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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333937/variability-in-age-and-size-at-maturation-reproductive-longevity-and-long-term-growth-dynamics-for-kemp-s-ridley-sea-turtles-in-the-gulf-of-mexico
#1
Larisa Avens, Lisa R Goshe, Lewis Coggins, Donna J Shaver, Ben Higgins, Andre M Landry, Rhonda Bailey
Effective management of protected sea turtle populations requires knowledge not only of mean values for demographic and life-history parameters, but also temporal and spatial trends, variability, and underlying causes. For endangered Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), the need for baseline information of this type has been emphasized during attempts to understand causes underlying the recent truncation in the recovery trajectory for nesting females. To provide insight into variability in age and size at sexual maturation (ASM and SSM) and long-term growth patterns likely to influence population trends, we conducted skeletochronological analysis of humerus bones from 333 Kemp's ridleys stranded throughout the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from 1993 to 2010...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333532/characterizing-spouse-partner-depression-and-alcohol-problems-over-the-course-of-military-deployment
#2
Christopher R Erbes, Mark Kramer, Paul A Arbisi, David DeGarmo, Melissa A Polusny
OBJECTIVE: Spouse/partners of military personnel demonstrate elevated levels of distress during military deployments, yet there is insufficient information about courses of adjustment over time. The current study identified trajectories of depression and alcohol use problems and predictors of those trajectories across the deployment cycle. METHOD: National Guard soldiers (N = 1973) and spouses/intimate partners (N = 1020) completed assessments of risk/protective factors and baseline measures of mental health functioning 2 to 5 months prior to soldiers' 1-year deployments (Time 1) to Kuwait/Iraq in support of Operation New Dawn or Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom...
April 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332053/modeling-pathways-of-character-development-across-the-first-three-decades-of-life-an-application-of-integrative-data-analysis-techniques-to-understanding-the-development-of-hopeful-future-expectations
#3
Kristina Schmid Callina, Sara K Johnson, Jonathan M Tirrell, Milena Batanova, Michelle B Weiner, Richard M Lerner
There were two purposes of the present research: first, to add to scholarship about a key character virtue, hopeful future expectations; and second, to demonstrate a recent innovation in longitudinal methodology that may be especially useful in enhancing the understanding of the developmental course of hopeful future expectations and other character virtues that have been the focus of recent scholarship in youth development. Burgeoning interest in character development has led to a proliferation of short-term, longitudinal studies on character...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330812/molecular-evidence-for-differential-long-term-outcomes-of-early-life-severe-acute-malnutrition
#4
Allan Sheppard, Sherry Ngo, Xiaoling Li, Michael Boyne, Debbie Thompson, Anthony Pleasants, Peter Gluckman, Terrence Forrester
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in infants may present as one of two distinct syndromic forms: non-edematous (marasmus), with severe wasting and no nutritional edema; or edematous (kwashiorkor) with moderately severe wasting. These differences may be related to developmental changes prior to the exposure to SAM and phenotypic changes appear to persist into adulthood with differences between the two groups. We examined whether the different response to SAM and subsequent trajectories may be explained by developmentally-induced epigenetic differences...
March 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329855/better-cognition-in-new-birth-cohorts-of-70-year-olds-but-greater-decline-thereafter
#5
Valgeir Thorvaldsson, Peter Karlsson, Johan Skoog, Ingmar Skoog, Boo Johansson
Objectives: To evaluate birth cohort differences in level of cognition and rate of change in old age. Methods: Data were drawn from three population-based Swedish samples including age-homogenous cohorts born 1901/02, 1906/07, and 1930, and measured on the same cognitive tests at ages 70, 75, and 79 as part of the Gerontological and Geriatric Populations Studies in Gothenburg (H70). We fitted growth curve models to the data using a Bayesian framework and derived estimates and inferences from the marginal posterior distributions...
December 9, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329850/the-use-of-growth-mixture-modeling-for-studying-resilience-to-major-life-stressors-in-adulthood-and-old-age-lessons-for-class-size-and-identification-and-model-selection
#6
Frank J Infurna, Kevin J Grimm
Objectives: Growth mixture modeling (GMM) combines latent growth curve and mixture modeling approaches and is typically used to identify discrete trajectories following major life stressors (MLS). However, GMM is often applied to data that does not meet the statistical assumptions of the model (e.g., within-class normality) and researchers often do not test additional model constraints (e.g., homogeneity of variance across classes), which can lead to incorrect conclusions regarding the number and nature of the trajectories...
