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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145157/bmscs-derived-mir-223-containing-exosomes-contribute-to-liver-protection-in-experimental-autoimmune-hepatitis
#1
Lu Chen, Feng-Bin Lu, Da-Zhi Chen, Jin-Lu Wu, En-de Hu, Lan-Man Xu, Ming-Hua Zheng, Hui Li, Yu Huang, Xiao-Ya Jin, Yue-Wen Gong, Zhuo Lin, Xiao-Dong Wang, Yong-Ping Chen
Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic inflammatory disease in the liver with potential to the development of liver fibrosis. Recent evidences suggest that bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) may exert its therapeutic activity through exosomes. Moreover, miR-223 is highly expressed in BMSCs and plays an important role in autoimmune diseases. Therefore, in this study, hepatoprotective role of BMSCs and miR-223 was investigated in both mice and hepatocytes. Liver antigen S100 was used to establish autoimmune hepatitis model in mice while LPS and ATP were used to establish cell injury model in hepatocyte...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144448/regeneration-of-the-entire-human-epidermis-using-transgenic-stem-cells
#2
Tobias Hirsch, Tobias Rothoeft, Norbert Teig, Johann W Bauer, Graziella Pellegrini, Laura De Rosa, Davide Scaglione, Julia Reichelt, Alfred Klausegger, Daniela Kneisz, Oriana Romano, Alessia Secone Seconetti, Roberta Contin, Elena Enzo, Irena Jurman, Sonia Carulli, Frank Jacobsen, Thomas Luecke, Marcus Lehnhardt, Meike Fischer, Maximilian Kueckelhaus, Daniela Quaglino, Michele Morgante, Silvio Bicciato, Sergio Bondanza, Michele De Luca
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a severe and often lethal genetic disease caused by mutations in genes encoding the basement membrane component laminin-332. Surviving patients with JEB develop chronic wounds to the skin and mucosa, which impair their quality of life and lead to skin cancer. Here we show that autologous transgenic keratinocyte cultures regenerated an entire, fully functional epidermis on a seven-year-old child suffering from a devastating, life-threatening form of JEB. The proviral integration pattern was maintained in vivo and epidermal renewal did not cause any clonal selection...
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143974/%C3%AE-h2ax-formation-in-the-urinary-bladder-of-rats-treated-with-two-norharman-derivatives-obtained-from-o-toluidine-and-aniline
#3
T Toyoda, Y Totsuka, K Matsushita, T Morikawa, N Miyoshi, K Wakabayashi, K Ogawa
Aminomethylphenylnorharman (AMPNH) and aminophenylnorharman (APNH) are mutagenic norharman derivatives obtained from o-toluidine and aniline, respectively. APNH is carcinogenic to the urinary bladder of rats and present in urine samples of healthy volunteers, indicating that norharman derivatives may be associated with cancer development in the urinary bladder of humans. To evaluate the possible role of AMPNH and APNH in bladder carcinogenesis, we examined the formation of γ-H2AX, a DNA damage response marker, in the urinary bladder of rats...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143804/telomeres-and-telomerase-in-hematopoietic-dysfunction-prognostic-implications-and-pharmacological-interventions
#4
REVIEW
Theresa Vasko, Andrea Kaifie, Matthias B Stope, Thomas Kraus, Patrick Ziegler
Leukocyte telomere length (TL) has been suggested as a marker of biological age in healthy individuals, but can also reflect inherited and acquired hematopoietic dysfunctions or indicate an increased turnover of the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell compartment. In addition, TL is able to predict the response rate of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), indicates clinical outcomes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and can be used as screening tool for genetic sequencing of selected genes in patients with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (BMFS)...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143779/regenerative-therapies-in-dry-eye-disease-from-growth-factors-to-cell-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Antonio J Villatoro, Viviana Fernández, Silvia Claros, Cristina Alcoholado, Manuel Cifuentes, Jesús Merayo-Lloves, José A Andrades, José Becerra
