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Athlete paradox

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792003/exercise-induced-changes-in-hematocrit-and-hematocrit-viscosity-ratio-in-male-rugby-players
#1
Varlet-Marie Emmanuelle, Brun Jean-Frédéric, Raynaud de Mauverger Eric, Fédou Christine
We investigated whether the concept of hematocrit/viscosity (h/η) ratio explains the "paradox of hematocrit in athletes", by calculating a "theoretical optimal hematocrit" (i.e., associated with the higher h/η value predicted with Quemada's equation from plasma viscosity, and erythrocyte rigidity index) before and after exercise. 14 rugby players (19-31 yr; weight 65.8-109.2 kg; height 1.7-1.96 m; BMI 21.7-33.1 kg/m2) underwent a standardized submaximal exercise session on cycloergometer corresponding to 225 kjoules over 30 min...
October 27, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669445/triathletes-lose-their-advantageous-pain-modulation-under-acute-psychosocial-stress
#2
Nirit Geva, Jens Pruessner, Ruth Defrin
INTRODUCTION: Triathletes, who constantly engage in intensely stressful sport, were recently found to exhibit greater pain tolerance and more efficient pain inhibition capabilities than non athletes. However, pain inhibition correlated negatively with retrospective reports of mental stress during training and competition. The aim of the current study was to test pain inhibition capabilities of triathletes under acute, controlled psychological stress manipulation. METHODS: Participants were 25 triathletes and ironman triathletes who underwent the measurement of pain-threshold, pain-intolerance, tonic suprathreshold pain and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) before and during exposure to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST)...
September 23, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515336/when-an-increase-in-central-systolic-pressure-overrides-the%C3%A2-benefits-of%C3%A2-heart%C3%A2-rate-lowering
#3
REVIEW
Franz H Messerli, Stefano F Rimoldi, Sripal Bangalore, Chirag Bavishi, Stephane Laurent
An elevated resting heart rate has been unequivocally linked to adverse cardiovascular events. Conversely, a physiologically low heart rate may confer longevity benefits. Moreover, pharmacological heart rate lowering reduces cardiovascular outcomes in patients with heart failure, with the magnitude of the reduction associated with survival benefit. In contrast, pharmacological heart rate lowering paradoxically increases cardiovascular events in hypertension, possibly because it elicits a ventricular-vascular mismatch, leading to increased central systolic blood pressure (BP)...
August 16, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445983/exercise-increases-and-browns-muscle-lipid-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#4
Tiffany L Morton, Kornelia Galior, Cody McGrath, Xin Wu, Gunes Uzer, Guniz Bas Uzer, Buer Sen, Zhihui Xie, David Tyson, Janet Rubin, Maya Styner
Muscle lipid increases with high-fat feeding and diabetes. In trained athletes, increased muscle lipid is not associated with insulin resistance, a phenomenon known as the athlete's paradox. To understand if exercise altered the phenotype of muscle lipid, female C57BL/6 mice fed CTL or high-fat diet (HFD for 6 or 18 weeks) were further divided into sedentary or exercising groups (CTL-E or HFD-E) with voluntary access to running wheels for the last 6 weeks of experiments, running 6 h/night. Diet did not affect running time or distance...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418321/how-do-training-and-competition-workloads-relate-to-injury-the-workload-injury-aetiology-model
#5
Johann Windt, Tim J Gabbett
Injury aetiology models that have evolved over the previous two decades highlight a number of factors which contribute to the causal mechanisms for athletic injuries. These models highlight the pathway to injury, including (1) internal risk factors (eg, age, neuromuscular control) which predispose athletes to injury, (2) exposure to external risk factors (eg, playing surface, equipment), and finally (3) an inciting event, wherein biomechanical breakdown and injury occurs. The most recent aetiological model proposed in 2007 was the first to detail the dynamic nature of injury risk, whereby participation may or may not result in injury, and participation itself alters injury risk through adaptation...
July 14, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408630/dysfunctional-breathing-and-reaching-one-s-physiological-limit-as-causes-of-exercise-induced-dyspnoea
#6
REVIEW
Julie Depiazzi, Mark L Everard
Excessive exercise-induced shortness of breath is a common complaint. For some, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is the primary cause and for a small minority there may be an alternative organic pathology. However for many, the cause will be simply reaching their physiological limit or be due to a functional form of dysfunctional breathing, neither of which require drug therapy.The physiological limit category includes deconditioned individuals, such as those who have been through intensive care and require rehabilitation, as well as the unfit and the fit competitive athlete who has reached their limit with both of these latter groups requiring explanation and advice...
