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gene expression in embryonic development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456183/modeling-human-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#1
Ekaterina Ovchinnikova, Martijn Hoes, Kirill Ustyantsev, Nils Bomer, Tristan V de Jong, Henny van der Mei, Eugene Berezikov, Peter van der Meer
Cardiac hypertrophy accompanies many forms of cardiovascular diseases. The mechanisms behind the development and regulation of cardiac hypertrophy in the human setting are poorly understood, which can be partially attributed to the lack of a human cardiomyocyte-based preclinical test system recapitulating features of diseased myocardium. The objective of our study is to determine whether human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) subjected to mechanical stretch can be used as an adequate in vitro model for studying molecular mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy...
February 8, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455446/big2-arf1-rhoa-mdia1-signaling-regulates-dendritic-golgi-polarization-in-hippocampal-neurons
#2
Eun-Hye Hong, Ji-Ye Kim, Jeong-Hoon Kim, Dae-Sik Lim, Minkyu Kim, Jeong-Yoon Kim
Proper dendrite development is essential for establishing neural circuitry, and Rho GTPases play key regulatory roles in this process. From mouse brain lysates, we identified Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine exchange factor 2 (BIG2) as a novel Rho GTPase regulatory protein involved in dendrite growth and maintenance. BIG2 was highly expressed during early development, and knockdown of the ARFGEF2 gene encoding BIG2 significantly reduced total dendrite length and the number of branches. Expression of the constitutively active ADP-ribosylation factor 1 ARF1 Q71L rescued the defective dendrite morphogenesis of ARFGEF2-null neurons, indicating that BIG2 controls dendrite growth and maintenance by activating ARF1...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455261/phytoglobins-regulate-nitric-oxide-dependent-abscisic-acid-synthesis-and-ethylene-induced-program-cell-death-in-developing-maize-somatic-embryos
#3
Karuna Kapoor, Mohamed M Mira, Belay T Ayele, Tran-Nguyen Nguyen, Robert D Hill, Claudio Stasolla
During maize somatic embryogenesis, suppression of phytoglobins (Pgbs) reduced ABA levels leading to ethylene-induced programmed cell death in the developing embryos. These effects modulate embryonic yield depending on the cellular localization of specific phytoglobin gene expression. Suppression of Zea mays phytoglobins (ZmPgb1.1 or ZmPgb1.2) during somatic embryogenesis induces programmed cell death (PCD) by elevating nitric oxide (NO). While ZmPgb1.1 is expressed in many embryonic domains and its suppression results in embryo abortion, ZmPgb1...
February 17, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454361/wnt-signaling-enhances-neural-crest-migration-of-melanoma-cells-and-induces-an-invasive-phenotype
#4
Tobias Sinnberg, Mitchell P Levesque, Jelena Krochmann, Phil F Cheng, Kristian Ikenberg, Francisco Meraz-Torres, Heike Niessner, Claus Garbe, Christian Busch
BACKGROUND: During embryonic development Wnt family members and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) cooperatively induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the neural crest. Wnt and BMPs are reactivated during malignant transformation in melanoma. We previously demonstrated that the BMP-antagonist noggin blocked the EMT phenotype of melanoma cells in the neural crest and malignant invasion of melanoma cells in the chick embryo; vice-versa, malignant invasion was induced in human melanocytes in vivo by pre-treatment with BMP-2...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454044/the-expression-patterns-of-vestigial-like-family-member-4-genes-in-zebrafish-embryogenesis
#5
Chang Xue, Hai Hong Wang, Jun Zhu, Jun Zhou
Transcriptional cofactor Vestigial-like 4 (VGLL4) was considered to take part in the early stage of development. Different from human, three paralogs of vgll4 were found in zebrafish, which were vgll4a, vgll4b and vgll4l. However, the expression patterns of the three paralogs during zebrafish development remains unknown. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to elucidate the temporal and spatial expression of zebrafish vgll4 paralogs during normal embryonic and larval development. Similar expression was shown in certain areas at similar stages for the three paralogs...
