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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213334/reactive-oxygen-a-novel-antimicrobial-mechanism-for-targeting-biofilm-associated-infection
#1
REVIEW
Matthew S Dryden, Jonathan Cooke, Rami J Salib, Rebecca E Holding, Timothy Biggs, Ali A Salamat, Raymond N Allan, Rachel S Newby, Fenella Halstead, Beryl Oppenheim, Thomas Hall, Sophie C Cox, Liam M Grover, Zain Al-Hindi, Lilyann Novak-Frazer, Malcolm D Richardson
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a novel therapeutic strategy for topical or local application to wounds, mucosa or internal structures where there may be heavy bacterial bioburden with biofilm and chronic inflammation. Bacterial biofilms are a significant problem in clinical settings owing to their increased tolerance towards conventionally prescribed antibiotics and their propensity for selection of further antibacterial resistance. There is therefore a pressing need for the development of alternative therapeutic strategies that can improve antibiotic efficacy towards biofilms...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210352/risk-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-among-children-found-to-be-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-usa300-carriers
#2
Lilly Cheng Immergluck, Shabnam Jain, Susan M Ray, Robert Mayberry, Sarah Satola, Trisha Chan Parker, Keming Yuan, Anaam Mohammed, Robert C Jerris
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) carriage and infections and determine risk factors associated specifically with MRSA USA300. METHODS: We conducted a case control study in a pediatric emergency department. Nasal and axillary swabs were collected, and participants were interviewed for risk factors. The primary outcome was the proportion of S. aureus carriers among those presenting with and without a skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI)...
February 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208915/an-unusual-occurrence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcal-endocarditis-with-vancomycin-creep-phenomenon-a-therapeutic-challenge
#3
S Sneha, Shanthan Venishetty, Shubha Seshadri, M Sudhakar Rao, Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay
Infective endocarditis by Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia is a common association and carries a high mortality. However, rising Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) for vancomycin amongst MRSA strains is an emerging threat which carries poor prognosis and higher mortality. Here, we report a case of 41-year-old young non-addict gentleman presenting with fever of 3 days duration following recovery from an acute kidney injury necessitating haemodialysis. Systemic examination revealed signs of mitral regurgitation and left sided cerebellar signs...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207269/a-biocompatible-injectable-hydrogel-with-potent-wound-healing-and-antibacterial-properties
#4
Jiaul Hoque, Relekar G Prakash, Krishnamoorthy Paramanandham, Bibek R Shome, Jayanta Haldar
Two component injectable hydrogels that cross-link in-situ have been used as non-invasive wound-filling devices, i.e., sealants. These materials carry a variety of functions at the wound sites such as seal leaks, cease unwanted bleeding, bind tissues together, and assist in wound healing process. However, commonly used sealants typically lack antibacterial properties. Since bacterial infection at the wound site is very common, bioadhesive materials with intrinsic antibacterial properties are urgently required...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205348/photochemical-eradication-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-by-blue-light-activation-of-riboflavin
#5
Karim Makdoumi, Ray Goodrich, Anders Bäckman
PURPOSE: To compare elimination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by exposure of blue light alone and with riboflavin. METHODS: A reference strain of MRSA was cultured and diluted in PBS with and without riboflavin (0.01%). Fifteen microlitre was added on a microscope slide, creating a fluid layer with a thickness of around 400 microns. Both of the bacterial suspensions were exposed to blue light, and the effect between exposure with and without riboflavin was compared...
February 15, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196696/patients-hospitalized-abroad-as-importers-of-multiresistant-bacteria-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Tamim Khawaja, Juha Kirveskari, Sara Johansson, Juuso Väisänen, Aurora Djupsjöbacka, Annika Nevalainen, Anu Kantele
OBJECTIVES: The pandemic spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria poses a threat to healthcare worldwide, with highest prevalence in indigent regions of the (sub)tropics. As hospitalization constitutes a major risk factor for colonization, infection control management in low-prevalence countries urgently needs background data on patients hospitalized abroad. METHODS: We collected data on 1122 patients who, after hospitalization abroad, were treated at the Helsinki University Hospital between 2010 and 2013...
February 11, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195616/clinical-features-and-management-of-subretinal-abscesses-secondary-to-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-endogenous-endophthalmitis
#7
Jorge Fortun, Yasha S Modi, Angela Bessette, Jordan Heffez, Petros Carvounis, Daniel S Petkovsek, Nicholas G Anderson, Daniel Martin, Sunil Srivastava
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical features, management, and immediate outcomes of patients with subretinal abscesses secondary to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) endogenous endophthalmitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eleven eyes of seven patients were identified by retrospective chart review. Demographics, initial presentation, examination findings, imaging, cultures, treatments, and short-term outcomes were reviewed. RESULTS: Eleven eyes of seven patients presented with subretinal abscesses secondary to MRSA endogenous endophthalmitis...
