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Growth Trajectory

Christine A Webber, Douglas W Zochodne
The directional trajectory of growing peripheral nerve axons in the adult impacts their successful regeneration to denervated target tissues. Misdirected axons in neuromas, injured nerve trunks, or nerves with attempted repair diminish the success of regeneration. The behavior of adult rodent peripheral sensory neurons in vitro, in turn, is helpful in predicting axonal behavior in vivo. Here, we describe the adaptation of embryonic neuron growth cone turning assays, an important technique in developmental neurobiology, to adult rat sensory neurons...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Laura Di Giunta, Concetta Pastorelli, Eriona Thartori, Anna Silvia Bombi, Emma Baumgartner, Richard A Fabes, Carol Lynn Martin, Craig K Enders
In the present study, the predictors and outcomes associated with the trajectories of peer rejection were examined in a longitudinal sample of Italian children (338 boys, 269 girls) ages 10 to 14 years. Follow-up assessments included 60% of the original sample at age 16-17. Low, medium, and high rejection trajectory groups were identified using growth mixture models. Consistent with previous studies, we found that (a) being less prosocial and more physically aggressive at age 10 was characteristic of those children with the high rejection trajectory; (b) being less attractive was related to higher peer rejection from age 10 to 14; and (c) boys with a high rejection trajectory showed high levels of delinquency and anxiety-depression and low levels of academic aspiration at age 16-17, whereas girls with a high rejection trajectory showed low levels of academic aspiration and social competence at age 16-17...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Cen Wang, Linda J Harrison, Sharynne McLeod, Sue Walker, Jantine L Spilt
PURPOSE: This study explored how teacher-child relationships change over the early school years, in terms of closeness and conflict, whether these trajectories differ in type and frequency for children with typical development and children with speech and language concern (SLC), and whether the trajectories are associated with school outcomes at 12-13 years. METHOD: Participants were children, parents and teachers in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Guiping Shen, Ying Huang, Jiyang Dong, Xuexi Wang, Kian-Kai Cheng, Jianghua Feng, Jingjing Xu, Jidan Ye
Taurine is indispensable in aquatic diets that are based solely on plant protein, and it promotes growth of many fish species. However, the physiological and metabolome effects of taurine on fish have not been well described. In this study, 1H NMR-based metabolomics approaches were applied to investigate the metabolite variations in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotictus) muscle in order to visualize the metabolic trajectory and reveal the possible mechanisms of metabolic effects of dietary taurine supplementation on tilapia growth...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Kathleen M Lenk, Darin J Erickson, Jean L Forster
PURPOSE: To identify trajectories of smoking behaviors of a cohort of youth followed through young adulthood from 2000 to 2013. DESIGN: The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort study, a population-based cohort study. SETTING: Nationwide, originating in the Midwestern United States. PARTICIPANTS: Cohort of youth surveyed for 14 years beginning at ages 12 to 16 (N = 4241 at baseline; 59% recruitment rate). MEASURES: Main variable of interest was the number of days smoked in the past 30 days...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Anne Masi, Edmond J Breen, Gail A Alvares, Nicholas Glozier, Ian B Hickie, Anna Hunt, Jennie Hui, John Beilby, David Ravine, John Wray, Andrew J O Whitehouse, Adam J Guastella
Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are complex, pervasive, and heterogeneous neurodevelopmental conditions with varying trajectories, significant male bias and largely unknown etiology. However, an understanding of the biological mechanisms driving pathophysiology is evolving. Immune system aberrations, as identified through cytokine profiles, are believed to have a role in ASD. Altered cytokine levels may facilitate identification of ASD subtypes as well as provide biological markers of response to effective treatments...
2017: Molecular Autism
Hadar Fisher, Dana Atzil-Slonim, Eran Bar-Kalifa, Eshkol Rafaeli, Tuvia Peri
OBJECTIVE: Emotional experience during psychotherapy is considered a core mechanism of change. Yet the sheer experience itself may not necessarily be beneficial; instead, the trajectories of emotional experience need to be explored as possible predictors of treatment outcomes. This study investigated whether clients' pre-treatment levels of emotion regulation and symptoms predicted patterns of session-to-session change in emotional experience. We also explored which patterns better predict clients' improvement in emotion regulation and symptoms from pre- to post treatment...