February 14, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453333/scleraxis-is-a-transcriptional-activator-that-regulates-the-expression-of-tenomodulin-a-marker-of-mature-tenocytes-and-ligamentocytes
#6
Chisa Shukunami, Aki Takimoto, Yuriko Nishizaki, Yuki Yoshimoto, Seima Tanaka, Shigenori Miura, Hitomi Watanabe, Tetsushi Sakuma, Takashi Yamamoto, Gen Kondoh, Yuji Hiraki
Tenomodulin (Tnmd) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein predominantly expressed in tendons and ligaments. We found that scleraxis (Scx), a member of the Twist-family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, is a transcriptional activator of Tnmd expression in tenocytes. During embryonic development, Scx expression preceded that of Tnmd. Tnmd expression was nearly absent in tendons and ligaments of Scx-deficient mice generated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases-mediated gene disruption...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453221/h3k9-demethylase-kdm4e-is-an-epigenetic-regulator-for-bovine-embryonic-development-and-a-defective-factor-for-nuclear-reprogramming
#7
Xin Liu, Yizhi Wang, Yuanpeng Gao, Jianmin Su, Jingcheng Zhang, Xupeng Xing, Chuan Zhou, Kezhen Yao, Quanli An, Yong Zhang
Aberrant epigenetic reprogramming often results in developmental defects in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos during embryonic genome activation (EGA). Bovine eight-cell SCNT embryos exhibit global hypermethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 tri- and di-methylation (H3K9me3/2), but the intrinsic reason for this remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence that two H3K9 demethylase genes, lysine-specific demethylase 4D ( KDM4D ) and 4E ( KDM4E ), are related to active H3K9me3/2 demethylation in in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos and are deficiently expressed in cloned embryos at the time of EGA...
February 16, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451874/a-stochastic-and-dynamical-view-of-pluripotency-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#8
Yen Ting Lin, Peter G Hufton, Esther J Lee, Davit A Potoyan
Pluripotent embryonic stem cells are of paramount importance for biomedical sciences because of their innate ability for self-renewal and differentiation into all major cell lines. The fateful decision to exit or remain in the pluripotent state is regulated by complex genetic regulatory networks. The rapid growth of single-cell sequencing data has greatly stimulated applications of statistical and machine learning methods for inferring topologies of pluripotency regulating genetic networks. The inferred network topologies, however, often only encode Boolean information while remaining silent about the roles of dynamics and molecular stochasticity inherent in gene expression...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449453/conserved-and-divergent-features-of-human-and-mouse-kidney-organogenesis
#9
Nils O Lindström, Jill A McMahon, Jinjin Guo, Tracy Tran, Qiuyu Guo, Elisabeth Rutledge, Riana K Parvez, Gohar Saribekyan, Robert E Schuler, Christopher Liao, Albert D Kim, Ahmed Abdelhalim, Seth W Ruffins, Matthew E Thornton, Laurence Basking, Brendan Grubbs, Carl Kesselman, Andrew P McMahon
Human kidney function is underpinned by approximately 1,000,000 nephrons, although the number varies substantially, and low nephron number is linked to disease. Human kidney development initiates around 4 weeks of gestation and ends around 34-37 weeks of gestation. Over this period, a reiterative inductive process establishes the nephron complement. Studies have provided insightful anatomic descriptions of human kidney development, but the limited histologic views are not readily accessible to a broad audience...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448039/development-of-sirna-mediated-rna-interference-and-functional-analysis-of-novel-parasitic-nematode-specific-protein-of-setaria-digitata
#10
M B C L Somarathne, Y I N S Gunawardena, N V Chandrasekharan, R S Dassanayake
Despite the differences of the host, parasitic nematodes may share commonalities in their parasitizing genes. Setaria digitata novel protein (SDNP) is such an entity which is parasitic nematode-specific and having sequence similarities with those of W. bancrofti, B. malayi, Loa loa and Onchocerca volvulus. Post-transcriptional gene silencing by siRNA mediated RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used technique in functional genomics. Though the technique has been used in several free-living, plant and animal parasitic nematodes, it has not yet been tried out for the filarial worm S...
