, Yasuhiko Tabata, Masahide Ohmichi, Michio Asahi
Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign tumour in women, and an appropriate animal model for leiomyoma would be useful for exploring new therapeutic strategies. Therefore, we have been challenged to develop a new simple mouse model for human leiomyoma. Leiomyoma tissues were harvested from myomas resected by different surgical procedures with or without gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) treatment and were subcutaneously implanted into BALB/c nude mice with an estradiol/progesterone-releasing pellet...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Caralynn M Wilczewski, Austin J Hepperla, Takashi Shimbo, Lauren Wasson, Zachary L Robbe, Ian J Davis, Paul A Wade, Frank L Conlon
Cardiac development relies on proper cardiomyocyte differentiation, including expression and assembly of cell-type-specific actomyosin subunits into a functional cardiac sarcomere. Control of this process involves not only promoting expression of cardiac sarcomere subunits but also repressing expression of noncardiac myofibril paralogs. This level of transcriptional control requires broadly expressed multiprotein machines that modify and remodel the chromatin landscape to restrict transcription machinery access...
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Eunjin Cho, Mattew R Mysliwiec, Clayton D Carlson, Assem Z Ansari, Robert J Schwartz, Youngsook Lee
Epigenetic regulation is critical in normal cardiac development. We have demonstrated that the deletion of Jarid2  (Jumonji (Jmj) A/T-rich interaction domain 2) in mice results in cardiac malformations recapitulating human congenital cardiac disease and dysregulation of gene expression. However, the precise developmental and epigenetic functions of Jarid2 within the developing heart remain to be elucidated. Here, we determined the cardiac-specific functions of Jarid2 and the genetic networks regulated by Jarid2...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yuqiang Liang, Peirong Zhang, Shaohong Li, Heng Li, Shaofang Song, Baolan Lu
Esophageal cancer is one of the most common digestive malignant diseases worldwide and emerging evidences revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) were implicated in the development and progression of esophageal cancer. However, the expression level and biological function of microRNA-873(miR-873) in esophageal cancer are still largely elusive. In this study, we investigated the expression and biological roles of miR-873 in human esophageal cancer. Our results revealed that miR-873 was significantly underexpressed in esophageal cancer tissues and cell lines when compared with the para-tumor tissue and primary human esophageal epithelial cells...
June 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Peter Hofsteen, Aaron Mark Robitaille, Nicholas Strash, Nathan Palpant, Randall T Moon, Lil Pabon, Charles E Murry
Cardiac development requires coordinated biphasic regulation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway. By intersecting gene expression and loss-of-function siRNA screens we identified Alpha Protein Kinase 2 (ALPK2) as a candidate negative regulator of WNT/β-catenin signaling in cardiogenesis. In differentiating human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), ALPK2 is highly induced as hESCs transition from mesoderm to cardiac progenitors. Using antisense knockdown and CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis in hESCs and zebrafish, we demonstrate that ALPK2 promotes cardiac function and cardiomyocyte differentiation...
April 27, 2018: iScience
Hui-Yan Xu, Xiao-Gan Yang, Sheng-Sheng Lu, Xing-Wei Liang, Yang-Qing Lu, Ming Zhang, Ke-Huan Lu
Oocyte quality is one of the important factors in female fertility, in vitro maturation (IVM), and subsequent embryonic development. In the present study, we assessed whether acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) supplementation during in vitro maturation of buffalo oocytes could improve oocyte quality and subsequent embryonic development. To determine the optimal level of ALC supplementation, we matured cumulus-oocyte complexes in maturation medium supplemented with 0, 2.5, and 5 mM ALC. The oocytes with a polar body were selected for parthenogenetic activation (PA) and in vitro fertilization (IVF)...
June 1, 2018: Theriogenology
Ralf Janssen, Emil Andersson, Ellinor Betnér, Sifra Bijl, Will Fowler, Lars Höök, Jake Leyhr, Alexander Mannelqvist, Virginia Panara, Kate Smith, Sydney Tiemann
BACKGROUND: Sox (Sry-related high-mobility-group box) genes represent important factors in animal development. Relatively little, however, is known about the embryonic expression patterns and thus possible function(s) of Sox genes during ontogenesis in panarthropods (Arthropoda+Tardigrada+Onychophora). To date, studies have been restricted exclusively to higher insects, including the model system Drosophila melanogaster, with no comprehensive data available for any other arthropod group, or any tardigrade or onychophoran...
June 8, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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