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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793088/decellularized-and-matured-esophageal-scaffold-for-circumferential-esophagus-replacement-proof-of-concept-in-a-pig-model
#1
Guillaume Luc, Guillaume Charles, Caroline Gronnier, Magali Cabau, Charlotte Kalisky, Mallory Meulle, Reine Bareille, Samantha Roques, Lionel Couraud, Johanna Rannou, Laurence Bordenave, Denis Collet, Marlène Durand
Surgical resection of the esophagus requires sacrificing a long portion of it. Its replacement by the demanding gastric pull-up or colonic interposition techniques may be avoided by using short biologic scaffolds composed of decellularized matrix (DM). The aim of this study was to prepare, characterize, and assess the in vivo remodeling of DM and its clinical impact in a preclinical model. A dynamic chemical and enzymatic decellularization protocol of porcine esophagus was set up and optimized. The resulting DM was mechanically and biologically characterized by DNA quantification, histology, and histomorphometry techniques...
May 17, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793046/validation-of-the-revised-pam-score-in-patients-with-aml-undergoing-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#2
Jan M Middeke, Frederike Kollinger, Henning Baldauf, Friedrich Stölzel, Martin Wermke, Malte von Bonin, Katja Sockel, Cornelia S Link, Raphael Teipel, Christoph Röllig, Christian Thiede, Uwe Platzbecker, Gerhard Ehninger, Martin Bornhäuser, Johannes Schetelig
PURPOSE: Despite recent advances, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) continues to be accompanied by a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Several scores have been developed to predict outcome after HSCT. The PAM score has been recently revised, and utilizes information on patient age, donor type, disease risk, cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus of patients and donors, and the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). The aim of this study was to analyze the predictive power of the PAM score in an independent, large cohort of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients...
May 21, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792920/inner-ear-drug-delivery-recent-advances-challenges-and-perspective
#3
Jinsong Hao, S Kevin Li
Effective and safe treatment of auditory and vestibular diseases has become increasingly dependent on inner ear drug delivery systems. This review highlights recent advances in inner ear drug delivery research and technologies. The focus is on strategies to overcome delivery barriers and to improve drug residence and targeting, with special attention to in vivo animal and human studies. The research in gene and stem cell delivery to the inner ear is briefly reviewed. Newly developed research tools to address experimental challenges and safety issues are discussed...
May 21, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792857/tgf-%C3%AE-plays-a-vital-role-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-tnbc-drug-resistance-through-regulating-stemness-emt-and-apoptosis
#4
Xiaodan Xu, Lu Zhang, Xiaogang He, Ping Zhang, Caihong Sun, Xiaojun Xu, Yaojuan Lu, Feifei Li
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most malignant subtype of breast cancer in which the cell surface lacks usual targets for drug to exhibit its effects. Epirubicin (Epi) is widely used for TNBC, but a substantial number of patients develop Epi resistance that is usually associated with poor prognosis. Transforming growth factor (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine. In recent study, it appears that TGF-β influences the cancer stem cell population, thus, the drug resistance of cancer may also be affected...
May 21, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792855/the-versatile-hippo-pathway-in-oral-maxillofacial-development-and-bone-remodeling
#5
REVIEW
Lin Xiang, Hui Yu, Xinyuan Zhang, Bin Wang, Ying Yuan, Qin Zhang, Rui Ye, Ping Gong, Yingying Wu
The Hipposignaling pathway is implicated in key aspects of cell proliferation, control of organ size, stem cell functions and tumor suppression. Its functions are primarily mediated either through direct effects on transcription factors to influence target gene expression or through crosstalk with other signaling pathways that regulate multiple physiological activities. Studies are revealing Hippo pathway involvement in diverse functions including renewal of intestinal epithelium, promotion of myocardial cell proliferation, cancer suppression, etc...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792808/eradication-of-established-tumors-by-chemically-self-assembled-nanoring-csan-targeted-t-cells
#6
Jacob Petersburg, Jingjing Shen, Clifford M Csizmar, Katherine A Murphy, Justin Spanier, Kari Gabrielse, Thomas S Griffith, Brian Fife, Carston R Wagner
Our laboratory has developed chemically self-assembled nanorings (CSANs) as prosthetic antigen receptors (PARs) for the non-genetic modification of T-cell surfaces. PARs have been successfully employed in vitro to activate T cells for the selective killing of leukemia cells. However, PAR efficacy has yet to be evaluated in vivo or against solid tumors. Therefore, we developed bispecific PARs that selectively target the human CD3 receptor and human Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM), which is overexpressed on multiple carcinomas and cancer stem cells...
May 24, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792734/clinical-updates-on-perianal-fistulas-in-crohn-s-disease
#7
Ori Rackovsky, Robert Hirten, Ryan Ungaro, Jean-Frederic Colombel
Perianal fistulizing disease is an aggressive and debilitating phenotype of Crohn's disease (CD), representing a significant therapeutic challenge. New work has led to advancement in epidemiology and long term outcomes of perianal disease. The range of therapeutic options continues to expand, including new biologic agents, biosimilars, and stem cell therapy. Areas covered: We discuss updates to all aspects of management of perianal disease, with a focus on the last three years of published data. Areas considered include new data on epidemiology and prognostication, medical and surgical therapy, and stem cell therapy...
