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Athlete paradox

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303472/chronic-exertional-compartment-syndrome-in-the-forearm-of-a-collegiate-softball-pitcher
#1
REVIEW
Austin Cole, John L Hiatt, Christopher Arnold, Terry Sites, Ramon Ylanon
BACKGROUND: Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a recognized condition in the lower limb, with many reports in the literature. However, very few instances include CECS of the upper limb. This article presents the case of a collegiate softball pitcher presenting with CECS in her right forearm. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a softball player with CECS, with only one similar incident in a major league baseball player. PURPOSE: The rarity of this condition normally places it low on the differential diagnosis...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148461/measuring-quality-of-life-in-pediatric-paradoxical-vocal-fold-motion-using-the-sf-36v2
#2
Kershena S Liao, Paul E Kwak, Hazel Hewitt, Sarah Hollas, Julina Ongkasuwan
OBJECTIVES: Paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM) consists of intermittent adduction of the vocal folds during inspiration, resulting in stridor and worsened by anxiety and stress. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of PVFM on quality of life in our pediatric patient population. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective, descriptive survey study. METHODS: Thirty-nine consecutive patients (ages 12-17 years) presenting with a PVFM diagnosis for respiratory retraining sessions with speech-language pathology were recruited...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139319/paradoxical-vocal-fold-motion-pvfm-in-pediatric-otolaryngology
#3
Blake Smith, Claudio Milstein, Bryan Rolfes, Samantha Anne
INTRODUCTION: Paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM) is a condition in which the vocal cords exhibit inappropriate inspiratory adduction, and it has been poorly studied in the pediatric population. METHODS: Pediatric patients diagnosed with PVCM by a pediatric otolaryngologist and doctor of speech pathology from 2008 to 2012 were reviewed. Patients in whom another cause for their respiratory disturbance was eventually identified were excluded. Patient demographics, characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were reviewed...
March 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049727/allosteric-transmission-along-a-loosely-structured-backbone-allows-a-cardiac-troponin-c-mutant-to-function-with-only-one-ca-2-ion
#4
Mayra de A Marques, Jose Renato Pinto, Adolfo H Moraes, Anwar Iqbal, Mariana T Q de Magalhães, Jamila Monteiro, Murilo M Pedrote, Martha M Sorenson, Jerson L Silva, Guilherme A P de Oliveira
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is one of the most common cardiomyopathies and a major cause of sudden death in young athletes. The Ca(2+) sensor of the sarcomere, cardiac troponin C (cTnC), plays an important role in regulating muscle contraction. Although several cardiomyopathy-causing mutations have been identified in cTnC, the limited information about their structural defects has been mapped to the HCM phenotype. Here, we used high-resolution electron-spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill relaxation dispersion (CPMG-RD), and affinity measurements of cTnC for the thin filament in reconstituted papillary muscles to provide evidence of an allosteric mechanism in mutant cTnC that may play a role to the HCM phenotype...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792003/exercise-induced-changes-in-hematocrit-and-hematocrit-viscosity-ratio-in-male-rugby-players
#5
Emmanuelle Varlet-Marie, Jean-Frédéric Brun, Eric Raynaud de Mauverger, Christine Fédou
We investigated whether the concept of hematocrit/viscosity (h/η) ratio explains the "paradox of hematocrit in athletes", by calculating a "theoretical optimal hematocrit" (i.e., associated with the higher h/η value predicted with Quemada's equation from plasma viscosity, and erythrocyte rigidity index) before and after exercise. 14 rugby players (19-31 yr; weight 65.8-109.2 kg; height 1.7-1.96 m; BMI 21.7-33.1 kg/m2) underwent a standardized submaximal exercise session on cycloergometer corresponding to 225 kjoules over 30 min...
2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669445/triathletes-lose-their-advantageous-pain-modulation-under-acute-psychosocial-stress
#6
Nirit Geva, Jens Pruessner, Ruth Defrin
INTRODUCTION: Triathletes, who constantly engage in intensely stressful sport, were recently found to exhibit greater pain tolerance and more efficient pain inhibition capabilities than non athletes. However, pain inhibition correlated negatively with retrospective reports of mental stress during training and competition. The aim of the current study was to test pain inhibition capabilities of triathletes under acute, controlled psychological stress manipulation. METHODS: Participants were 25 triathletes and ironman triathletes who underwent the measurement of pain-threshold, pain-intolerance, tonic suprathreshold pain and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) before and during exposure to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST)...