December 6, 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
Patrick L Hill, Sara J Weston
OBJECTIVES: Though cross-sectional research has suggested that sense of purpose declines into older adulthood, it remains unclear whether inter-individual variability occurs in these trajectories, and what factors predict these trajectories. The current study provides one of the first longitudinal investigations into how individuals' sense of purpose fluctuates in older adulthood. METHOD: Participants from the Health and Retirement Study (n = 4,234, mean age = 65 years), completed assessments of sense of purpose over three years, along with multiple potential predictors (health, personality, demographics) at the start...
December 7, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
C A Schmitt, S K Service, A J Jasinska, T D Dyer, M J Jorgensen, R M Cantor, G M Weinstock, J Blangero, J R Kaplan, N B Freimer
OBJECTIVE: In humans, the ontogeny of obesity throughout the life course and the genetics underlying it has been historically difficult to study. We compared, in a non-human primate model, the lifelong growth trajectories of obese and non-obese adults, to assess the heritability of and map potential genomic regions implicated in growth and obesity. STUDY POPULATION: A total of 905 African green monkeys, or vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) (472 females, 433 males) from a pedigreed captive colony...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Richard A Lankau, Daniel P Keymer
Plant populations are often adapted to their local conditions, but the specific selective forces creating this adaptation are often unclear. All plants interact with diverse microbial communities, but we know little about how these microbial communities as a whole shape the evolutionary trajectory of plant populations. We tested whether tree populations were adapted or maladapted to their local rhizosphere microbial communities by growing seedlings sourced from multiple locations with soil microbial communities from all locations in a fully reciprocal design, using seedling growth as a proxy for fitness...
December 5, 2017: New Phytologist
Lei Li, Stephen P Bonser, Zhichun Lan, Ligang Xu, Jiakuan Chen, Zhiping Song
In freshwater ecosystems, shifts in hydrological regimes have profound effects on reproductive output (R), along with vegetative biomass (V) and survival of plants. Because reproductive allocation (RA) is allometric, it remains unclear whether the observed variation of RA in response to water level variability is due to fixed patterns of development or plasticity in the developmental trajectories. Here, we investigated shifts in RA of a submerged macrophyte Vallisneria natans in response to water depth to test the hypothesis that allometric trajectories of RA are highly plastic...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Daniel T L Shek, Li Lin
How personal well-being of adolescents changes over the high school period is not entirely clear in the scientific literature. Using 15 positive youth development (PYD) attributes as indicators of well-being, the current study investigated the related developmental trajectories among a large sample of Hong Kong adolescents from Grade 7 to Grade 12. Individual growth curve modeling revealed that while variation existed across different PYD attributes, nine out of 15 positive youth development attributes declined in the early adolescence but showed a rebound or a slower rate of decline in the late adolescence...
2017: Applied Research in Quality of Life
Renata Ferrari, Will F Figueira, Morgan S Pratchett, Tatiana Boube, Arne Adam, Tania Kobelkowsky-Vidrio, Steve S Doo, Trisha Brooke Atwood, Maria Byrne
Growth and contraction of ecosystem engineers, such as trees, influence ecosystem structure and function. On coral reefs, methods to measure small changes in the structure of microhabitats, driven by growth of coral colonies and contraction of skeletons, are extremely limited. We used 3D reconstructions to quantify changes in the external structure of coral colonies of tabular Acropora spp., the dominant habitat-forming corals in shallow exposed reefs across the Pacific. The volume and surface area of live colonies increased by 21% and 22%, respectively, in 12 months, corresponding to a mean annual linear extension of 5...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Soyoung Ju, Yanghee Lee
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to identify the developmental trajectories of peer attachment, self-esteem, depression, and child maltreatment, and to understand the longitudinal mediation effects that peer attachment and self-esteem have on the influence of perceived abuse on early adolescent depression. METHODS: This study uses Year 1 to Year 5 data of the 4th grader panel of the Korea Youth Panel Survey (KYPS) and utilizes a multivariate latent growth model to analyze the main variables in the applicable data between 5th (i...