May 24, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792351/peroxiredoxin-6-inhibits-osteogenic-differentiation-and-bone-formation-through-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-and-induces-delayed-bone-development
#8
Kyung-Ran Park, Hyung-Mun Yun, In Jun Yeo, Sehyung Cho, Jin Tae Hong, Yong Seok Jeong
AIMS: Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are thiol-specific antioxidant enzymes that regulate redox balance that are critical for maintaining the cellular potential for self-renewal and stemness. Stem cell-based regenerative medicine is a promising approach in tissue reconstruction. However, to obtain functional cells for use in clinical applications, stem cell technology still requires improvements. RESULTS: In the present study, we found that PRDX6 levels were decreased during osteogenic differentiation in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs)...
May 24, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791856/activation-of-the-arterial-program-drives-development-of-definitive-hemogenic-endothelium-with-lymphoid-potential
#9
Mi Ae Park, Akhilesh Kumar, Ho Sun Jung, Gene Uenishi, Oleg V Moskvin, James A Thomson, Igor I Slukvin
Understanding the pathways guiding the development of definitive hematopoiesis with lymphoid potential is essential for advancing human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) technologies for the treatment of blood diseases and immunotherapies. In the embryo, lymphoid progenitors and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) arise from hemogenic endothelium (HE) lining arteries but not veins. Here, we show that activation of the arterial program through ETS1 overexpression or by modulating MAPK/ERK signaling pathways at the mesodermal stage of development dramatically enhanced the formation of arterial-type HE expressing DLL4 and CXCR4...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791854/nup133-is-required-for-proper-nuclear-pore-basket-assembly-and-dynamics-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#10
Benoit Souquet, Ellen Freed, Alessandro Berto, Vedrana Andric, Nicolas Audugé, Bernardo Reina-San-Martin, Elizabeth Lacy, Valérie Doye
Nup133 belongs to the Y-complex, a key component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) scaffold. Studies on a null mutation in mice previously revealed that Nup133 is essential for embryonic development but not for mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) proliferation. Using single-pore detection and average NE-fluorescence intensity, we find that Nup133 is dispensable for interphase and postmitotic NPC scaffold assembly in pluripotent mESCs. However, loss of Nup133 specifically perturbs the formation of the nuclear basket as manifested by the absence of Tpr in about half of the NPCs combined with altered dynamics of Nup153...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791489/contractile-force-measurement-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiac-cell-sheet-tissue
#11
Daisuke Sasaki, Katsuhisa Matsuura, Hiroyoshi Seta, Yuji Haraguchi, Teruo Okano, Tatsuya Shimizu
We have developed our original tissue engineering technology "cell sheet engineering" utilizing temperature-responsive culture dishes. The cells are confluently grown on a temperature-responsive culture dish and can be harvested as a cell sheet by lowering temperature without enzymatic digestion. Cell sheets are high-cell-density tissues similar to actual living tissues, maintaining their structure and function. Based on this "cell sheet engineering", we are trying to create functional cardiac tissues from human induced pluripotent stem cells, for regenerative therapy and in vitro drug testing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791139/dynamic-ligand-presentation-in-biomaterials
#12
Joshua Hammer, Jennifer L West
The native cell microenvironment is extraordinarily dynamic, with reciprocal regulation pathways between cells and the extracellular matrix guiding many physiological processes, such as cell migration, stem cell differentiation, and tissue formation. Providing the correct sequence of biochemical cues to cells, both in vivo and in vitro, is critical for triggering specific biological outcomes. There has been a diversity of methods developed for exposing cells in culture to spatiotemporally varying cues, many of which have centered on dynamic control over cell-material interactions in an attempt to recapitulate the role of the extracellular matrix in cell signaling...
May 23, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790457/comparison-of-different-conditioning-regimens-of-haploidentical-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-in-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#13
Yujie Jiang, Xiaosheng Fang, Xiaohui Sui, Xin Liu, Ying Li, Xianghua Wang, Hongzhi Xu, Lingyan Zhang, Xin Wang
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the safety and efficacy of 2 conditioning regimens (busulfan/fludarabine vs modified busulfan/cyclophosphamide) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplant. MATERAILS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with primary acute myeloid leukemia had been randomized into busulfan/fludarabine and modified busulfan/cyclophosphamide groups. We retrospectively compared hematopoietic engraftment, regimen-related toxicity, graft-versus-host disease, transplant-related mortality, leukemia-free survival, and overall survival between the groups...
