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gene expression in embryonic development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339038/lncrna%C3%A2-mediated-sirt1-foxo3a-and-sirt1-p53-signaling-pathways-regulate-type-ii-alveolar-epithelial-cell-senescence-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
Chao Gu, Yaqing Li, Jialiang Liu, Xiwang Ying, Yuanshun Liu, Jianping Yan, Chun Chen, Hongbin Zhou, Liming Cao, Yingyu Ma
The loss of alveolar structure and airspace enlargement are major pathological changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECII) are involved in maintaining lung tissue repair and alveolar homeostasis. Long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in multi‑regulating gene transcription, affecting processes including embryonic development, cell differentiation and cellular senescence. The primary aim of the present study was to explore the mechanisms of AECII senescence regulated by lncRNA‑mediated sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and forkhead box O 3a (FoxO3a) signaling pathways in patients with COPD...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338096/identification-of-cardiac-hemo-vascular-precursors-and-their-requirement-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-for-heart-development
#2
Yan Hu, Brian C Belyea, Minghong Li, Joachim R Göthert, R Ariel Gomez, Maria Luisa S Sequeira-Lopez
The cardiac endothelium plays a crucial role in the development of a functional heart. However, the precise identification of the endocardial precursors and the mechanisms they require for their role in heart morphogenesis are not well understood. Using in vivo and in vitro cell fate tracing concomitant with specific cell ablation and embryonic heart transplantation studies, we identified a unique set of precursors which possess hemogenic functions and express the stem cell leukemia (SCL) gene driven by its 5' enhancer...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336721/tubule-derived-wnts-are-required-for-fibroblast-activation-and-kidney-fibrosis
#3
Dong Zhou, Haiyan Fu, Lu Zhang, Ke Zhang, Yali Min, Liangxiang Xiao, Lin Lin, Sheldon I Bastacky, Youhua Liu
Cell-cell communication via Wnt ligands is necessary in regulating embryonic development and has been implicated in CKD. Because Wnt ligands are ubiquitously expressed, the exact cellular source of the Wnts involved in CKD remains undefined. To address this issue, we generated two conditional knockout mouse lines in which Wntless (Wls), a dedicated cargo receptor that is obligatory for Wnt secretion, was selectively ablated in tubular epithelial cells or interstitial fibroblasts. Blockade of Wnt secretion by genetic deletion of Wls in renal tubules markedly inhibited myofibroblast activation and reduced renal fibrosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334816/dynamic-changes-in-chromatin-states-during-specification-and-differentiation-of-adult-intestinal-stem-cells
#4
Juri Kazakevych, Sergi Sayols, Berith Messner, Christina Krienke, Natalia Soshnikova
Epigenetic mechanisms, including chromatin structure, chromatin dynamics and histone modifications play an important role for maintenance and differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of adult stem cell specification and differentiation. Here, we used intestinal stem cells (ISCs) as a model system to reveal the epigenetic changes coordinating gene expression programs during these processes. We found that two distinct epigenetic mechanisms participate in establishing the transcriptional program promoting ISC specification from embryonic progenitors...
March 7, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334784/testing-the-ret-and-sema3d-genetic-interaction-in-mouse-enteric-nervous-system-development
#5
Ashish Kapoor, Dallas R Auer, Dongwon Lee, Sumantra Chatterjee, Aravinda Chakravarti
For most multigenic disorders, clinical manifestation (penetrance) and presentation (expressivity) are likely to be an outcome of genetic interaction between multiple susceptibility genes. Here, using gene knockouts in mice we evaluated genetic interaction between loss of Ret and loss of Sema3d, two Hirschsprung disease susceptibility genes. We intercrossed Ret and Sema3d double null heterozygotes to generate mice with the nine possible genotypes and assessed survival by counting various genotypes, myenteric plexus presence by acetylcholinesterase staining and embryonic day 12...
March 7, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334356/transient-cell-intrinsic-activity-regulates-the-migration-and-laminar-positioning-of-cortical-projection-neurons
#6
Nicolas Hurni, Marta Kolodziejczak, Ugo Tomasello, Joan Badia, Moritz Jacobshagen, Julien Prados, Alexandre Dayer
Neocortical microcircuits are built during development and require the coordinated assembly of excitatory glutamatergic projection neurons (PNs) into functional networks. Neuronal migration is an essential step in this process. In addition to cell-intrinsic mechanisms, external cues including neurotransmitters regulate cortical neuron migration, suggesting that early activity could influence this process. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of cell-intrinsic activity in migrating PNs in vivo using a designer receptor exclusively activated by a designer drug (DREADD) chemogenetic approach...