November 28, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Joanne B Cole, Mange F Manyama, Dejana Nikitovic, Paula N Gonzalez, Denise K Liberton, Warren M Wilson, Campbell Rolian, Jacinda R Larson, Emmanuel Kimwaga, Joshua Mathayo, Charles C Roseman, Stephanie A Santorico, Ken Lukowiak, Richard A Spritz, Benedikt Hallgrimsson
Variation in the shape of the human face and in stature is determined by complex interactions between genetic and environmental influences. One such environmental influence is malnourishment, which can result in growth faltering, usually diagnosed by means of comparing an individual's stature with a set of age-appropriate standards. These standards for stature, however, are typically ascertained in groups where people are at low risk for growth faltering. Moreover, genetic differences among populations with respect to stature are well established, further complicating the generalizability of stature-based diagnostic tools...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
G Vadalà, D Accoto, F Russo, I Portaccio, M Rossini, S Valentini, R Papalia, V Denaro
Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery (MISS) procedures for the treatment of spinal pathologies have experienced exponential growth due to improved techniques and decreased trauma to the patient. Several MISS procedures that require the use of a trans-pedicular cannula as a guiding tool for pedicle screw placement, delivery of biomaterials to the vertebral body or injection of biologics to the disc space have been described. Although these are clear advantages of MISS, the limited dissection and exposure may reduce the accuracy and stability of operation and make spine surgeons rely heavily on intraoperative fluoroscopy, raising concerns over the level of radiation exposure...
October 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Laurence B Leonard, Eileen Haebig, Patricia Deevy, Barbara Brown
Purpose: Composite measures of children's use of tense and agreement morphology differ in their emphasis on accuracy, diversity, or productivity, yet little is known about how these different measures change over time. An understanding of these differences is especially important for the study of children with specific language impairment, given these children's extraordinary difficulty with this aspect of grammar. Method: We computed 3 types of composite scores from spontaneous speech samples obtained from 17 preschoolers with specific language impairment before, during, and after their participation in a language intervention study...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Andrew Bush
The management of asthma has largely stagnated over the last 25 years, but we are at the dawning of a new age wherein -omics technology can help us manage the disease objectively and rationally. Even in this new scientific age, getting the basics of asthma management right remains essential. The new technologies which can be applied to multiple biological samples include genomics (study of the genome), transcriptomics (gene transcription), lipidomics, proteomics and metabolomics (lipids, proteins and metabolites, respectively) and breathomics, using exhaled breath as a source of biomarkers, which is of particular interest in view of its non-invasive nature in pediatrics...
November 29, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Daniele Bevacqua, Bénédicte Quilot-Turion, Luca Bolzoni
Brown rot, caused by Monilinia spp., is a major disease of stone fruits and, in favorable environmental conditions and in the absence of fungicide treatments, it causes important economic losses. In the present work, we propose a modification of classical susceptible, exposed, infectious and removed (SEIR) compartmental models to grasp the peculiarities of the progression of brown rot epidemics in stone fruit orchards in the last stage of the fruit growth (i.e. from the end of the pit hardening to harvest time)...
November 28, 2017: Phytopathology
Mingyuan Ge, Ming Lu, Yong Chu, Huolin Xin
In situ microscopy of colloidal nanocrystal growth offers a unique opportunity to acquire direct and straightforward data for assessing classical growth models. Here, we observe the growth trajectories of individual Ag nanoparticles in solution using in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy. For the first time, we provide experimental evidence of growth rates of Ag nanoparticles in the presence of Pt in solution that are significantly faster than predicted by Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory. We attribute these observed anomalous growth rates to the synergistic effects of the catalytic properties of Pt and the electron beam itself...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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