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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092776/periosteum-tissue-engineering-in-an-orthotopic-in%C3%A2-vivo-platform
#1
J G Baldwin, F Wagner, L C Martine, B M Holzapfel, C Theodoropoulos, O Bas, F M Savi, C Werner, E M De-Juan-Pardo, D W Hutmacher
The periosteum plays a critical role in bone homeostasis and regeneration. It contains a vascular component that provides vital blood supply to the cortical bone and an osteogenic niche that acts as a source of bone-forming cells. Periosteal grafts have shown promise in the regeneration of critical size defects, however their limited availability restricts their widespread clinical application. Only a small number of tissue-engineered periosteum constructs (TEPCs) have been reported in the literature. A current challenge in the development of appropriate TEPCs is a lack of pre-clinical models in which they can reliably be evaluated...
November 20, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092415/the-cluster-micrornas-mir-194-and-mir-215-suppress-the-tumorigenicity-of-intestinal-tumor-organoids
#2
Toshiaki Nakaoka, Yoshimasa Saito, Yuriko Shimamoto, Toshihide Muramatsu, Masaki Kimura, Yae Kanai, Hidetsugu Saito
Tumor stem cells with self-renewal and multipotent capacity play critical roles in the initiation and progression of cancer. Recently, a new 3D culture system known as organoid culture has been developed, allowing Lgr5-positive stem cells to form organoids that resemble the properties of original tissues. Here we established organoids derived from intestinal tumors of Apc(min/+) mice and normal intestinal epithelia of C57BL/6J mice and investigated the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in intestinal tumor organoids...
January 16, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092083/role-of-dopamine-d2-d3-receptors-in-development-plasticity-and-neuroprotection-in-human-ipsc-derived-midbrain-dopaminergic-neurons
#3
Federica Bono, Paola Savoia, Adele Guglielmi, Massimo Gennarelli, Giovanna Piovani, Sandra Sigala, Damiana Leo, Stefano Espinoza, Raul R Gainetdinov, Paola Devoto, PierFranco Spano, Cristina Missale, Chiara Fiorentini
The role of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors (D2R/D3R), located on midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons, in the regulation of DA synthesis and release and in DA neuron homeostasis has been extensively investigated in rodent animal models. By contrast, the properties of D2R/D3R in human DA neurons have not been elucidated yet. On this line, the use of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) for producing any types of cells has offered the innovative opportunity for investigating the human neuronal phenotypes at the molecular levels...
January 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091965/deformability-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-is-dependent-on-vimentin-intermediate-filaments
#4
Poonam Sharma, Zachary T Bolten, Diane R Wagner, Adam H Hsieh
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are being studied extensively due to their potential as a therapeutic cell source for many load-bearing tissues. Compression of tissues and the subsequent deformation of cells are just one type physical strain MSCs will need to withstand in vivo. Mechanotransduction by MSCs and their mechanical properties are partially controlled by the cytoskeleton, including vimentin intermediate filaments (IFs). Vimentin IF deficiency has been tied to changes in mechanosensing and mechanical properties of cells in some cell types...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091566/efficient-generation-of-hpsc-derived-midbrain-dopaminergic-neurons-in-a-fully-defined-scalable-3d-biomaterial-platform
#5
Maroof M Adil, Gonçalo M C Rodrigues, Rishikesh U Kulkarni, Antara T Rao, Nicole E Chernavsky, Evan W Miller, David V Schaffer
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have major potential as an unlimited source of functional cells for many biomedical applications; however, the development of cell manufacturing systems to enable this promise faces many challenges. For example, there have been major recent advances in the generation of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons from stem cells for Parkinson's Disease (PD) therapy; however, production of these cells typically involves undefined components and difficult to scale 2D culture formats. Here, we used a fully defined, 3D, thermoresponsive biomaterial platform to rapidly generate large numbers of action-potential firing mDA neurons after 25 days of differentiation (~40% tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive, maturing into 25% cells exhibiting mDA neuron-like spiking behavior)...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090796/impact-of-c-rel-inhibition-of-cord-blood-derived-b-t-and-nk-cells
#6
Shirin Fallahi, Seyede Momeneh Mohammadi, Hamid Tayefi Nasrabadi, Alireza Alihemmati, Naser Samadi, Sanaz Gholami, Dariush Shanehbandi, Hojjatollah Nozad Charoudeh
The c-Rel transcription factor is a unique member of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB family that has a role in curtailing the proliferation, differentiation, cytokine production, and overall activity of B- and T-cells. In addition, c-Rel is a key regulator of apoptosis in that it influences the expression of anti-apoptotic genes such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL; conversely, inhibition of c-Rel increases cell apoptosis. To better understand the relationship between c-Rel expression and effects on B- and T-cell expansion, the current study evaluated c-Rel expression in cord blood mononuclear cells...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090751/a-safety-checkpoint-to-eliminate-cancer-risk-of-the-immune-evasive-cells-derived-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#7
Jingjin He, Zhili Rong, Xuemei Fu, Yang Xu
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold great promise in the regenerative therapy of many currently untreatable human diseases. One of the key bottlenecks is the immune rejection of hESC-derived allografts by the recipient. To overcome this challenge, we have established new approaches to induce immune protection of hESC-derived allografts through the co-expression of immune suppressive molecules CTLA4-Ig and PD-L1. However, this in turn raises a safety concern of cancer risk because these hESC-derived cells can evade immune surveillance...