February 12, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447173/dynamic-changes-of-setd2-a-histone-h3k36-methyltransferase-in-porcine-oocytes-ivf-and-scnt-embryos
#11
Yun Fei Diao, Tao Lin, Xiaoxia Li, Reza K Oqani, Jae Eun Lee, So Yeon Kim, Dong Il Jin
SETD2 (SET domain containing protein 2) acts as a histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36)-specific methyltransferase and may play important roles in active gene transcription in human cells. However, its expression and role in porcine oocytes and preimplantation embryos are not well understood. Here, we used immunofluorescence and laser scanning confocal microscopy to examine SETD2 expression in porcine fetal fibroblasts, oocytes, and preimplantation embryos derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF), parthenogenetic activation (PA), and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445162/mycn-drives-glutaminolysis-in-neuroblastoma-and-confers-sensitivity-to-an-ros-augmenting-agent
#12
Tingting Wang, Lingling Liu, Xuyong Chen, Yuqing Shen, Gaojian Lian, Nilay Shah, Andrew M Davidoff, Jun Yang, Ruoning Wang
Heightened aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis are characteristic metabolic phenotypes in cancer cells. Neuroblastoma (NBL), a devastating pediatric cancer, is featured by frequent genomic amplification of MYCN, a member of the Myc oncogene family that is primarily expressed in the early stage of embryonic development and required for neural crest development. Here we report that an enriched glutaminolysis gene signature is associated with MYCN amplification in children with NBL. The partial knockdown of MYCN suppresses glutaminolysis in NBL cells...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445154/interleukin-4-modulates-microglia-homeostasis-and-attenuates-the-early-slowly-progressive-phase-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#13
Chiara Rossi, Melania Cusimano, Martina Zambito, Annamaria Finardi, Alessia Capotondo, Jose Manuel Garcia-Manteiga, Giancarlo Comi, Roberto Furlan, Gianvito Martino, Luca Muzio
Microglia activation is a commonly pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating disorder characterized by a selective motor neurons degeneration. Whether such activation might represent a causal event rather than a secondary epiphenomenon remains elusive. Here, we show that CNS-delivery of IL-4-via a lentiviral-mediated gene therapy strategy-skews microglia to proliferate, inducing these cells to adopt the phenotype of slowly proliferating cells...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445069/expression-and-distribution-of-the-zinc-finger-protein-snai3-in-mouse-ovaries-and-pre-implantation-embryos
#14
Shujuan Guo, Xing-Yu Yan, Feifei Shi, Ke Ma, Zi-Jiang Chen, Cong Zhang
The Snail gene family includes Snai1, Snai2, and Snai3 that encode zinc finger-containing transcriptional repressors in mammals. The expression and localization of SNAI1 and SNAI2 have been studied extensively during folliculogenesis, ovulation, luteinization, and embryogenesis in mice. However, the role of SNAI3 is unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression of SNAI3 during these processes. Our immunohistochemistry data showed that SNAI3 first appeared in oocytes by postnatal day (PD) 9. Following this, SNAI3 was found to be expressed consistently in theca and interstitial cells, along with oocytes...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444933/pnldc1-mouse-pre-pirna-trimmer-is-required-for-meiotic-and-post-meiotic-male-germ-cell-development
#15
Toru Nishimura, Ippei Nagamori, Tsunetoshi Nakatani, Natsuko Izumi, Yukihide Tomari, Satomi Kuramochi-Miyagawa, Toru Nakano
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are germ cell-specific small RNAs essential for retrotransposon gene silencing and male germ cell development. In piRNA biogenesis, the endonuclease MitoPLD/Zucchini cleaves long, single-stranded RNAs to generate 5' termini of precursor piRNAs (pre-piRNAs) that are consecutively loaded into PIWI-family proteins. Subsequently, these pre-piRNAs are trimmed at their 3'-end by an exonuclease called Trimmer. Recently, poly(A)-specific ribonuclease-like domain-containing 1 (PNLDC1) was identified as the pre-piRNA Trimmer in silkworms...