June 2016: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27218140/vitamin-d-deficiency-and-exercise-induced-laryngospasm-in-young-competitive-rowers
#7
Enrico Heffler, Matteo Bonini, Luisa Brussino, Paolo Solidoro, Giuseppe Guida, Monica Boita, Giuliana Nicolosi, Caterina Bucca
Exercise-induced dyspnea is common among adolescents and young adults and often originates from exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Sometimes, dyspnea corresponds to exercise-induced laryngospasm (EILO), which is a paradoxical decrease in supraglottic/glottic area. Vitamin D deficiency, which occurs frequently at northern latitudes, might favor laryngospasm by impairing calcium transport and slowing striate muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether vitamin D status has an influence on bronchial and laryngeal responses to exercise in young, healthy athletes...
July 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159282/the-discovery-of-slowness-time-to-deconstruct-gretzky-s-and-messi-s-predictive-brains
#8
Thomas C Erren, Liz Kuffer, Andreas Pinger, J Valérie Groß
Jafari and Smith hypothesized that time during games may pass slower for the world's best football player, Lionel Messi, from Argentina. This hypothesis leads to two questions: How can we explain such temporal paradox and how could this explain his dominant performances? Remarkably, the Argentinian's case was preceded by the equally astonishing case of Wayne Gretzky: The Canadian considered ice hockey as a rather slow game and was the best player in the sport's history. Whether Messi's and Gretzky's motor neurons fire faster, (inter)act differently or whether other mechanisms are at (inter)play warrants targeted research...
2016: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152424/abdominal-fat-reducing-outcome-of-exercise-training-fat-burning-or-hydrocarbon-source-redistribution
#9
Chia-Hua Kuo, M Brennan Harris
Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry...
July 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26962455/-feelings-stronger-than-reason-conflicting-experiences-of-exercise-in-women-with-anorexia-nervosa
#10
Liv-Jorunn Kolnes
BACKGROUND: Individuals with anorexia nervosa frequently feel ambivalent about treatment and weight restoration, and drop out and relapse rates in treatment are high. Increased insight into the function of the eating disorder is considered essential for achieving long-lasting, meaningful change. However, research investigating the functions of anorexia nervosa tends to focus on the role of the disease per se. Distinctions are rarely made across features. In particular, the subjective experience, understanding and sense making of the engagement in compulsive exercise in individuals with anorexia nervosa has received little attention...
2016: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26925028/autonomic-nervous-system-responses-to-concussion-arterial-pulse-contour-analysis
#11
Michael F La Fountaine, Michita Toda, Anthony J Testa, Vicci Hill-Lombardi
The arterial pulse wave (APW) has a distinct morphology whose contours reflect dynamics in cardiac function and peripheral vascular tone as a result of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) control. With a transition from rest to increased metabolic demand, the expected augmentation of SNS outflow will not only affect arterial blood pressure and heart rate but it will also induce changes to the contours of the APW. Following a sports concussion, a transient state cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is present. How this state affects the APW has yet to be described...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26758673/the-training-injury-prevention-paradox-should-athletes-be-training-smarter-and-harder
#12
REVIEW
Tim J Gabbett
BACKGROUND: There is dogma that higher training load causes higher injury rates. However, there is also evidence that training has a protective effect against injury. For example, team sport athletes who performed more than 18 weeks of training before sustaining their initial injuries were at reduced risk of sustaining a subsequent injury, while high chronic workloads have been shown to decrease the risk of injury. Second, across a wide range of sports, well-developed physical qualities are associated with a reduced risk of injury...
March 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26757801/sports-genetics-moving-forward-lessons-learned-from-medical-research
#13
REVIEW
C Mikael Mattsson, Matthew T Wheeler, Daryl Waggott, Colleen Caleshu, Euan A Ashley
Sports genetics can take advantage of lessons learned from human disease genetics. By righting past mistakes and increasing scientific rigor, we can magnify the breadth and depth of knowledge in the field. We present an outline of challenges facing sports genetics in the light of experiences from medical research. Sports performance is complex, resulting from a combination of a wide variety of different traits and attributes. Improving sports genetics will foremost require analyses based on detailed phenotyping...
March 2016: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26644989/biomechanical-implications-of-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-and-atrophy-a-musculoskeletal-model
#14
Andrew D Vigotsky, Bret Contreras, Chris Beardsley
Muscle hypertrophy and atrophy occur frequently as a result of mechanical loading or unloading, with implications for clinical, general, and athletic populations. The effects of muscle hypertrophy and atrophy on force production and joint moments have been previously described. However, there is a paucity of research showing how hypertrophy and atrophy may affect moment arm (MA) lengths. The purpose of this model was to describe the mathematical relationship between the anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) of a muscle and its MA length...
