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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646777/predicting-improved-optical-water-quality-in-rivers-resulting-from-soil-conservation-actions-on-land
#1
J R Dymond, R J Davies-Colley, A O Hughes, C D Matthaei
Deforestation in New Zealand has led to increased soil erosion and sediment loads in rivers. Increased suspended fine sediment in water reduces visual clarity for humans and aquatic animals and reduces penetration of photosynthetically available radiation to aquatic plants. To mitigate fine-sediment impacts in rivers, catchment-wide approaches to reducing soil erosion are required. Targeting soil conservation for reducing sediment loads in rivers is possible through existing models; however, relationships between sediment loads and sediment-related attributes of water that affect both ecology and human uses of water are poorly understood...
June 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646688/solar-radiation-and-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-in-japan
#2
Daisuke Onozuka, Akihito Hagihara
BACKGROUND: Although several studies have estimated the effects of temperature on mortality and morbidity, little is known regarding the burden of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) attributable to solar radiation. METHODS: We obtained data for all cases of OHCA and meteorological data reported between 2011 and 2014 in 3 Japanese prefectures: Hokkaido, Ibaraki, and Fukuoka. We first examined the relationship between daily solar radiation and OHCA risk for each prefecture using time-varying distributed lag non-linear models and then pooled the results in a multivariate random-effects meta-analysis...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645885/the-threshold-of-toxicological-concern-for-prenatal-developmental-toxicity-in-rats-and-rabbits
#3
B van Ravenzwaay, X Jiang, T Luechtefeld, T Hartung
The Threshold Toxicological Concern (TTC) is based on the concept that in absence of experimental data reasonable assurance of safety can be given if exposure is sufficiently low. Using the REACH database the low 5th percentile of the NO(A)EL distribution, for prenatal developmental toxicity (OECD guideline 414) was determined. For rats, (434 NO(A)ELs values) for maternal toxicity, this value was 10 mg/kg-bw/day. For developmental toxicity (469 NO(A)ELs): 13 mg/kg-bw/day. For rabbits, (100 NO(A)ELs), the value for maternal toxicity was 4 mg/kg-bw/day, for developmental toxicity, (112 NO(A)EL values): 10 mg/kg-bw/day...
June 20, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645520/impact-of-birth-weight-on-adult-onset-diabetes-mellitus-in-relation-to-current-body-mass-index-the-japan-nurses-health-study
#4
Kota Katanoda, Mitsuhiko Noda, Atsushi Goto, Hideki Mizunuma, Jung Su Lee, Kunihiko Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Although birth weight is considered as a fetal determinant of the development of adult-onset diabetes mellitus (DM), its public health importance relative to adult body mass index (BMI) remains unclear. We aimed to examine the association between adult-onset DM and birth weight in relation to adult BMI. METHODS: We conducted a self-administered questionnaire as a baseline survey of the Japanese Nurses' Health Study cohort between 2001 and 2007. Exclusion criteria were applied to the volunteer sample of 49,927 female nurses (age <30 years or unknown, current pregnancy, development of DM before the age of 30 years, unknown core variables), and data from 26,949 female nurses aged 30 years or older were used...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645332/effects-of-air-pollution-and-seasons-on-health-related-quality-of-life-of-mongolian-adults-living-in-ulaanbaatar-cross-sectional-studies
#5
Motoyuki Nakao, Keiko Yamauchi, Yoko Ishihara, Hisamitsu Omori, Dashtseren Ichinnorov, Bandi Solongo
BACKGROUND: Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, is known as severely air-polluted city in the world due to increased coal consumption in the cold season. The health effects of air pollution in Mongolia such as mortality, morbidity and symptoms have been previously reported. However, the concept of health-related quality of life (HR-QoL), which refers to the individual's perception of well-being, should also be included as an adverse health outcome of air pollution. METHODS: Surveys on the Mongolian people living in Ulaanbaatar were performed in the warm and cold seasons...
June 23, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645324/bmi-and-recommended-levels-of-physical-activity-in-school-children
#6
Phillipp Schwarzfischer, Martina Weber, Dariusz Gruszfeld, Piotr Socha, Veronica Luque, Joaquin Escribano, Annick Xhonneux, Elvira Verduci, Benedetta Mariani, Berthold Koletzko, Veit Grote
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) and its health benefits are a continuous point of discussion. Recommendations for children's daily PA vary between guidelines. To better define the amount of PA necessary to prevent overweight and obesity in children, further research is needed. The present study investigates children's compliance to physical activity guidelines (PAGs) and the association between objectively measured PA and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Participating children were 11 years old (n = 419) and part of the European CHOP trial, which was conducted in Germany, Belgium, Poland, Spain, Italy...
June 24, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644929/short-interpregnancy-intervals-maternal-folate-levels-and-infants-born-small-for-gestational-age-a-preliminary-study-in-a-canadian-supplement-using-population
#7
Buffy Chen, Prescilla Carrion, Ravneet Grewal, Angela Inglis, Catriona Hippman, Emily Morris, Heather J Andrighetti, Arianne Albert, Jehannine Austin
BACKGROUND: Short interpregnancy intervals (SIPI) have been associated with increased risks for adverse neonatal outcomes including preterm delivery and infants small for gestational age (SGA). It has been suggested that mechanistically, adverse neonatal outcomes after SIPI arise due to insufficient recovery of depleted maternal folate levels prior to the second pregnancy. However, empirical data are lacking regarding physiological folate levels in pregnant women with SIPI, and relationships between quantified physiological folate levels and outcomes like SGA...