Dry eye syndrome is a complex and insidious pathology with a high level of prevalence among the human population and with a consequently high impact on quality of life and economic cost. Currently, its treatment is symptomatic, mainly based on the control of lubrication and inflammation, with significant limitations. Therefore, the latest research is focused on the development of new biological strategies, with the aim of regenerating affected tissues, or at least restricting the progression of the disease, reducing scar tissue, and maintaining corneal transparency...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143459/the-spatial-patterning-of-rgd-and-bmp-2-mimetic-peptides-at-the-subcellular-scale-modulates-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-osteogenesis
#6
I Bilem, L Plawinski, P Chevallier, C Ayela, E D Sone, G Laroche, M C Durrieu
Engineering artificial extracellular matrices (ECMs), based on the biomimicry of the spatial distribution of proteins and growth factors within their native microenvironment, is of great importance for understanding mechanisms of bone tissue regeneration. Herein, photolithography is used to decorate glass surfaces with subcellular patterns of RGD and BMP-2 ligands; two mimetic peptides recognized to be involved in stem cells osteogenesis. The biological relevance of well-defined RGD and BMP-2 patterned surfaces is evaluated by investigating the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into osteoblasts, in the absence of induction media...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143419/long-non-coding-rna-rp11-380d23-2-drives-distal-proximal-patterning-of-the-lung-by-regulating-pitx2-expression
#7
Poulomi Banerjee, Harshini Surendran, Kapil Bharti, Kaoru Morishita, Anurag Varshney, Rajarshi Pal
Early lung development is a tightly orchestrated process encompassing (a) formation of definitive endoderm, (b) anteriorization of definitive endoderm followed by (c) specification and maturation of both proximal and distal lung precursors. Several reports detailing the interaction of genes and proteins during lung development are available; however, studies reporting the role(s) of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) in lung morphogenesis are limited. To investigate this, we tailored a protocol for differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells into distal and proximal lung progenitors to mimic in vivo lung development...
November 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143226/aligned-ovine-diaphragmatic-myoblasts-overexpressing-human-connexin-43-seeded-on-poly-l-lactic-acid-scaffolds-for-potential-use-in-cardiac-regeneration
#8
Carlos Sebastián Giménez, Paola Locatelli, Florencia Montini Ballarin, Alejandro Orlowski, Ricardo A Dewey, Milagros Pena, Gustavo Abel Abraham, Ernesto Alejandro Aiello, María Del Rosario Bauzá, Luis Cuniberti, Fernanda Daniela Olea, Alberto Crottogini
Diaphragmatic myoblasts (DMs) are precursors of type-1 muscle cells displaying high exhaustion threshold on account that they contract and relax 20 times/min over a lifespan, making them potentially useful in cardiac regeneration strategies. Besides, it has been shown that biomaterials for stem cell delivery improve cell retention and viability in the target organ. In the present study, we aimed at developing a novel approach based on the use of poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds seeded with DMs overexpressing connexin-43 (cx43), a gap junction protein that promotes inter-cell connectivity...
November 15, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143183/micrornas-important-regulators-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-generation-and-differentiation
#9
REVIEW
Zhao-Lin Zeng, Xiao-Long Lin, Li-Lan Tan, Ya-Mi Liu, Kai Qu, Zuo Wang
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can differentiate into nearly all types of cells. In contrast to embryonic stem cells, iPS cells are not subject to immune rejection because they are derived from a patient's own cells without ethical concerns. These cells can be used in regenerative medical techniques, stem cell therapy, disease modelling and drug discovery investigations. However, this application faces many challenges, such as low efficiency, slow generation time, partially reprogrammed colonies and tumourigenicity...
