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Growth Trajectory

Gabriel J Merrin, Bonnie Leadbeater
BACKGROUND: Past studies have differentiated classes of polysubstance use in adolescence, however, the associations of adolescent polysubstance use classes with longitudinal substance use trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood have not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The current study examined substance use classes during adolescence and longitudinal trajectories of each substance used across the transition to young adulthood. METHOD: Data were collected biennially from 662 youth and followed 10 years across six measurement assessments...
April 13, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Tomáš Vendl, Petr Šípek, Ondřej Kouklík, Lukáš Kratochvíl
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is widespread among animals, but its developmental mechanisms are not fully undestood. We investigated the proximate causes of SSD in three male-larger and one monomorphic scarab beetles using detailed monitoring of growth in individual instars. Apart from the finding that SSD in all three male-larger species started to develop already in the first larval instar, we generally found a high variability in SSD formation among the species as well as among instars. Overall, sexual differences in developmental time, average growth rate, as well as in the shape of the growth trajectory seem to be the mechanisms responsible for SSD ontogeny in scarab beetles...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Boin Choi, Kathryn A Leech, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
BACKGROUND: A growing body of research suggests that fine motor abilities are associated with skills in a variety of domains in both typical and atypical development. In this study, we investigated developmental trajectories of fine motor skills between 6 and 24 months in relation to expressive language outcomes at 36 months in infants at high and low familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Participants included 71 high-risk infants without ASD diagnoses, 30 high-risk infants later diagnosed with ASD, and 69 low-risk infants without ASD diagnoses...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
L Y Saltzman, R Pat-Horenczyk, M Lombe, A Weltman, Y Ziv, T McNamara, D Takeuchi, D Brom
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Posttraumatic stress disorder, a commonly researched mental health outcome associated with trauma, does not develop in the majority of survivors. More common trajectories of adaptation include resilience, and posttraumatic growth (PTG). The objectives of the current study were to: (1) describe posttrauma adaptation profiles in a sample of Israeli male military veterans (N = 448); and (2) to explore the protective factors that promote constructive PTG within two profiles of posttrauma adaptation...
April 12, 2018: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Noora J Berg, Olli H Kiviruusu, Tomi P Lintonen, Taina M Huurre
AIM: This study examined whether development of psychological symptoms (PS) differed between persons with different longitudinal profiles of heavy episodic drinking (HED) from adolescence to midlife. In addition, the reciprocal associations between PS and HED were studied. METHODS: Participants of a Finnish cohort study in 1983 at age 16 ( N = 2194) were followed up at ages 22 ( N = 1656), 32 ( N = 1471), and 42 ( N = 1334). HED was assessed with frequency of intoxication (16-22 years) and having six or more drinks in a session (32-42 years)...
April 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Symon A Dworjanyn, Maria Byrne
Understanding how growth trajectories of calcifying invertebrates are affected by changing climate requires acclimation experiments that follow development across life-history transitions. In a long-term acclimation study, the effects of increased acidification and temperature on survival and growth of the tropical sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla from the early juvenile (5 mm test diameter-TD) through the developmental transition to the mature adult (60 mm TD) were investigated. Juveniles were reared in a combination of three temperature and three pH/ p CO2 treatments, including treatments commensurate with global change projections...
April 11, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Jue Wang, Mei-Po Kwan, Yanwei Chai
Scholars in the fields of health geography, urban planning, and transportation studies have long attempted to understand the relationships among human movement, environmental context, and accessibility. One fundamental question for this research area is how to measure individual activity space, which is an indicator of where and how people have contact with their social and physical environments. Conventionally, standard deviational ellipses, road network buffers, minimum convex polygons, and kernel density surfaces have been used to represent people's activity space, but they all have shortcomings...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Qingfeng Li, Jose G Rimon
Background: The demographic dividend, defined as the economic growth potential resulting from favorable shifts in population age structure following rapid fertility decline, has been widely employed to advocate improving access to family planning. The current framework focuses on the long-term potential, while the short-term benefits may also help persuade policy makers to invest in family planning. Methods: We estimate the short- and medium-term economic benefits from two major family planning goals: the Family Planning 2020 (FP2020)'s goal of adding 120 million modern contraceptive users by 2020; Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 3...
February 22, 2018: Gates open research
Dinh S Bui, Caroline J Lodge, John A Burgess, Adrian J Lowe, Jennifer Perret, Minh Q Bui, Gayan Bowatte, Lyle Gurrin, David P Johns, Bruce R Thompson, Garun S Hamilton, Peter A Frith, Alan L James, Paul S Thomas, Deborah Jarvis, Cecilie Svanes, Melissa Russell, Stephen C Morrison, Iain Feather, Katrina J Allen, Richard Wood-Baker, John Hopper, Graham G Giles, Michael J Abramson, Eugene H Walters, Melanie C Matheson, Shyamali C Dharmage
BACKGROUND: Lifetime lung function is related to quality of life and longevity. Over the lifespan, individuals follow different lung function trajectories. Identification of these trajectories, their determinants, and outcomes is important, but no study has done this beyond the fourth decade. METHODS: We used six waves of the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) to model lung function trajectories measured at 7, 13, 18, 45, 50, and 53 years. We analysed pre-bronchodilator FEV1 z-scores at the six timepoints using group-based trajectory modelling to identify distinct subgroups of individuals whose measurements followed a similar pattern over time...
April 5, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Richard J E James, David A Walsh, Eamonn Ferguson
BACKGROUND: While the heterogeniety of pain progression has been studied in chronic diseases, the extent to which patterns of pain progression among people in general as well as across different diseases affect social, civic and political engagement is unclear. We explore these issues for the first time. METHODS: Using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, latent class growth models were used to estimate trajectories of self-reported pain in the entire cohort, and within subsamples reporting diagnoses of arthritis and cancer...