September 23, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515336/when-an-increase-in-central-systolic-pressure-overrides-the%C3%A2-benefits-of%C3%A2-heart%C3%A2-rate-lowering
#7
REVIEW
Franz H Messerli, Stefano F Rimoldi, Sripal Bangalore, Chirag Bavishi, Stephane Laurent
An elevated resting heart rate has been unequivocally linked to adverse cardiovascular events. Conversely, a physiologically low heart rate may confer longevity benefits. Moreover, pharmacological heart rate lowering reduces cardiovascular outcomes in patients with heart failure, with the magnitude of the reduction associated with survival benefit. In contrast, pharmacological heart rate lowering paradoxically increases cardiovascular events in hypertension, possibly because it elicits a ventricular-vascular mismatch, leading to increased central systolic blood pressure (BP)...
August 16, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445983/exercise-increases-and-browns-muscle-lipid-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#8
Tiffany L Morton, Kornelia Galior, Cody McGrath, Xin Wu, Gunes Uzer, Guniz Bas Uzer, Buer Sen, Zhihui Xie, David Tyson, Janet Rubin, Maya Styner
Muscle lipid increases with high-fat feeding and diabetes. In trained athletes, increased muscle lipid is not associated with insulin resistance, a phenomenon known as the athlete's paradox. To understand if exercise altered the phenotype of muscle lipid, female C57BL/6 mice fed CTL or high-fat diet (HFD for 6 or 18 weeks) were further divided into sedentary or exercising groups (CTL-E or HFD-E) with voluntary access to running wheels for the last 6 weeks of experiments, running 6 h/night. Diet did not affect running time or distance...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418321/how-do-training-and-competition-workloads-relate-to-injury-the-workload-injury-aetiology-model
#9
REVIEW
Johann Windt, Tim J Gabbett
Injury aetiology models that have evolved over the previous two decades highlight a number of factors which contribute to the causal mechanisms for athletic injuries. These models highlight the pathway to injury, including (1) internal risk factors (eg, age, neuromuscular control) which predispose athletes to injury, (2) exposure to external risk factors (eg, playing surface, equipment), and finally (3) an inciting event, wherein biomechanical breakdown and injury occurs. The most recent aetiological model proposed in 2007 was the first to detail the dynamic nature of injury risk, whereby participation may or may not result in injury, and participation itself alters injury risk through adaptation...
March 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408630/dysfunctional-breathing-and-reaching-one-s-physiological-limit-as-causes-of-exercise-induced-dyspnoea
#10
REVIEW
Julie Depiazzi, Mark L Everard
Excessive exercise-induced shortness of breath is a common complaint. For some, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is the primary cause and for a small minority there may be an alternative organic pathology. However for many, the cause will be simply reaching their physiological limit or be due to a functional form of dysfunctional breathing, neither of which require drug therapy.The physiological limit category includes deconditioned individuals, such as those who have been through intensive care and require rehabilitation, as well as the unfit and the fit competitive athlete who has reached their limit with both of these latter groups requiring explanation and advice...
June 2016: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27218140/vitamin-d-deficiency-and-exercise-induced-laryngospasm-in-young-competitive-rowers
#11
Enrico Heffler, Matteo Bonini, Luisa Brussino, Paolo Solidoro, Giuseppe Guida, Monica Boita, Giuliana Nicolosi, Caterina Bucca
Exercise-induced dyspnea is common among adolescents and young adults and often originates from exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Sometimes, dyspnea corresponds to exercise-induced laryngospasm (EILO), which is a paradoxical decrease in supraglottic/glottic area. Vitamin D deficiency, which occurs frequently at northern latitudes, might favor laryngospasm by impairing calcium transport and slowing striate muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether vitamin D status has an influence on bronchial and laryngeal responses to exercise in young, healthy athletes...
July 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159282/the-discovery-of-slowness-time-to-deconstruct-gretzky-s-and-messi-s-predictive-brains
#12
Thomas C Erren, Liz Kuffer, Andreas Pinger, J Valérie Groß
Jafari and Smith hypothesized that time during games may pass slower for the world's best football player, Lionel Messi, from Argentina. This hypothesis leads to two questions: How can we explain such temporal paradox and how could this explain his dominant performances? Remarkably, the Argentinian's case was preceded by the equally astonishing case of Wayne Gretzky: The Canadian considered ice hockey as a rather slow game and was the best player in the sport's history. Whether Messi's and Gretzky's motor neurons fire faster, (inter)act differently or whether other mechanisms are at (inter)play warrants targeted research...
2016: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152424/abdominal-fat-reducing-outcome-of-exercise-training-fat-burning-or-hydrocarbon-source-redistribution
#13
REVIEW
Chia-Hua Kuo, M Brennan Harris
Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry...