2015: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26328480/impact-driven-pulmonary-emboli-of-osseous-fat-in-exercise-induced-bronchospasm
#15
REVIEW
Peter A Simkin, Brian K Snitily
Exercise induced bronchospasm (EIB) affects approximately 10% of normal individuals with higher prevalence rates among children, obese adults, and competitive athletes. Although hyperpnea with dry air is the best known cause, the problem is multifactorial with atopy, asthma and chlorine all playing established roles. To date, no clear mechanism has connected musculoskeletal loading with the ensuing pulmonary compromise. This paper reviews evidence that impact-driven pulses in subchondral bone pressure may push osseous fat cells into the local venous sinusoids...
November 2015: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26277725/influence-of-physical-activity-on-hypertension-and-cardiac-structure-and-function
#16
REVIEW
Sheila M Hegde, Scott D Solomon
The global burden of hypertension is rising and accounts for substantial morbidity and mortality. Lifestyle factors such as diet and physical inactivity contribute to this burden, further highlighting the need for prevention efforts to curb this public health epidemic. Regular physical activity is associated with lower blood pressure, reduced cardiovascular risk, and cardiac remodeling. While exercise and hypertension can both be associated with the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), the cardiac remodeling from hypertension is pathologic with an associated increase in myocyte hypertrophy, fibrosis, and risk of heart failure and mortality, whereas LVH in athletes is generally non-pathologic and lacks the fibrosis seen in hypertension...
October 2015: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26183372/venous-thromboembolism-in-physically-active-people-considerations-for-risk-assessment-mainstream-awareness-and-future-research
#17
Claire M Hull, Julia A Harris
The global healthcare burden of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and associated comorbidities (e.g., obesity, heart disease and cancer) is significant. Physical activity-especially cardiovascular exercise-is popularly acclaimed for gold-standard prevention. Paradoxically, intensive training can expose athletes to several potentially thrombogenic risk factors (e.g., heat stress, dehydration, blood vessel injury and inflammation). However, awareness regarding the risk of VTE in physically active people is generally lacking...
October 2015: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26075206/recommendations-for-healthy-nutrition-in-female-endurance-runners-an-update
#18
REVIEW
Louise Deldicque, Marc Francaux
The purpose of this review is to present the basic principles of a healthy nutrition in female endurance runner enriched by the latest scientific recommendations. Female endurance runners are a specific population of athletes who need to take specifically care of daily nutrition due to the high load of training and the necessity to keep a rather low body mass. This paradoxical situation can create some nutritional imbalances and deficiencies. Female endurance athletes should pay attention to their total energy intake, which is often lower than their energy requirement...
2015: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26001627/the-effect-of-exercise-on-respiratory-resistance-in-athletes-with-and-without-paradoxical-vocal-fold-motion-disorder
#19
Sally J K Gallena, Nancy Pearl Solomon, Arthur T Johnson, Jafar Vossoughi, Wei Tian
PURPOSE: An investigational, portable instrument was used to assess inspiratory (R(i)) and expiratory (R(e)) resistances during resting tidal breathing (RTB), postexercise breathing (PEB), and recovery breathing (RB) in athletes with and without paradoxical vocal fold motion disorder (PVFMD). METHOD: Prospective, controlled, repeated measures within-subject and between-groups design. Twenty-four teenage female athletes, 12 with and 12 without PVFMD, breathed into the Airflow Perturbation Device for baseline measures of respiratory resistance and for two successive 1-min trials after treadmill running for up to 12 min...
August 2015: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25733060/might-the-masson-trichrome-stain-be-considered-a-useful-method-for-categorizing-experimental-tendon-lesions
#20
Tiziana Martinello, Francesco Pascoli, Giovanni Caporale, Anna Perazzi, Ilaria Iacopetti, Marco Patruno
Strain injuries of tendons are the most common orthopedic injuries in athletic subjects, be they equine or human. When the tendon is suddenly damaged, an acute inflammatory phase occurs whereas its repetitive overloading may cause chronic injuries. Currently the criteria used for grading injuries are general and subjective, and therefore a reliable grading method would be an improvement. The main purpose of this study was to assess qualitatively the histological pattern of Masson trichrome stain in healthy and injured tendons; indeed, the known "paradox" of Masson staining was used to create an evaluation for the matrix of tendons, following experimental lesions and natural repair processes...
August 2015: Histology and Histopathology
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