April 9, 2018: BMC Medicine
Stanley J Szefler
We have a unique opportunity to significantly reduce the worldwide burden of asthma in children and impact respiratory outcomes in adults. However, this will require a paradigm shift that is directed at altering the natural history of asthma, reducing asthma exacerbations and preventing long-term adverse outcomes of childhood asthma. Attention should continue to be directed toward minimizing risk as well as impairment with a goal to achieve optimal control. Based on several NIH studies conducted over the last 10 years we now have the tools necessary to accomplish this goal...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Alexander M Vaiserman
Increasing evidence suggests that risk for age-related disease and longevity can be programmed early in life. In human populations, convincing evidence has been accumulated indicating that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) resulting in low birth weight (<2.5 kg) followed by postnatal catch-up growth is associated with various aspects of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Fetal macrosomia (birth weight >4.5 kg), by contrast, is associated with high risk of non-diabetic obesity and cancers in later life...
April 4, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
M Saemi-Komsari, H Mousavi-Sabet, C F Kratochwil, M Sattari, S Eagderi, A Meyer
The electric yellow cichlid Labidochromis caeruleus is a mouth-brooding haplochromine cichlid from Lake Malawi and one of the most popular cichlids in the ornamental fish industry. To investigate the early development of L. caeruleus from hatching until the juvenile stage, we studied its morphological development and allometric growth patterns. In newly-hatched larvae, most organs and body parts were not yet differentiated and continued to develop until 15 days post hatching (dph). The yolk sac was depleted at 13 dph...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Nicolás Eduardo Muzzio, Marcos Carballido, Miguel Pasquale, Pedro Horacio González, Omar Azzaroni, Alejandro Jorge Arvia
The epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays a key role in physiological and pathological processes. This work reports on the influence of EGF concentration (&lt;i&gt;c&lt;/i&gt;&lt;sub&gt;EGF&lt;/sub&gt;) on the modulation of individual cell phenotype and cell colony kinetics with the aim of perturbing the colony front roughness fluctuations. For this purpose, HeLa cell colonies that remain confluent along the whole expansion process with initial quasi-radial geometry and different initial cell populations, as well as colonies with initial quasi-linear geometry and large cell population, are employed...
April 6, 2018: Physical Biology
Jordan A Conrad
The history of intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) in the United States is, in many ways, a triumphant story reflecting an increasingly progressive attitude acknowledging the equality of all persons. The law now recognizes people with IDD as citizens, possessing an equal right to education, health care, and employment-each of which represents milestone victories. However, this progression was not a linear development but rather a product of periods of growth and decline, backsliding, and hard-won battles across political, cultural, and legal domains...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities: JOID
Whitney J Cowell, Andreas Sjödin, Richard Jones, Ya Wang, Shuang Wang, Julie B Herbstman
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were used extensively as flame retardants in furniture containing polyurethane foam until they were phased out of use, beginning in 2004. We examined temporal changes in plasma PBDE concentrations from 1998 to 2013 and characterized patterns of exposure over the early lifecourse among 334 children (903 samples) between birth and 9 years. We examined time trends by regressing PBDE concentration on year of sample collection in age-adjusted models and characterized developmental trajectories using latent class growth analysis (LCGA)...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Elise Arbeille, Greg J Bashaw
Commissural axons must cross the midline to establish reciprocal connections between the two sides of the body. This process is highly conserved between invertebrates and vertebrates and depends on guidance cues and their receptors to instruct axon trajectories. The DCC family receptor Frazzled (Fra) signals chemoattraction and promotes midline crossing in response to its ligand Netrin. However, in Netrin or fra mutants, the loss of crossing is incomplete, suggesting the existence of additional pathways. Here, we identify Brain Tumor (Brat), a tripartite motif protein, as a new regulator of midline crossing in the Drosophila CNS...
April 4, 2018: PLoS Genetics
R I Gutiérrez-Delgado, A Barraza-Villarreal, C Escamilla-Núñez, L Hernández-Cadena, R Garcia-Feregrino, C Shackleton, U Ramakrishnan, P D Sly, I Romieu
RATIONALE: Prenatal omega-3 fatty acids improve alveolarization, diminish inflammation, and improve pulmonary growth, but it is unclear whether these outcomes translate into improved postnatal lung function. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of prenatal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on offspring lung function through 60 months of age. METHODS: We included a cohort of 772 Mexican preschoolers whose mothers participated in a clinical trial (NCT00646360) of supplementation with DHA or a placebo from week 18-22 of gestation through delivery...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Jessica A Arizaga, Antonio J Polo, Cecilia Martinez-Torteya
Latino youth are at greater risk for depression relative to youth of other ethnic groups. The course of depression among Latino children and adolescents, however, remains largely unexamined, along with family and cultural factors that can help explain dissimilar symptom paths. The present study used growth mixture modeling to map trajectories of depression symptoms and to examine youth and parent familism as predictors of these trajectories. Participants were 133 Latino 5th- to 7th-grade students (Mage  = 12...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Majdi Masarwi, Raanan Shamir, Moshe Phillip, Galia Gat-Yablonski
Catch-up growth (CUG) in childhood is defined as periods of growth acceleration, after the resolution of growth attenuation causes, bringing the children back to their original growth trajectory. Sometimes, however, CUG is incomplete, leading to permanent growth deficit and short stature. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms that limit nutritional-CUG. Specifically, we focused on the crosstalk between leptin, increased by re-feeding, and sex hormones, which increase with age. In-vivo studies were performed in young male Sprague Dawley rats fed ad libitum or subjected to 10/36 days of 40% food restriction followed by 90-120 days of re-feeding...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
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