March 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334004/the-mouse-genome-displays-highly-dynamic-populations-of-krab-zinc-finger-protein-genes-and-related-genetic-units
#7
Annamaria Kauzlaric, Gabriela Ecco, Marco Cassano, Julien Duc, Michael Imbeault, Didier Trono
KRAB-containing poly-zinc finger proteins (KZFPs) constitute the largest family of transcription factors encoded by mammalian genomes, and growing evidence indicates that they fulfill functions critical to both embryonic development and maintenance of adult homeostasis. KZFP genes underwent broad and independent waves of expansion in many higher vertebrates lineages, yet comprehensive studies of members harbored by a given species are scarce. Here we present a thorough analysis of KZFP genes and related units in the murine genome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333962/different-regulation-of-limb-development-by-p63-transcript-variants
#8
Manabu Kawata, Yuki Taniguchi, Daisuke Mori, Fumiko Yano, Shinsuke Ohba, Ung-Il Chung, Tomomi Shimogori, Alea A Mills, Sakae Tanaka, Taku Saito
The apical ectodermal ridge (AER), located at the distal end of each limb bud, is a key signaling center which controls outgrowth and patterning of the proximal-distal axis of the limb through secretion of various molecules. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), particularly Fgf8 and Fgf4, are representative molecules produced by AER cells, and essential to maintain the AER and cell proliferation in the underlying mesenchyme, meanwhile Jag2-Notch pathway negatively regulates the AER and limb development. p63, a transcription factor of the p53 family, is expressed in the AER and indispensable for limb formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333934/visualizing-the-structure-of-rna-seq-expression-data-using-grade-of-membership-models
#9
Kushal K Dey, Chiaowen Joyce Hsiao, Matthew Stephens
Grade of membership models, also known as "admixture models", "topic models" or "Latent Dirichlet Allocation", are a generalization of cluster models that allow each sample to have membership in multiple clusters. These models are widely used in population genetics to model admixed individuals who have ancestry from multiple "populations", and in natural language processing to model documents having words from multiple "topics". Here we illustrate the potential for these models to cluster samples of RNA-seq gene expression data, measured on either bulk samples or single cells...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333140/metabolic-and-molecular-insights-into-an-essential-role-of-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase
#10
Li Q Zhang, Leon Van Haandel, Min Xiong, Peixin Huang, Daniel P Heruth, Charlie Bi, Roger Gaedigk, Xun Jiang, Ding-You Li, Gerald Wyckoff, Dmitry N Grigoryev, Li Gao, Linheng Li, Min Wu, J Steven Leeder, Shui Qing Ye
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a pleiotropic protein implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome, aging, cancer, coronary heart diseases, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and sepsis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of NAMPT in these physiological and pathological processes are not fully understood. Here, we provide experimental evidence that a Nampt gene homozygous knockout (Nampt(-/-)) resulted in lethality at an early stage of mouse embryonic development and death within 5-10 days in adult mice accompanied by a 25...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331962/sex-combs-reduced-scr-regulatory-region-of-drosophila-revisited
#11
Juan M Calvo-Martín, Montserrat Papaceit, Carmen Segarra
The Hox gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) is responsible for the differentiation of the labial and prothoracic segments in Drosophila. Scr is expressed in several specific tissues throughout embryonic development, following a complex path that must be coordinated by an equally complex regulatory region. Although some cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) have been identified in the Scr regulatory region (~75 kb), there has been no detailed and systematic study of the distinct regulatory elements present within this region...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330949/expression-analysis-of-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-alpha-and-its-ligands-in-the-developing-mouse-lung
#12
Leonor Gouveia, Christer Betsholtz, Johanna Andrae
Activation of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα) signaling pathway is critically important during lung alveogenesis, the process in lung development during which alveoli are formed from the terminal alveolar sacs. Several studies have aimed to characterize the expression patterns of PDGFRα and its two ligands (PDGF-A and -C) in the lung, but published analyses have been limited to embryonic and/or perinatal time points, and no attempts have been made to characterize both receptor and ligand expression simultaneously...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323970/obesity-modulates-inflammation-and-lipid-metabolism-oocyte-gene-expression-a-single-cell-transcriptome-perspective
#13
Meghan L Ruebel, Matthew Cotter, Clark R Sims, Dean M Moutos, Thomas M Badger, Mario A Cleves, Kartik Shankar, Aline Andres
Context: It is hypothesized that obesity adversely affects the ovarian environment which can disrupt oocyte maturation and may further impact embryonic development. Objective: This study aimed to compare oocyte gene expression profiles and follicular fluid (FF) content from overweight/obese (OW) women and normal weight (NW) women who were undergoing fertility treatments. Design: Using single cell transcriptomic analyses, we investigated oocyte gene expression using RNA-seq...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323620/discovery-of-novel-determinants-of-endothelial-lineage-using-chimeric-heterokaryons
#14
Wing Tak Wong, Gianfranco Matrone, XiaoYu Tian, Simion Alin Tomoiaga, Kin Fai Au, Shu Meng, Sayumi Yamazoe, Daniel Sieveking, Kaifu Chen, David M Burns, James K Chen, Helen M Blau, John P Cooke
We wish to identify determinants of endothelial lineage. Murine embryonic stem cells (mESC) were fused with human endothelial cells in stable, non-dividing, heterokaryons. Using RNA-seq it is possible to discriminate between human and mouse transcripts in these chimeric heterokaryons. We observed a temporal pattern of gene expression in the ESCs of the heterokaryons that recapitulated ontogeny, with early mesodermal factors being expressed before mature endothelial genes. A set of transcriptional factors not known to be involved in endothelial development was upregulated, one of which was POU class 3 homeobox 2 (Pou3f2)...