June 23, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644755/a-contemporary-examination-of-first-and-second-permanent-molar-emergence
#8
B T Pahel, W F Vann, K Divaris, R G Rozier
The emergence of first permanent molars (FPMs) and second permanent molars (SPMs) is an important developmental milestone influencing caries risk and the timing of sealant placement. Emergence times have been shown to vary by sex and race/ethnicity, while recent reports suggest a positive association with adiposity. Amid the changing demographics of the US population and the rising rates of pediatric overweight/obesity, we sought to examine the association of body mass index (BMI) with FPM/SPM emergence in a representative sample of US children and adolescents...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644403/assessment-of-vulnerability-to-coccidioidomycosis-in-arizona-and-california
#9
Jennifer Shriber, Kathryn C Conlon, Kaitlin Benedict, Orion Z McCotter, Jesse E Bell
Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection endemic to the southwestern United States, particularly Arizona and California. Its incidence has increased, potentially due in part to the effects of changing climatic variables on fungal growth and spore dissemination. This study aims to quantify the county-level vulnerability to coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California and to assess the relationships between population vulnerability and climate variability. The variables representing exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity were combined to calculate county level vulnerability indices...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644367/oral-cholic-acid-is-efficacious-and-well-tolerated-in-patients-with-bile-acid-synthesis-and-zellweger-spectrum-disorders
#10
James E Heubi, Kevin E Bove, Kenneth D R Setchell
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with bile acid synthesis disorders (BASD) due to single enzyme defects (SED) or Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSD) accumulate hepatotoxic atypical bile acids resulting in potentially fatal progressive liver disease. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral cholic acid in patients with BASD. METHODS: In this phase 3, open-label, single-arm, nonrandomized, noncomparative study conducted over 18 years, patients were administered cholic acid orally 10 to 15 mg/kg/day...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644097/thirty-day-postoperative-morbidity-and-mortality-after-temporal-lobectomy-for-medically-refractory-epilepsy
#11
Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Brandon McCutcheon, Meghan E Murphy, Kenan R Rajjoub, Daniel Ubl, Elizabeth B Habermann, Gregory Worrell, Mohamad Bydon, Jamie J Van Gompel
OBJECTIVE Temporal lobectomy is a well-established treatment modality for the management of medically refractory epilepsy in appropriately selected patients. The aim of this study was to assess 30-day morbidity and mortality after temporal lobectomy in cases registered in a national database. METHODS A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted using a multiinstitutional surgical registry compiled between 2006 and 2014. The authors identified patients who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy and/or amygdalohippocampectomy for a primary diagnosis of intractable epilepsy...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643994/the-impact-of-valproic-acid-treatment-on-weight-gain-in-pediatric-patients-with-epilepsy
#12
Pietro Ferrara, Antonio Gatto, Valeria Blasi, Federica DI Ruscio, Domenica Battaglia
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is an antiepileptic drug, used for focal and generalized seizure. VPA treatment resulted in significant weight gain but there are no systematic data about the prevalence of this side effect. The aim of the study is to evaluate the weight gain of a paediatric population with epilepsy. METHODS: We enrolled 38 patients, 17 female and 21 male with a mean age of 8.2±4.4 years. We evaluated data about height, weight and BMI at beginning of treatment and at 24, 36 and 48 months of follow-up...
June 22, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643405/reassessment-of-the-access-testosterone-chemiluminescence-assay-and-comparison-with-lc-ms-method
#13
Ruggero Dittadi, Mara Matteucci, Elisa Meneghetti, Rudina Ndreu
AIM OF THE STUDY: To reassess the imprecision and Limit of Quantitation, to evaluate the cross-reaction with dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), the accuracy toward liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and the reference interval of the Access Testosterone method, performed by DxI immunoassay platform (Beckman Coulter). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Imprecision was evaluated testing six pool samples assayed in 20 different run using two reagents lots. The cross-reaction with DHEAS was studied both by a displacement curve and by spiking DHEAS standard in two serum samples with known amount of testosterone...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643234/body-mass-disorders-in-healthy-short-children-and-in-children-with-growth-hormone-deficiency
#14
Paweł Tomaszewski, Katarzyna Milde, Anna Majcher, Beata Pyrżak, Gul Tiryaki-Sonmez, Brad J Schoenfeld
The aim of the study was to determine the degree of adiposity and the incidence of body mass disorders, including abdominal obesity, in healthy short children and children with growth hormone deficiency. The study included 134 short children (height < 10th percentile) aged 7-15. In this cohort there were 63 (31 boys and 32 girls) children without diagnosed hormonal disorders and 71 patients (35 boys and 36 girls) with growth hormone deficiency. Basic somatic features were assessed and the study participants were categorized according to the percentage of body fat (%FAT), body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)...