February 14, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444173/transcriptome-variations-among-human-embryonic-stem-cell-lines-are-associated-with-their-differentiation-propensity
#16
Changbin Sun, Jiawen Zhang, Dongmin Zheng, Jian Wang, Huanming Yang, Xi Zhang
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to form any cell type in the body, making them attractive cell sources in drug screening, regenerative medicine, disease and developmental processes modeling. However, not all hESC lines have the equal potency to generate desired cell types in vitro. Significant variations have been observed for the differentiation efficiency of various human ESC lines. The precise underpinning molecular mechanisms are still unclear. In this work, we compared transcriptome variations of four hESC lines H7, HUES1, HUES8 and HUES9...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442894/graphene-oxide-incorporated-plga-nanofibrous-scaffold-for-solid-phase-gene-delivery-into-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#17
Zhiying Wang, He Shen, Saijie Song, Liming Zhang, Wei Chen, Jianwu Dai, Zhijun Zhang
Delivery of functional genes into stem cells shows great application prospect in DNA-based tissue engineering. However, comparing with epithelial cells and cancer cells, stem cells usually exhibit low gene transfection efficiency. To enhance the transfection efficiency, non-viral gene delivery in combination with biomaterial scaffolds, has raised increasing interests from researchers in tissue engineering. Nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning technique mimicking extracellular matrix (ECM) are widely used in tissue engineering applications...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442326/zic1-function-in-normal-cerebellar-development-and-human-developmental-pathology
#18
Jun Aruga, Kathleen J Millen
Zic genes are strongly expressed in the cerebellum. This feature leads to their initial identification and their name "zic," as the abbreviation of "zinc finger protein of the cerebellum." Zic gene function in cerebellar development has been investigated mainly in mice. However, association of heterozygous loss of ZIC1 and ZIC4 with Dandy-Walker malformation, a structural birth defect of the human cerebellum, highlights the clinical relevance of these studies. Two proposed mechanisms for Zic-mediated cerebellar developmental control have been documented: regulation of neuronal progenitor proliferation-differentiation and the patterning of the cerebellar primordium...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442316/odd-paired-the-drosophila-zic-gene
#19
Deborah A Hursh, Brian G Stultz
Zinc finger in the cerebellum (Zic) proteins are a family of transcription factors with multiple roles during development, particularly in neural tissues. The founding member of the Zic family is the Drosophila odd-paired (opa) gene. The Opa protein has a DNA binding domain containing five Cys2His2-type zinc fingers and has been shown to act as a sequence-specific DNA binding protein. Opa has significant homology to mammalian Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 within the zinc finger domain and in two other conserved regions outside that domain...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442054/mrna-expression-profiling-of-histone-modifying-enzymes-in-pediatric-acute-monoblastic-leukemia
#20
Pei-Fang Xiao, Yan-Fang Tao, Shao-Yan Hu, Lan Cao, Jun Lu, Jian Wang, Xing Feng, Jian Pan, Yi-Huan Chai
Histone modification is dysregulated in various types of cancers, including hematological malignancies. However, the expression profile of histone-modifying enzymes in pediatric acute monoblastic leukemia (AML FAB M5) has not been investigated. In this study, we evaluated the mRNA expression profile of 85 genes that encode enzymes involved in histone-modification in 27 pediatric AML FAB M5 samples by using a novel real-time PCR array. We obtained a gene cluster consisting of a total of 28 genes (15 up-regulated genes and 13 down-regulated genes)...
March 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
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