February 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187785/longevity-and-gender-as-the-risk-factors-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-in-southern-poland
#8
Monika Pomorska-Wesołowska, Anna Różańska, Joanna Natkaniec, Barbara Gryglewska, Anna Szczypta, Mirosława Dzikowska, Agnieszka Chmielarczyk, Jadwiga Wójkowska-Mach
BACKGROUND: The proportion of older people among the general population has risen. Staphylococcus aureus (SA) constitutes a significant problem. Underlying disease and functional debility, predispose the older adult to staphylococcal carriage and infection, specially bloodstream infection and pneumonia. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of older patients with SA infections. We analyzed a database containing the results of laboratory cultures from patients treated in 2013 for SA infections and selected 613 hospitalized and non-hospitalized people aged ≥60 years...
February 10, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187042/can-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-silently-travel-from-the-gut-to-the-wound-and-cause-postoperative-infection-modeling-the-trojan-horse-hypothesis
#9
Monika A Krezalek, Sanjiv Hyoju, Alexander Zaborin, Emeka Okafor, Laxmi Chandrasekar, Vitas Bindokas, Kristina Guyton, Christopher P Montgomery, Robert S Daum, Olga Zaborina, Susan Boyle-Vavra, John C Alverdy
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether intestinal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can be the source of surgical site infections (SSIs). BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that gut-derived MRSA may cause SSIs via mechanisms in which circulating immune cells scavenge MRSA from the gut, home to surgical wounds, and cause infection (Trojan Horse Hypothesis). METHODS: MRSA gut colonization was achieved by disrupting the microbiota with antibiotics, imposing a period of starvation and introducing MRSA via gavage...
February 9, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186134/virulence-inhibitors-from-brazilian-peppertree-block-quorum-sensing-and-abate-dermonecrosis-in-skin-infection-models
#10
Amelia Muhs, James T Lyles, Corey P Parlet, Kate Nelson, Jeffery S Kavanaugh, Alexander R Horswill, Cassandra L Quave
Widespread antibiotic resistance is on the rise and current therapies are becoming increasingly limited in both scope and efficacy. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represents a major contributor to this trend. Quorum sensing controlled virulence factors include secreted toxins responsible for extensive damage to host tissues and evasion of the immune system response; they are major contributors to morbidity and mortality. Investigation of botanical folk medicines for wounds and infections led us to study Schinus terebinthifolia (Brazilian Peppertree) as a potential source of virulence inhibitors...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184157/silver-loaded-nanotubular-structures-enhanced-bactericidal-efficiency-of-antibiotics-with-synergistic-effect-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#11
Na Xu, Hao Cheng, Jiangwen Xu, Feng Li, Biao Gao, Zi Li, Chenghao Gao, Kaifu Huo, Jijiang Fu, Wei Xiong
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have become a major issue due to the long-term use and abuse of antibiotics in treatments in clinics. The combination therapy of antibiotics and silver (Ag) nanoparticles is an effective way of both enhancing the antibacterial effect and decreasing the usage of antibiotics. Although the method has been proved to be effective in vitro, no in vivo tests have been carried out at present. Herein, we described a combination therapy of local delivery of Ag and systemic antibiotics treatment in vitro in an infection model of rat...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179118/genetic-diversity-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-isolated-from-burn-patients-in-iran-st239-sccmec-iii-t037-emerges-as-the-major-clone
#12
Mehdi Goudarzi, Mahnaz Bahramian, Mahboobeh Satarzadeh Tabrizi, Edet E Udo, Agnes Marie Sá Figueiredo, Maryam Fazeli, Hossein Goudarzi
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a major cause of infection in health care, hospital and community settings is a global health concern. The purpose of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern and distribution of circulating molecular types of MRSA in a burn hospital in Tehran, the capital of Iran. During a 10-month study period, 106 Staphylococcus aureus isolates were assessed. Isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion method and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for detection of mecA, fem and nuc genes...
February 5, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179010/characterization-and-complete-genome-of-the-virulent-myoviridae-phage-jd007-active-against-a-variety-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-different-hospitals-in-shanghai-china
#13
Zelin Cui, Tingting Feng, Feifei Gu, Qingtian Li, Ke Dong, Yan Zhang, Yongzhang Zhu, Lizhong Han, Jinhong Qin, Xiaokui Guo
BACKGROUND: The implementation of phage therapy is re-emerging with the increase in widespread antibiotic-resistant bacteria. METHODS: Staphylococcus phage JD007 was characterized and its complete genome sequence analysed. RESULTS: Staphylococcus phage JD007 was classified as belonging to the Myoviridae family based on its morphology, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Its lytic activity was stable between pH 5-11 and below 42 °C; moreover, an absorbance curve showed that nearly 90% of the viral particles had adsorbed to its host after a 20 min co-incubation...