May 23, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790422/autologous-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neurons-to-treat-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Jeanne F Loring
In 2012, we planned a program to develop a neuron replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) that would have the greatest promise to help the patients. PD is a movement disorder caused by the progressive, inevitable loss of a specific type of dopamine neuron in the brain. The only viable treatment to reverse the progress of the disease is to replace those neurons; we decided to make dopamine neurons that matched the patients, by differentiating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that we generated from individuals with PD...
May 23, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790189/the-identification-of-a-novel-antibody-for-cd133-using-human-antibody-phage-display
#15
Paige M Glumac, Colleen L Forster, Hong Zhou, Paari Murugan, Shilpa Gupta, Aaron M LeBeau
BACKGROUND: The transmembrane glycoprotein CD133 is believed to be a marker of adult prostate stem cells and cancer stem/initiating cells. Investigating the role of CD133 in the normal biology of the prostate and in cancer is complicated by the lack of a sensitive and accurate antibody for its detection. Here, we describe the characterization of a unique antibody identified using human antibody phage display that can recognize CD133 in both formalin-fixed tissues and cell lines. METHODS: A human single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody phage display library possessing a diversity of 8 × 109 was screened against fully glycosylated recombinant CD133...
May 22, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790094/isolation-of-cancer-stem-cells-from-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#16
Silvia Fontenete, Mirna Perez-Moreno
Different cancer stem cell (CSC) populations can be found in many types of cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma (SSC). Diverse reports showed that CSC play a crucial role in the relapse of different types of cancer. CSC sustains tumor growth due to their capacity to self-renew and their potential to initiate secondary tumors with metastatic cancer features. Therefore, the development of methods for the isolation of CSC is a key step to explore the mechanisms underlying CSC maintenance. In this chapter, we provide a method for isolating CSC from cutaneous SSC using immunofluorescence labeling to allow the specific purification of CSC by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)...
May 23, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789935/potential-use-of-stem-cells-as-a-therapy-for-cystinosis
#17
REVIEW
Celine J Rocca, Stephanie Cherqui
Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive metabolic disease that belongs to the family of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs). Initial symptoms of cystinosis correspond to the renal Fanconi syndrome. Patients then develop chronic kidney disease and multi-organ failure due to accumulation of cystine in all tissue compartments. LSDs are commonly characterized by a defective activity of lysosomal enzymes. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) transplantation is a treatment option for several LSDs based on the premise that their progeny will integrate in the affected tissues and secrete the functional enzyme, which will be recaptured by the surrounding deficient cells and restore physiological activity...
May 22, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789783/mir-142-5p-in-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promotes-osteoporosis-involving-targeting-adhesion-molecule-vcam-1-and-inhibiting-cell-migration
#18
Zhaowei Teng, Xueguan Xie, Yun Zhu, Jianping Liu, Xingbo Hu, Qiang Na, Xiongwen Zhang, Guojun Wei, Shen Xu, Yugang Liu, Xiguang Zhang, Cory J Xian
Osteoporosis is a systemic bone metabolic disease that is highly prevalent in the elderly population, particularly in postmenopausal women, which results in enhanced bone fragility and an increased susceptibility to fractures. However, the underlying molecular pathogenesis mechanisms still remain to be further elucidated. In this study, in a rat ovariectomy- (OVX-) induced postmenopausal osteoporosis model, aberrant expression of a microRNA miR-142-5p and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) was found by RNA sequencing analysis and qRT-PCR...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789608/downregulation-of-endothelin-receptor-b-contributes-to-defective-b-cell-lymphopoiesis-in-trisomy-21-pluripotent-stem-cells
#19
Glenn A MacLean, Jennifer McEldoon, Jialiang Huang, Jeremy Allred, Matthew C Canver, Stuart H Orkin
Individuals with Trisomy 21 (T21) exhibit numerous hematological abnormalities, including reductions in numbers of circulating B and T lymphocytes. To elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying these phenotypes, we differentiated human isogenic disomic and trisomic pluripotent cells, and observed that trisomic cells showed defects in B cell, but not T cell differentiation. Global gene expression of differentiated, trisomic B cells revealed reduced expression of genes encoding endothelin signaling components, namely the Endothelin Receptor B (EDNRB), and its ligand Endothelin1 (EDN1)...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789581/intron-retention-and-nuclear-loss-of-sfpq-are-molecular-hallmarks-of-als
#20
Raphaelle Luisier, Giulia E Tyzack, Claire E Hall, Jamie S Mitchell, Helen Devine, Doaa M Taha, Bilal Malik, Ione Meyer, Linda Greensmith, Jia Newcombe, Jernej Ule, Nicholas M Luscombe, Rickie Patani
Mutations causing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) strongly implicate ubiquitously expressed regulators of RNA processing. To understand the molecular impact of ALS-causing mutations on neuronal development and disease, we analysed transcriptomes during in vitro differentiation of motor neurons (MNs) from human control and patient-specific VCP mutant induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We identify increased intron retention (IR) as a dominant feature of the splicing programme during early neural differentiation...
May 22, 2018: Nature Communications
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