November 15, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143139/effect-of-protein-adsorption-layers-and-solution-treatments-on-hydroxyapatite-deposition-on-polystyrene-plate-surfaces-in-simulated-body-fluids
#10
Kazutoshi Iijima, Ayako Iizuka, Ryo Suzuki, Hitomi Ueno-Yokohata, Nobutaka Kiyokawa, Mineo Hashizume
We have developed a method to functionalize polystyrene (PS) cell culture plates with hydroxyapatite (HAp) via protein adsorption layers such as human serum albumin (HSA) in simulated body fluids (SBFs). In order to investigate the versatility the method, in this study the effect of protein adsorption layers on HAp deposition on PS plate surfaces in SBF was evaluated. Pretreatments with alternate soaking process (ASP) using solutions containing calcium ions and phosphate ions followed by incubation with SBF for 24 h resulted in HAp deposition on PS plates with adsorption layers of HSA, type I collagen, hen egg white lysozyme, and poly L-glutamic acid, an acidic protein analogue: the deposition behaviors were correlated with adsorption ability and charge state of proteins...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142598/expression-profile-of-oct-4-lung-cancer-specific-marker-prior-and-subsequent-to-a-salirasib-treatment-regime
#11
Xiang Ao, Jie Zhou, Hong Ling Liang, Ming Jiang, Hong Sheng Li
Lung cancer is one of the leading types of cancer that lead to mortalities in the male and female populations. The existing lung cancer-specific markers are not able to accurately predict the condition of the disease, and the response of these markers can vary under various pathological conditions. The ability for tumors to regenerate following treatment can be more aggressive, and this may be due to the remaining lung cancer-specific stem cells, which are resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs. Evaluating cancer stem cells under various pathological conditions, as well as prior and subsequent to treatment, can help to increase the understanding of the underlying mechanisms...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142256/quantitative-analysis-of-protein-protein-interactions-and-post-translational-modifications-in-rare-immune-populations
#12
Ayelet Avin, Maayan Levy, Ziv Porat, Jakub Abramson
In spite of recent advances in proteomics, quantitative analyses of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) or post-translational modifications (PTMs) in rare cell populations remain challenging. This is in particular true for analyses of rare immune and/or stem cell populations that are directly isolated from humans or animal models, and which are often characterized by multiple surface markers. To overcome these limitations, here we have developed proximity ligation imaging cytometry (PLIC), a protocol for proteomic analysis of rare cells...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142174/evaluation-system-for-arrhythmogenic-potential-of-drugs-using-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-and-gene-expression-analysis
#13
Arisa Higa, Hirotaka Hoshi, Yuka Yanagisawa, Emi Ito, Gaku Morisawa, Jun-Ichi Imai, Shinya Watanabe, Motoki Takagi
In recent years, human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs) have been widely used to develop evaluation systems for drug cardiotoxicity, including the arrhythmia caused by QT prolongation. To accurately assess the arrhythmogenic potential of drugs, associated with QT prolongation, we developed an evaluation system using hiPS-CMs and gene expression analysis. hiPS-CMs were treated with 8 arrhythmogenic and 17 non-arrhythmogenic drugs at several concentrations for 24 hr to comprehensively analyze gene expression...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141958/dna-methylation-defines-regional-identity-of-human-intestinal-epithelial-organoids-and-undergoes-dynamic-changes-during-development
#14
Judith Kraiczy, Komal M Nayak, Kate J Howell, Alexander Ross, Jessica Forbester, Camilla Salvestrini, Roxana Mustata, Sally Perkins, Amanda Andersson-Rolf, Esther Leenen, Anke Liebert, Ludovic Vallier, Philip C Rosenstiel, Oliver Stegle, Gordon Dougan, Robert Heuschkel, Bon-Kyoung Koo, Matthias Zilbauer
OBJECTIVE: Human intestinal epithelial organoids (IEOs) are increasingly being recognised as a highly promising translational research tool. However, our understanding of their epigenetic molecular characteristics and behaviour in culture remains limited. DESIGN: We performed genome-wide DNA methylation and transcriptomic profiling of human IEOs derived from paediatric/adult and fetal small and large bowel as well as matching purified human gut epithelium. Furthermore, organoids were subjected to in vitro differentiation and genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 technology...
November 15, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141658/thioredoxin-mitigates-radiation-induced-hematopoietic-stem-cell-injury-in-mice
#15
Pasupathi Sundaramoorthy, Qinhong Wang, Zhihong Zheng, Yiqun Jiao, Benny J Chen, Phuong L Doan, Nelson J Chao, Yubin Kang
BACKGROUND: Radiation exposure poses a significant threat to public health. Hematopoietic injury is one of the major manifestations of acute radiation sickness. Protection and/or mitigation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from radiation injury is an important goal in the development of medical countermeasure agents (MCM). We recently identified thioredoxin (TXN) as a novel molecule that has marked protective and proliferative effects on HSCs. In the current study, we investigated the effectiveness of TXN in rescuing mice from a lethal dose of total body radiation (TBI) and in enhancing hematopoietic reconstitution following a lethal dose of irradiation...