June 23, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643092/application-of-ct-texture-analysis-in-predicting-histopathological-characteristics-of-gastric-cancers
#15
Shunli Liu, Song Liu, Changfeng Ji, Huanhuan Zheng, Xia Pan, Yujuan Zhang, Wenxian Guan, Ling Chen, Yue Guan, Weifeng Li, Jian He, Yun Ge, Zhengyang Zhou
OBJECTIVES: To explore the application of computed tomography (CT) texture analysis in predicting histopathological features of gastric cancers. METHODS: Preoperative contrast-enhanced CT images and postoperative histopathological features of 107 patients (82 men, 25 women) with gastric cancers were retrospectively reviewed. CT texture analysis generated: (1) mean attenuation, (2) standard deviation, (3) max frequency, (4) mode, (5) minimum attenuation, (6) maximum attenuation, (7) the fifth, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentiles, and (8) entropy...
June 22, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643021/the-effect-of-14-3-3%C3%AE-expression-on-tamoxifen-resistance-and-breast-cancer-recurrence-a-danish-population-based-study
#16
Jake E Thistle, Ylva Hellberg, Kristina Mortensen, Stephen Hamilton-Dutoit, Anders Kjærsgaard, Deirdre Cronin-Fenton, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Timothy L Lash
PURPOSE: Overexpression of 14-3-3ζ has been linked to breast cancer recurrence in several studies, including studies assessing its effect on tamoxifen resistance. The study was performed to estimate the effect of 14-3-3ζ and differentiate potential prognostic or predictive utility. METHODS: A case-control study, nested in a population of 11,251 females residing on the Jutland Peninsula of Denmark, was performed. Participants were aged 35-69, diagnosed with stage I, II, or III breast cancer between 1985 and 2001, and registered with the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group...
June 22, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642923/the-influence-of-particle-size-and-curing-conditions-on-testing-mineral-trioxide-aggregate-cement
#17
William Nguyen Ha, Bill Kahler, Laurence James Walsh
Objectives: To assess the effects on curing conditions (dry versus submerged curing) and particle size on the compressive strength (CS) and flexural strength (FS) of set MTA cement. Materials and methods: Two different Portland cements were created, P1 and P2, with P1 < P2 in particle size. These were then used to create two experimental MTA products, M1 and M2, with M1 < M2 in particle size. Particle size analysis was performed according to ISO 13320. The particle size at the 90th percentile (i.e. the larger particles) was P1: 15...
December 2016: Acta Biomaterialia Odontologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642374/behavioral-patterns-in-adolescents-born-at-23-to-25-weeks-of-gestation
#18
Maria Samuelsson, Antti Holsti, Marie Adamsson, Fredrik Serenius, Bruno Hägglöf, Aijaz Farooqi
BACKGROUND: This study examined mental health outcomes in extremely preterm children (EPT) born at 23 to 25 weeks of gestation between 1992 and 1998 at 2 Swedish tertiary care centers that offered regional and active perinatal care to all live-born EPT infants. METHODS: We assessed 132 (98%) of the 134 EPT survivors at 10 to 15 years of age alongside term-born controls. Behavioral and emotional problems were evaluated by using Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form and Conners' Parent and Teacher scales for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder...
June 22, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641188/risk-assessment-of-triclosan-released-from-sewage-treatment-plants-in-european-rivers-using-a-combination-of-risk-quotient-methodology-and-monte-carlo-simulation
#19
Vasiliki S Thomaidi, Christos Matsoukas, Athanasios S Stasinakis
Ιn this study a probabilistic risk assessment was applied to investigate the environmental risks for the European aquatic environment associated with triclosan (TCS) occurrence in treated wastewater. The concentrations of TCS in effluents of European Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) were recorded through literature review, while toxicity data was collected for three groups of aquatic organisms (algae, Daphnia magna and fish). The ratio of Measured Environmental Concentration (MEC) and Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC), expressed as a Risk Quotient (RQ), was calculated for risk characterization, while Monte Carlo simulation was applied to quantify the associated uncertainty...
June 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640606/pharmacokinetics-of-mequindox-and-its-marker-residue-1-4-bisdesoxymequindox-in-swine-following-multiple-oral-gavage-and-intramuscular-administration-an-experimental-study-coupled-with-population-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling
#20
Dongping Zeng, Zhoumeng Lin, Binghu Fang, Miao Li, Ronette Gehring, Jim E Riviere, ZhenLing Zeng
Mequindox (MEQ) is a quinoxaline-N,N-dioxide antibiotic used in food-producing animals. MEQ residue in animal-derived foods is a food safety concern. The tissue distribution of MEQ and its marker residue 1,4-bisdesoxymequindox (M1) was determined in swine following oral gavage or intramuscular injection twice daily for 3 days. The experimental data were used to construct a flow-limited physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. The model predictions correlated with available data well. Monte Carlo analysis showed that the times needed for M1 concentrations to fall below limit of detection (5 µg/kg) in liver for the 99th percentile of the population were 27 and 34 days after oral gavage and intramuscular administration twice daily for 3 days, respectively...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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