February 8, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177877/antimicrobial-peptide-epinecidin-1-promotes-complete-skin-regeneration-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infected-burn-wounds-in-a-swine-model
#14
Han-Ning Huang, Chieh-Yu Pan, Hung-Yi Wu, Jyh-Yih Chen
This report shows that the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) Epinecidin-1 (Epi-1) efficiently heals MRSA-infected heat burn injuries and provides protection from infection in a pig model. The presence of an optimal level of Epi-1 induces cell proliferation by promoting cell cycle progression through an increase in S-phase cells. Epi-1 also induces proliferation to cover the wounded region in an in vitro cell proliferation assay using immortalized human epithelial HaCaT cells. Next, the in vivo wound healing efficiency of Epi-1 was tested in heat-burned pig skin infected with MRSA under in vivo conditions...
February 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174596/screening-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-a-residence-home-for-elderly-in-germany
#15
Jürgen Becker, Roland Diel
BACKGROUND: Since many hospitals report high MRSA colonization rates among elderly patients, and because it has been shown that S. aureus colonization increases with advancing age, there are concerns about the introduction of MRSA into nursing homes by MRSA positive patients discharged from hospital. So far, admission screening and subsequent longitudinal screening in residence homes or screening at time of hospital discharge is not established on a regular base. On the other hand, MRSA is acquired frequently during hospital stay...
2017: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167588/prevalence-of-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-and-uninfected-children-in-botswana-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#16
Michael J A Reid, Rebecca S B Fischer, Naledi Mannathoko, Charles Muthoga, Erin McHugh, Heather Essigmann, Eric L Brown, Andrew P Steenhoff
Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A major risk factor for staphylococcal infection is S. aureus colonization of the anterior nares. We sought to define risk factors for S. aureus carriage and characterize antimicrobial resistance patterns in children in Botswana. A cross-sectional study was conducted at two clinical sites in southern Botswana. Patients under 18 years of age underwent two nasal swabs and brief interviews, 4 weeks apart...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167543/carbapenem-minimal-inhibitory-concentrations-in-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-species-producing-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases-esbls-in-critical-care-patients-from-2001-2009
#17
J Kristie Johnson, Gwen L Robinson, Lisa L Pineles, Adebola O Ajao, LiCheng Zhao, Jennifer S Albrecht, Anthony D Harris, Kerri A Thom, Jon P Furuno
Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Enterobacteriaceae are increasing in prevalence worldwide. Carbapenem antibiotics are used as a first line of therapy against ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. We examined gastrointestinal colonization of carbapenem-resistant-ESBLs (CR-ESBL) among a cohort of critical care patients. In this cohort of patients, we cultured for ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli and then performed MIC susceptibility testing for imipenem, doripenem, meropenem, and ertapenem on the patient's first isolate...
February 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167542/in-vitro-activity-of-delafloxacin-when-tested-against-contemporary-bacterial-pathogens-from-the-united-states-and-europe-2014
#18
M A Pfaller, H S Sader, P R Rhomberg, R K Flamm
The in vitro activities of delafloxacin and comparator antimicrobial agents were tested against 6,485 bacterial isolates from medical centers in Europe (EU) and the United States (US) in 2014. Delafloxacin was the most potent agent tested against methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), MRSA, Streptococcus pneumoniae, viridans group streptococci, and β-hemolytic streptococci and had activity similar to that of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin against certain members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Overall the broadest coverage of tested pathogens (Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli) was observed with meropenem and tigecycline in both EU and US...
February 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165033/micheliolide-provides-protection-of-mice-against-staphylococcus-aureus-and-mrsa-infection-by-down-regulating-inflammatory-response
#19
Xinru Jiang, Yuli Wang, Yifei Qin, Weigang He, Adel Benlahrech, Qingwen Zhang, Xin Jiang, Zhenhui Lu, Guang Ji, Yuejuan Zheng
A major obstacle to therapy in intensive care units is sepsis caused by severe infection. In recent years gram-positive (G(+)) bacteria, most commonly staphylococci, are thought to be the main pathogens. Micheliolide (MCL) was demonstrated to provide a therapeutic role in rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory intestinal disease, colitis-associated cancer, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the main component of G(-) bacterial cell wall) induced septic shock. We proved here that MCL played an anti-inflammatory role in Staphylococcus aureus (S...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162982/revival-of-old-antibiotics-needs-the-state-of-evidence-and-expectations
#20
Hiba Zayyad, Noa Eliakim-Raz, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
The gap between the emergence of antibiotic resistance and new antibiotic development has drawn attention to old antibiotics whose spectrum of coverage frequently comprises highly resistant bacteria. However, these antibiotics have frequently not undergone the structured process of antibiotic development of modern antibiotics, from pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) studies establishing safe and effective dosing, establishment of susceptibility breakpoints, to clinical trials establishing clinical safety and effectiveness...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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