January 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090699/modelling-irf8-deficient-human-hematopoiesis-and-dendritic-cell-development-with-engineered-ips-cells
#8
Stephanie Sontag, Malrun Förster, Jie Qin, Paul Wanek, Saskia Mitzka, Herdit M Schüler, Steffen Koschmieder, Stefan Rose-John, Kristin Seré, Martin Zenke
Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can differentiate into cells of all three germ layers, including hematopoietic stem cells and their progeny. Interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) is a transcription factor, which acts in hematopoiesis as lineage determining factor for myeloid cells, including dendritic cells (DC). Autosomal recessive or dominant IRF8 mutations occurring in patients cause severe monocytic and DC immunodeficiency. To study IRF8 in human hematopoiesis we generated human IRF8-/- iPS cells and IRF8-/- embryonic stem (ES) cells using RNA guided CRISPR/Cas9n genome editing...
January 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090691/peg3-pw1-is-a-marker-of-a-subset-of-vessel-associated-endothelial-progenitors
#9
Matteo Malinverno, Monica Corada, Luca Ferrarini, Luigi Formicola, Giovanna Marazzi, David Sassoon, Elisabetta Dejana
Vascular associated endothelial cell progenitors are still poorly studied and their role in the newly forming vasculature at embryonic or postnatal stage remains elusive. In the present work we first defined a set of genes highly expressed during embryo development and strongly down regulated in the adult mouse. In this group we then concentrated on the progenitor cell marker Peg3/PW1. By in vivo staining of the vasculature we found that only a subset of cells co-expressed endothelial markers and PW1. These cells were quite abundant in the embryo vasculature but declined in number at postnatal and adult stages...
January 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090492/the-first-case-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-with-solitary-t-6-7-p21-3-p22-passenger-translocation-that-developed-at-relapse-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-a-patient-with-a-normal-karyotype-at-the-initial-diagnosis
#10
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090306/a-case-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-associated-with-adult-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#11
Julius Koifman, John Granton, John Thenganatt
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an aggressive, life-threatening syndrome of excessive immune activation. Presentation is most common among the pediatric population, and cases in adults are rare. The number of nonhematologic presentations described in relation to HLH has been growing. We present a case involving a woman who developed HLH after autologous stem cell transplantation for mantle cell lymphoma. Months later, she received a diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) while undergoing treatment for her HLH...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089869/the-molecular-and-morphogenetic-basis-of-pancreas-organogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Hjalte List Larsen, Anne Grapin-Botton
The pancreas is an essential endoderm-derived organ that ensures nutrient metabolism via its endocrine and exocrine functions. Here we review the essential processes governing the embryonic and early postnatal development of the pancreas discussing both the mechanisms and molecules controlling progenitor specification, expansion and differentiation. We elaborate on how these processes are orchestrated in space and coordinated with morphogenesis. We draw mainly from experiments conducted in the mouse model but also from investigations in other model organisms, complementing a recent comprehensive review of human pancreas development (Jennings et al...
January 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089754/stem-cell-therapy-an-emerging-modality-in-glomerular-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Umang G Thakkar, Aruna V Vanikar, Hargovind L Trivedi
The kidney has been considered a highly terminally differentiated organ with low proliferative potential and thus unlikely to undergo regeneration. Glomerular disease progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), which requires dialysis or renal transplantation for better quality of life for patients with ESRD. Because of the shortage of implantable kidneys and complications such as immune rejection, septicemia and toxicity of immunosuppression, kidney transplantation remains a challenge. Therapeutic options available for glomerular disease include symptomatic treatment and strategies to delay progression...
