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Growth Trajectory

Yoonsik Bang, Jiyoung Kim, Kiyun Yu
Wearable and smartphone technology innovations have propelled the growth of Pedestrian Navigation Services (PNS). PNS need a map-matching process to project a user's locations onto maps. Many map-matching techniques have been developed for vehicle navigation services. These techniques are inappropriate for PNS because pedestrians move, stop, and turn in different ways compared to vehicles. In addition, the base map data for pedestrians are more complicated than for vehicles. This article proposes a new map-matching method for locating Global Positioning System (GPS) trajectories of pedestrians onto road network datasets...
October 22, 2016: Sensors
Nathália Azevedo Portilho, Priscila Tavares Guedes, B Anne Croy, Marcelo Pelajo-Machado
Previous studies have shown that human and mouse placentas have hematopoietic potential during mid-gestation. In this investigation, we used histological and immunohistological approaches to visualize hematopoietic cells in mouse placenta between 9.5 and 12.5 days of gestation (gd), identifying their topography and niche. Putative hematopoietic foci were present on 10.5 and 11.5 gd but not 9.5 or 12.5 gd and was restricted to the placental labyrinth. Two major niches each with distinctive hematopoietic cell clusters were present...
November 2016: Placenta
Stephanie Lake, M-J Milloy, Huiru Dong, Kanna Hayashi, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
OBJECTIVES: Prescription opioid (PO) injection among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) is an ongoing concern, yet little is known about drug use trajectories associated with initiating PO injection, including potential associations with heroin use. This study aimed to identify predictors of PO injection initiation among PWUD, and examine trends in heroin use before and after initiating PO injection. METHODS: Data were merged from three cohorts of PWUD recruited between September 2005 and November 2015...
October 20, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Andrea Murillo, Nora A Kolter, Anssi Laurila, Germán Orizaola
1.In seasonal environments, modifications in the phenology of life-history events can alter the strength of time-constraints experienced by organisms. Offspring can compensate for a change in timing of hatching by modifying their growth and development trajectories. However, intra- and inter -specific interactions may affect these compensatory responses, in particular if differences in phenology between cohorts lead to significant priority effects (i.e. the competitive advantage that early hatching individuals have over late hatching ones)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Jessica Duncan Cance, Anna E Talley, Antonio Morgan-Lopez, Kim Fromme
BACKGROUND: The concurrent use of alcohol and tobacco has a multiplicative effect on both social and physical consequences. While it is known that alcohol and tobacco use are strongly correlated in emerging adulthood, there is significant individual variability in use. However, little research has examined how patterns of concurrent use are related over time. OBJECTIVES: The current study explores these longitudinal conjoint trajectories, as well as the associated sociodemographic factors...
October 25, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Theodore D Cosco, Blossom C M Stephan, Graciela Muniz, Carol Brayne
A successful aging (SA) index was captured in a longitudinal population-based cohort study of individuals aged 75 and older and examined longitudinally using growth mixture modelling (GMM) to identify groups with similar trajectories using decedents' (n = 1,015) last completed interview and up to four previous data collection waves before death. GMM identified a three-class model. Classes were high-functioning, no decline (HN); high-functioning, gradual decline (HG); and low-functioning, steep decline (LS)...
October 25, 2016: Canadian Journal on Aging, la Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement
Michael M Kasumovic, Zhiliang Chen, Marc R Wilkins
BACKGROUND: Ecological and evolutionary model organisms have provided extensive insight into the ecological triggers, adaptive benefits, and evolution of life-history driven developmental plasticity. Despite this, we still have a poor understanding of the underlying genetic changes that occur during shifts towards different developmental trajectories. The goal of this study is to determine whether we can identify underlying gene expression patterns that can describe the different life-history trajectories individuals follow in response to social cues of competition...
October 24, 2016: BMC Genomics
Jeong Jin Yu
The present study aimed to identify qualitatively different classes of growth trajectories of body dissatisfaction and to investigate the antecedents associated with the classes. The survey included a nationally representative sample of 2844 Korean children who started Grade 4 (younger cohort) and 3449 adolescents who began Grade 8 (older cohort) at baseline. Participants completed self-report surveys across five or six measurement periods separated by 1year each. General growth mixture modeling was used and results revealed several distinct longitudinal patterns...
October 21, 2016: Body Image
M Weih, F Pourazari, G Vico
At least 16 nutrient elements are required by plants for growth and survival, but the factors affecting element concentration and their temporal evolution are poorly understood. The objective was to investigate i) element concentration pattern in winter wheat as affected by crop developmental stage and weather, and ii) whether, in the short term, element stoichiometry reflects the type of preceding crop. We assessed the temporal trajectories of element concentration pattern (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Mn, Fe, Cu, Na, Zn) across the life cycle (from seed to seed) of winter wheat field-grown in cool-temperate Sweden during two years with contrasting weather and when cultivated in monoculture or after different non-wheat preceding crops...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rose Crossin, Sheree Cairney, Andrew J Lawrence, Jhodie R Duncan
OBJECTIVE: Abuse of inhalants containing the volatile solvent toluene is a significant public health issue, especially for adolescent and Indigenous communities. Adolescent inhalant abuse can lead to chronic health issues and may initiate a trajectory towards further drug use. Identification of at-risk individuals is difficult and diagnostic tools are limited primarily to measurement of serum toluene. Our objective was to identify the effects of adolescent inhalant abuse on subsequent drug use and growth parameters, and to test the predictive power of growth parameters as a diagnostic measure for inhalant abuse...