March 8, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329825/socioeconomic-status-and-physical-functioning-a-longitudinal-study-of-older-chinese-people
#7
Lei Yang, Hanna Konttinen, Pekka Martikainen, Karri Silventoinen
Objectives: We aimed to assess the longitudinal associations of socioeconomic status and physical functioning using a large population-based survey data in China. Method: We used four waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (2002-2011). Physical functioning was assessed by activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) measures. Socioeconomic status was assessed using educational attainment, occupational status, household income, financial resources, and access to health services...
February 16, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329821/extracurricular-involvement-in-high-school-and-later-life-participation-in-voluntary-associations
#8
Emily A Greenfield, Sara M Moorman
Objectives: Scholars have identified participation in voluntary associations as a central component of civic engagement for younger and older people alike. However, there has been little longitudinal examination of how such participation potentially fluctuates across multiple periods of the life course, as well as the extent to which involvement in youth is associated with participation in later life. Method: We used data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study-which is among the oldest and most comprehensive cohort studies in the United States to date...
January 19, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329815/recent-improvements-in-cognitive-functioning-among-older-u-s-adults-how-much-does-increasing-educational-attainment-explain
#9
Amanda Leggett, Philippa Clarke, Kara Zivin, Ryan J McCammon, Michael R Elliott, Kenneth M Langa
Objectives: Recent interest has been generated about reports of declining incidence in cognitive impairment among more recently born cohorts. At the same time, attained education, which is related to cognition, has increased in recent cohorts of older adults. We examined cohort differences in cognitive function in a nationally representative sample of Americans aged 25 and older followed for 25 years (1986-2011) and considered the extent to which cohort differences in education account for differences...
January 28, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327104/characterizing-early-child-growth-patterns-of-height-for-age-in-an-urban-slum-cohort-of-bangladesh-with-functional-principal-component-analysis
#10
Yin Zhang, Jianhui Zhou, Feiyang Niu, Jeffrey R Donowitz, Rashidul Haque, William A Petri, Jennie Z Ma
BACKGROUND: Early childhood is a critical stage of physical and cognitive growth that forms the foundation of future wellbeing. Stunted growth is presented in one of every 4 children worldwide and contributes to developmental impairment and under-five mortality. Better understanding of early growth patterns should allow for early detection and intervention in malnutrition. We aimed to characterize early child growth patterns and quantify the change of growth curves from the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards...
March 21, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325850/phenotypic-diversity-and-genotypic-flexibility-of-burkholderia-cenocepacia-during-long-term-chronic-infection-of-cystic-fibrosis-lungs
#11
Amy Huei-Yi Lee, Stephane Flibotte, Sunita Sinha, Adrianna Paiero, Rachel L Ehrlich, Sergey Balashov, Garth D Ehrlich, James E A Zlosnik, Joshua Chang Mell, Corey Nislow
Chronic bacterial infections of the lung are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis patients. Tracking bacterial evolution during chronic infections can provide insights into how host selection pressures-including immune responses and therapeutic interventions-shape bacterial genomes. We carried out genomic and phenotypic analyses of 215 serially collected Burkholderia cenocepacia isolates from 16 cystic fibrosis patients, spanning a period of 2-20 yr and a broad range of epidemic lineages...
March 21, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323285/utilization-of-machine-learning-for-prediction-of-post-traumatic-stress-a-re-examination-of-cortisol-in-the-prediction-and-pathways-to-non-remitting-ptsd
#12
I R Galatzer-Levy, S Ma, A Statnikov, R Yehuda, A Y Shalev
To date, studies of biological risk factors have revealed inconsistent relationships with subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The inconsistent signal may reflect the use of data analytic tools that are ill equipped for modeling the complex interactions between biological and environmental factors that underlay post-traumatic psychopathology. Further, using symptom-based diagnostic status as the group outcome overlooks the inherent heterogeneity of PTSD, potentially contributing to failures to replicate...
March 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319691/trajectories-of-maternal-depressive-symptoms-in-the-early-childhood-period-and-family-wide-clustering-of-risk
#13
Sheri Madigan, Mark Wade, André Plamondon, Jennifer M Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Previous research on individual differences in the course of maternal depressive symptoms has yielded inconsistent findings, with significant variation in the number and pattern of trajectories identified. In addition, missing from the literature is a comprehensive examination of predictors and longitudinal consequences of particular depression trajectories. METHOD: Participants in this study included a community cohort of 501 women assessed for depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Depression Scale at infant age 2, 18, 36, and 54 months...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318797/early-symptom-trajectories-as-predictors-of-treatment-outcome-for-citalopram-versus-placebo
#14
Sigal Zilcha-Mano, Steven P Roose, Patrick J Brown, Bret R Rutherford
OBJECTIVES: The high percentage of failed clinical trials for anti-depressant medications, especially in elderly populations, obscures the fact that some patients may benefit greatly from treatment. Early detection of patients who may benefit most from antidepressant medication may improve treatment decisions. We examined whether depressed patients in a large clinical trial exhibit distinct trajectories of early symptom change that predict differential response to medication or placebo...