November 15, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141554/insight-into-the-role-of-long-non-coding-rnas-during-osteogenesis-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#16
Sibei Huo, Yachuan Zhou, Xinyu He, Mian Wan, Wei Du, Xin Xu, Ling Ye, Xuedong Zhou, Liwei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) are non-protein coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides in length. Instead of being "transcriptional noise", lncRNAs are emerging as a key modulator in various biological processes and disease development. Mesenchymal stem cells can be isolated from various adult tissues, such as bone marrow and dental tissues. The differentiation processes into multiple lineages, such as osteogenic differentiation, are precisely orchestrated by molecular signals in both genetic and epigenetic ways...
November 15, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141533/targeting-cancer-stem-cells-and-non-stem-cancer-cells-the-potential-of-lipid-based-nanoparticles
#17
Ana Filipa Cruz, Nuno Andre Fonseca, Vera Moura, Sergio Simoes, Joao Nuno Moreira
Background Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been described as a relevant contributor to tumorigenicity, metastasis, tumor recurrence and drug resistance, making this cell population a relevant target in solid tumors. METHODS: This has stimulated the development of different therapeutic strategies often targeting surface markers (CD44, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and nucleolin) and/or signaling pathways that are aberrantly activated and contribute to CSCs proliferation and survival...
November 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141232/foxp1-promotes-embryonic-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-by-repressing-jagged1-expression
#18
Luca Braccioli, Stephin J Vervoort, Youri Adolfs, Cobi J Heijnen, Onur Basak, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Cora H Nijboer, Paul J Coffer
Mutations in FOXP1 have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders including intellectual disability and autism; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain ill-defined. Here, we demonstrate with RNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing that FOXP1 directly regulates genes controlling neurogenesis. We show that FOXP1 is expressed in embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs), and modulation of FOXP1 expression affects both neuron and astrocyte differentiation. Using a murine model of cortical development, FOXP1-knockdown in utero was found to reduce NSC differentiation and migration during corticogenesis...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141227/in-situ-fixation-redefines-quiescence-and-early-activation-of-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells
#19
Léo Machado, Joana Esteves de Lima, Odile Fabre, Caroline Proux, Rachel Legendre, Anikó Szegedi, Hugo Varet, Lars Roed Ingerslev, Romain Barrès, Frédéric Relaix, Philippos Mourikis
State of the art techniques have been developed to isolate and analyze cells from various tissues, aiming to capture their in vivo state. However, the majority of cell isolation protocols involve lengthy mechanical and enzymatic dissociation steps followed by flow cytometry, exposing cells to stress and disrupting their physiological niche. Focusing on adult skeletal muscle stem cells, we have developed a protocol that circumvents the impact of isolation procedures and captures cells in their native quiescent state...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141221/chemotherapy-induced-depletion-of-oct4-positive-cancer-stem-cells-in-a-mouse-model-of-malignant-testicular-cancer
#20
Timothy M Pierpont, Amy M Lyndaker, Claire M Anderson, Qiming Jin, Elizabeth S Moore, Jamie L Roden, Alicia Braxton, Lina Bagepalli, Nandita Kataria, Hilary Zhaoxu Hu, Jason Garness, Matthew S Cook, Blanche Capel, Donald H Schlafer, Teresa Southard, Robert S Weiss
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are among the most responsive solid cancers to conventional chemotherapy. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we developed a mouse TGCT model featuring germ cell-specific Kras activation and Pten inactivation. The resulting mice developed malignant, metastatic TGCTs composed of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma, the latter of which exhibited stem cell characteristics, including expression of the pluripotency factor OCT4. Consistent with epidemiological data linking human testicular cancer risk to in utero exposures, embryonic germ cells were susceptible to malignant transformation, whereas adult germ cells underwent apoptosis in response to the same oncogenic events...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
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