March 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323615/stella-modulates-transcriptional-and-endogenous-retrovirus-programs-during-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#15
Yun Huang, Jong Kyoung Kim, Dang Vinh Do, Caroline Lee, Christopher A Penfold, Jan J Zylicz, John C Marioni, Jamie A Hackett, M Azim Surani
The maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) marks the period when the embryonic genome is activated and acquires control of development. Maternally inherited factors play a key role in this critical developmental process, which occurs at the 2-cell stage in mice. We investigated the function of the maternally inherited factor STELLA (DPPA3) using single-cell/embryo approaches. We show that loss of maternal STELLA results in widespread transcriptional mis-regulation and a partial failure of MZT. Strikingly, activation of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) is significantly impaired in Stella maternal/zygotic knockout embryos, which in turn leads to a failure to upregulate chimeric transcripts...
March 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323039/pomc-and-npy-mrna-expression-during-development-is-increased-in-rat-offspring-brain-from-mothers-fed-with-a-high-fat-diet
#16
Marianne Orlandini Klein, Harry MacKay, Alexander Edwards, Su-Bin Park, Ana Carolina Inhasz Kiss, Luciano Freitas Felicio, Alfonso Abizaid
Developmental programming is influenced by perinatal nutrition and it has long-lasting impacts on adult metabolism in the offspring. In particular, maternal high fat diet has been associated with increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders during adulthood in the descendants. These effects may be due to the effects of the high fat diet on the development of the systems that regulate food intake and energy balance in the offspring hypothalamus. The arcuate nucleus (ARC) may be a particularly sensitive region to it as this nucleus contains the POMC and AgRP/NPY neurons that integrate the melanocortin system...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322736/sall1-and-sall4-repress-pou5f3-family-expression-to-allow-neural-patterning-differentiation-and-morphogenesis-in-xenopus-laevis
#17
Cameron R T Exner, Albert Y Kim, Sarah M Mardjuki, Richard M Harland
The embryonic precursor of the vertebrate central nervous system, the neural plate, is patterned along the anterior-posterior axis and shaped by morphogenetic movements early in development. We previously identified the genes sall1 and sall4, known regulators of pluripotency in other contexts, as transcriptional targets of developmental signaling pathways that regulate neural development. Here, we demonstrate that these two genes are required for induction of posterior neural fates, the cell shape changes that contribute to neural tube closure, and later neurogenesis...
March 18, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322328/5d-imaging-via-light-sheet-microscopy-reveals-cell-dynamics-during-the-eye-antenna-disc-primordium-formation-in-drosophila
#18
Yu Shan Huang, Hui Yu Ku, Yun Chi Tsai, Chin Hao Chang, Sih Hua Pao, Y Henry Sun, Arthur Chiou
5D images of engrailed (en) and eye gone (eyg) gene expressions during the course of the eye-antenna disc primordium (EADP) formation of Drosophila embryos from embryonic stages 13 through 16 were recorded via light sheet microscopy and analyzed to reveal the cell dynamics involved in the development of the EADP. Detailed analysis of the time-lapsed images revealed the process of EADP formation and its invagination trajectory, which involved an inversion of the EADP anterior-posterior axis relative to the body...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320521/differential-mirna-expression-analysis-during-late-stage-terminal-hindgut-development-in-fetal-rats
#19
Shuguang Jin, Junxiang Wang, Hong Chen, Bo Xiang
BACKGROUND: Terminal hindgut deformity is the leading digestive tract malformation, however, the etiology and pathogenesis remained unknown. To date, gene expression abnormalities were considered the primary cause of these diseases. miRNAs have been found to play an important role in regulating the expression of genes. METHODS: A total of 24 pregnant rats were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group (n=12) received 1% ethylenethiourea (125mg/kg) by gavage on gestational day 11, while the control group (n=12) received the same volume of distilled water...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319609/developmental-alterations-in-huntington-s-disease-neural-cells-and-pharmacological-rescue-in-cells-and-mice
#20
(no author information available yet)
Neural cultures derived from Huntington's disease (HD) patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells were used for 'omics' analyses to identify mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. RNA-seq analysis identified genes in glutamate and GABA signaling, axonal guidance and calcium influx whose expression was decreased in HD cultures. One-third of gene changes were in pathways regulating neuronal development and maturation. When mapped to stages of mouse striatal development, the profiles aligned with earlier embryonic stages of neuronal differentiation...
March 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
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