January 12, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089671/pdgfr%C3%AE-cells-in-embryonic-stem-cell-cultures-represent-the-in%C3%A2-vitro-equivalent-of-the-pre-implantation-primitive-endoderm-precursors
#14
Antonio Lo Nigro, Anchel de Jaime-Soguero, Rita Khoueiry, Dong Seong Cho, Giorgia Maria Ferlazzo, Ilaria Perini, Vanesa Abon Escalona, Xabier Lopez Aranguren, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Kian Peng Koh, Pier Giulio Conaldi, Wei-Shou Hu, An Zwijsen, Frederic Lluis, Catherine M Verfaillie
In early mouse pre-implantation development, primitive endoderm (PrE) precursors are platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) positive. Here, we demonstrated that cultured mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) express PDGFRα heterogeneously, fluctuating between a PDGFRα+ (PrE-primed) and a platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM1)-positive state (epiblast-primed). The two surface markers can be co-detected on a third subpopulation, expressing epiblast and PrE determinants (double-positive)...
January 5, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089494/downregulation-of-mir-1-enhances-tumorigenicity-and-invasiveness-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#15
Chih-Yu Peng, Yi-Wen Liao, Ming-Yi Lu, Chuan-Hang Yu, Cheng-Chia Yu, Ming-Yung Chou
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Cumulative evidence suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) function as biosignatures of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). However, the functional roles of miR-1 as well as its downstream targets in the regulation of tumorigenicity in OSCC remain unclear. METHODS: miRNAs RT-PCR analysis was performed to identify miR-1 as a putative candidate on mediating invasiveness of OSCC cells. Consequently, we elucidated the tumorigenicity of OSCC cells with miR-1 downregulation or overexpression, respectively...
January 12, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089422/low-magnitude-mechanical-signals-and-the-spine-a-review-of-current-and-future-applications
#16
REVIEW
Martin H Pham, Zorica Buser, Jeffrey C Wang, Frank L Acosta
Animal and human studies demonstrate the anabolic properties of low-magnitude mechanical stimulation (LMMS) in its ability to improve bone formation by enhancing the proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells and their subsequent commitment down an osteoblastic lineage. Response to mechanical strains as low as 10μɛ have been seen, illustrating the sensitivity of mechanosensory cells to mechanotransduction pathways. Applications to the spine include treatment of osteoporosis in preparation for instrumented fusion, fracture reduction in spinal cord injury patients to slow bone mineral density loss, and bone tissue engineering and enhancement of bone-implant osseointegration for pseudarthrosis and hardware failure...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089099/clinical-characteristics-and-outcome-of-invasive-fungal-infections-in-pediatric-acute-myeloid-leukemia-patients-in-a-medical-center-in-taiwan
#17
Gu-Lung Lin, Hsiu-Hao Chang, Chun-Yi Lu, Chung-Ming Chen, Meng-Yao Lu, Ping-Ing Lee, Shiann-Tarng Jou, Yung-Li Yang, Li-Min Huang, Luan-Yin Chang
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infection (IFI) causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancies, especially those with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), recurrent acute leukemia, high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and outcome of IFIs in pediatric AML patients in a medical center in Taiwan. METHODS: We performed retrospective chart reviews...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088986/age-associated-changes-in-human-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#18
REVIEW
Wendy W Pang, Stanley L Schrier, Irving L Weissman
Aging has a broad impact on the function of the human hematopoietic system. This review will focus primarily on the effect of aging on the human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) population. With age, even though human HSCs increase in number, they have decreased self-renewal capacity and reconstitution potential upon transplantation. As a population, human HSCs become more myeloid-biased in their differentiation potential. This is likely due to the human HSC population becoming more clonal with age, selecting for myeloid-biased HSC clones...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088893/intervention-for-cardiac-repair-a-clinical-perspective
#19
Hui Na Tan, Zhe Yuan Tay, Boon Seng Soh
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Damage to the heart resulting from cardiovascular disease leads to gradual loss of function and reduced quality of life. Cardiac injury is particularly debilitating, more so than injury to any other organ given our current inability to either generate new and functional cardiac tissue or to mimic the actions of the heart using external devices. Advances in the field of stem cells and genetics have paved the way for the development of a variety of novel therapies...
January 12, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088784/a-phase-i-clinical-study-of-autologous-dendritic-cell-therapy-in-patients-with-relapsed-or-refractory-multiple-myeloma
#20
Sung-Hoon Jung, Hyun-Ju Lee, Youn-Kyung Lee, Deok-Hwan Yang, Hyeoung-Joon Kim, Joon Haeng Rhee, Frank Emmrich, Je-Jung Lee
Cellular immunotherapy is emerging as a potential immunotherapeutic modality in multiple myeloma (MM). We have developed potent immunotherapeutic agent (VAX-DC/MM) generated by dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with autologous myeloma cells irradiated with ultraviolet B. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of VAX-DC/MM in patients with relapsed or refractory MM. This trial enrolled relapsed or refractory MM patients who had received both thalidomide- and bortezomib-based therapies. Patients received the intradermal VAX-DC/MM injection every week for 4 weeks...
January 10, 2017: Oncotarget
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