July 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26962455/-feelings-stronger-than-reason-conflicting-experiences-of-exercise-in-women-with-anorexia-nervosa
#14
Liv-Jorunn Kolnes
BACKGROUND: Individuals with anorexia nervosa frequently feel ambivalent about treatment and weight restoration, and drop out and relapse rates in treatment are high. Increased insight into the function of the eating disorder is considered essential for achieving long-lasting, meaningful change. However, research investigating the functions of anorexia nervosa tends to focus on the role of the disease per se. Distinctions are rarely made across features. In particular, the subjective experience, understanding and sense making of the engagement in compulsive exercise in individuals with anorexia nervosa has received little attention...
2016: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26925028/autonomic-nervous-system-responses-to-concussion-arterial-pulse-contour-analysis
#15
Michael F La Fountaine, Michita Toda, Anthony J Testa, Vicci Hill-Lombardi
The arterial pulse wave (APW) has a distinct morphology whose contours reflect dynamics in cardiac function and peripheral vascular tone as a result of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) control. With a transition from rest to increased metabolic demand, the expected augmentation of SNS outflow will not only affect arterial blood pressure and heart rate but it will also induce changes to the contours of the APW. Following a sports concussion, a transient state cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is present. How this state affects the APW has yet to be described...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26758673/the-training-injury-prevention-paradox-should-athletes-be-training-smarter-and-harder
#16
REVIEW
Tim J Gabbett
BACKGROUND: There is dogma that higher training load causes higher injury rates. However, there is also evidence that training has a protective effect against injury. For example, team sport athletes who performed more than 18 weeks of training before sustaining their initial injuries were at reduced risk of sustaining a subsequent injury, while high chronic workloads have been shown to decrease the risk of injury. Second, across a wide range of sports, well-developed physical qualities are associated with a reduced risk of injury...
March 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26757801/sports-genetics-moving-forward-lessons-learned-from-medical-research
#17
REVIEW
C Mikael Mattsson, Matthew T Wheeler, Daryl Waggott, Colleen Caleshu, Euan A Ashley
Sports genetics can take advantage of lessons learned from human disease genetics. By righting past mistakes and increasing scientific rigor, we can magnify the breadth and depth of knowledge in the field. We present an outline of challenges facing sports genetics in the light of experiences from medical research. Sports performance is complex, resulting from a combination of a wide variety of different traits and attributes. Improving sports genetics will foremost require analyses based on detailed phenotyping...
March 2016: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26644989/biomechanical-implications-of-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-and-atrophy-a-musculoskeletal-model
#18
Andrew D Vigotsky, Bret Contreras, Chris Beardsley
Muscle hypertrophy and atrophy occur frequently as a result of mechanical loading or unloading, with implications for clinical, general, and athletic populations. The effects of muscle hypertrophy and atrophy on force production and joint moments have been previously described. However, there is a paucity of research showing how hypertrophy and atrophy may affect moment arm (MA) lengths. The purpose of this model was to describe the mathematical relationship between the anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) of a muscle and its MA length...
2015: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26328480/impact-driven-pulmonary-emboli-of-osseous-fat-in-exercise-induced-bronchospasm
#19
REVIEW
Peter A Simkin, Brian K Snitily
Exercise induced bronchospasm (EIB) affects approximately 10% of normal individuals with higher prevalence rates among children, obese adults, and competitive athletes. Although hyperpnea with dry air is the best known cause, the problem is multifactorial with atopy, asthma and chlorine all playing established roles. To date, no clear mechanism has connected musculoskeletal loading with the ensuing pulmonary compromise. This paper reviews evidence that impact-driven pulses in subchondral bone pressure may push osseous fat cells into the local venous sinusoids...
November 2015: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26277725/influence-of-physical-activity-on-hypertension-and-cardiac-structure-and-function
#20
REVIEW
Sheila M Hegde, Scott D Solomon
The global burden of hypertension is rising and accounts for substantial morbidity and mortality. Lifestyle factors such as diet and physical inactivity contribute to this burden, further highlighting the need for prevention efforts to curb this public health epidemic. Regular physical activity is associated with lower blood pressure, reduced cardiovascular risk, and cardiac remodeling. While exercise and hypertension can both be associated with the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), the cardiac remodeling from hypertension is pathologic with an associated increase in myocyte hypertrophy, fibrosis, and risk of heart failure and mortality, whereas LVH in athletes is generally non-pathologic and lacks the fibrosis seen in hypertension...
October 2015: Current Hypertension Reports
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