October 23, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Daniel B Schwab, Armin P Moczek
The elaboration of exaggerated, sexually selected weapons and ornaments often comes at a cost to other traits. For instance, by sustaining the growth of an exaggerated weapon during development, shared and limited resources such as morphogens, growth factors, and nutrients may become depleted and limit the size to which other structures can grow. Such interactions are characteristic of resource allocation trade-offs, which can constrain the production of phenotypic variation and bias evolutionary trajectories...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
Maria Carla de Francesco, Anna Loy
Feeding adaptation, social behaviour, and interspecific interactions related to sexual dimorphism and allometric growth are particularly challenging to be investigated in the high sexual monomorphic Delphinidae. We used geometric morphometrics to extensively explore sexual dimorphism and ontogenetic allometry of different projections of the skull and the mandible of the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus. Two-dimensional landmarks were recorded on the dorsal, ventral, lateral, and occipital views of the skull, and on the lateral view of the left and the right mandible of 104 specimens from the Mediterranean and the North Seas, differing environmental condition and degree of interspecific associations...
2016: PloS One
Daifeng Wang, Fei He, Sergei Maslov, Mark Gerstein
Gene expression is controlled by the combinatorial effects of regulatory factors from different biological subsystems such as general transcription factors (TFs), cellular growth factors and microRNAs. A subsystem's gene expression may be controlled by its internal regulatory factors, exclusively, or by external subsystems, or by both. It is thus useful to distinguish the degree to which a subsystem is regulated internally or externally-e.g., how non-conserved, species-specific TFs affect the expression of conserved, cross-species genes during evolution...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Brian D Gonzalez, Sharon L Manne, Jerod Stapleton, Shannon Myers-Virtue, Melissa Ozga, David Kissane, Carolyn Heckman, Mark Morgan
PURPOSE: The course of quality of life after diagnosis of gynecologic cancer is not well understood. We aimed to identify subgroups of gynecologic cancer patients with distinct trajectories of quality of life outcomes in the 18-month period after diagnosis. We also aimed to determine whether these subgroups could be distinguished by predictors derived from Social-Cognitive Processing Theory. METHODS: Gynecologic cancer patients randomized to usual care as part of a psychological intervention trial (NCT01951807) reported on depressed mood, quality of life, and physical impairment soon after diagnosis and at five additional assessments ending 18 months after baseline...
October 19, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Kelsey M Flint, Sarah J Schmiege, Larry A Allen, Timothy J Fendler, John Rumsfeld, David Bekelman
CONTEXT: Health status (i.e., symptoms, function, and quality of life) is an important palliative care outcome in patients with heart failure, however patterns of health status over time (i.e. trajectories) are not well described. OBJECTIVES: To identify health status trajectories in outpatients with heart failure, and assess whether depression, symptom burden, or sense of peace predict health status trajectory. METHODS: Observational study utilizing data from the Patient-Centered Disease Management for Heart Failure trial...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Simone Vincenzi, Alain J Crivelli, Stephan Munch, Hans J Skaug, Marc Mangel
Better understanding of variation in growth will always be an important problem in ecology. Individual variation in growth can arise from a variety of processes; for example, individuals within a population vary in their intrinsic metabolic rates and behavioral traits, which may influence their foraging dynamics and access to resources. However, when adopting a growth model, we face trade-offs between model complexity, biological interpretability of parameters, and goodness of fit. We explore how different formulations of the von Bertalanffy growth function (vBGF) with individual random effects and environmental predictors affect these trade-offs...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Simone Vincenzi, Marc Mangel, Dusˇan Jesensˇek, John C Garza, Alain J Crivelli
Understanding the causes of within- and among-population differences in vital rates, life histories, and population dynamics is a central topic in ecology. To understand how within- and among-population variation emerges, we need long-term studies that include episodic events and contrasting environmental conditions, data to characterize individual and shared variation, and statistical models that can tease apart shared and individual contribution to the observed variation. We used long-term tag-recapture data to investigate and estimate within- and among-population differences in vital rates, life histories, and population dynamics of marble trout Salmo marmoratus, an endemic freshwater salmonid with a narrow range...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Julia C Sfair, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Bráulio A Santos, Marcelo Tabarelli
Tropical forests are being exposed to increasing levels of habitat loss and fragmentation, threatening the maintenance of global biodiversity. However, the effect that land-use change may have on the spatial dissimilarities in taxonomic and functional composition of remaining assemblages (i.e., taxonomic/functional β-diversity) remains poorly understood. We examined a large vegetation database from an old and severely fragmented Atlantic forest landscape to test two alternative hypotheses: (1) tree assemblages experience a taxonomic and functional homogenization (reduced β-diversity) between forest fragments and along forest edges, or alternatively, (2) these edge-affected forests show increased taxonomic and functional differentiation (increased β-diversity) when compared to forest interior (reference) stands...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Olli Kiviruusu, Noora Berg, Taina Huurre, Hillevi Aro, Mauri Marttunen, Ari Haukkala
This study investigated the association between interpersonal conflicts and the trajectory of self-esteem from adolescence to mid-adulthood. The directionality of effects between self-esteem and interpersonal conflicts was also studied. Participants of a Finnish cohort study in 1983 at age 16 (N = 2194) were followed up at ages 22 (N = 1656), 32 (N = 1471) and 42 (N = 1334) using postal questionnaires. Measures covered self-esteem and interpersonal conflicts including, conflicts with parents, friends, colleagues, superiors, partners, break-ups with girl/boyfriends, and divorces...
2016: PloS One
Abdullah Mamun
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are to investigate the developmental stages of hypertension between males and females and identify why young males have higher blood pressure than young females. DESIGN AND METHOD: The study used a sub-sample of 2000 offspring from the original cohort of the Mater University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) and its outcomes. The MUSP is a prospective birth cohort study which commenced in early 1980 s in Brisbane, Australia and followed their offspring till young adulthood...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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