February 3, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318473/the-developmental-trajectory-of-perceived-stress-mediates-the-relations-between-distress-tolerance-and-internalizing-symptoms-among-youth
#15
Julia W Felton, Anne N Banducci, Julia M Shadur, Ryan Stadnik, Laura MacPherson, Carl W Lejuez
The current study examines the relation between distress tolerance, perceived stress, and internalizing symptoms across adolescence. Participants included 331 youth, ages 10 to 14 at the first wave of the study, assessed annually over 5 years. A latent growth curve approach was used to test three research questions, including whether perceived stress would increase across adolescence, whether distress tolerance (as measured by a behavioral task) would predict changes in perceived stress, and whether changes in perceived stress would mediate the relation between distress tolerance and internalizing symptoms...
March 20, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318468/understanding-adolescent-personality-pathology-from-growth-trajectories-of-childhood-oddity
#16
Barbara De Clercq, Lize Verbeke, Elien De Caluwé, Tom Vercruysse, Joeri Hofmans
Research on developmental trajectories of early maladaptive features for understanding later personality disorders (PDs) is increasingly recognized as an important study area. The course of early odd features is highly relevant in this regard, as only a few researchers have addressed childhood oddity in the context of emerging PDs. Using latent growth modeling, the current study explores growth parameters of odd features in a mixed sample of Flemish community and referred children (N = 485) across three measurement waves with 1-year time intervals...
March 20, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318338/latent-class-profiles-of-anxiety-symptom-trajectories-from-preschool-through-school-age
#17
Sarah J Kertz, Chad Sylvester, Rebecca Tillman, Joan L Luby
Anxiety typically arises early in childhood and decreases during school age. However, little is known about the earlier developmental course of anxiety in preschool, especially in at risk children, posing a clinically important problem. Given that anxiety in youth has a chronic course for some and also predicts later development of other mental health problems, it is important to identify factors early in development that may predict chronic anxiety symptoms. At-risk children (oversampled for depression) and caregivers completed 6 assessment waves beginning at preschool age (between 3-5...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318274/do-multiple-health-events-reduce-resilience-when-compared-with-single-events
#18
Ruth T Morin, Isaac R Galatzer-Levy, Fiona Maccallum, George A Bonanno
OBJECTIVE: The impact of multiple major life stressors is hypothesized to reduce the probability of resilience and increase rates of mortality. However, this hypothesis lacks strong empirical support because of the lack of prospective evidence. This study investigated whether experiencing multiple major health events diminishes rates of resilience and increases rates of mortality using a large population-based prospective cohort. METHOD: There were n = 1,395 individuals sampled from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and examined prospectively from 2 years before 4 years after either single or multiple health events (lung disease, heart disease, stroke, or cancer)...
March 20, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316346/invasion-trajectory-of-pacific-oysters-in-the-northern-wadden-sea
#19
Karsten Reise, Christian Buschbaum, Heike Büttger, Johannes Rick, K Mathias Wegner
Invasion trajectories of introduced alien species usually begin with a long establishment phase of low abundance, often followed by exponential expansion and subsequent adjustment phases. We review the first 26 years of feral Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas around the island of Sylt in the Wadden Sea (North Sea, NE Atlantic), and reveal causal conditions for the invasion phases. Sea-based oyster farming with repeated introductions made establishment of feral oysters almost inevitable. Beds of mussels Mytilus edulis on mud flats offered firm substrate for attachment and ideal growth conditions around low tide level...
2017: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315895/healthy-growth-and-development
#20
Ken K Ong
Observational and experimental studies indicate a remarkably consistent association between rapid growth and weight gain during infancy and higher risks for obesity in later childhood and adult life. This association appears to be equally relevant to breastfed and formula milk-fed infants, and infants small for gestational age and with normal birth weight. The type of infant milk feeding, energy intake, and milk nutrient composition are important determinants of infant growth and weight gain. There is also accumulating evidence that genetic factors related to adult obesity susceptibility act in the central nervous system to regulate intrinsic levels of infant appetite and satiety, and they impact on infant dietary behaviors to influence growth and weight gain...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
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