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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649062/antibacterial-activity-of-penicillins-alone-and-in-combination-with-different-agents-against-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Sumbal Nosheen, Hasan Ejaz, Aizza Zafar, Hafeez Ikram
Difficulties in the treatment of the resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, which is a frequent cause of nosocomial infections in paediatric patients, has prompted this research to empower the usage of various combinations of penicillin. During the study period 17,452 clinical samples were processed for culture. The positive cultures yielded 564 strains of S. aureus. Out of these, 362 (64.2%) isolates were found to be methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 202 (35.8%) methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA)...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648858/evaluation-of-vancomycin-mic-creep-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Raquel Diaz, Vera Afreixo, Elmano Ramalheira, Carmen Rodrigues, Bruno Gago
OBJECTIVES: Vancomycin is currently the primary option treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, an increasing number of MRSA isolates with high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), within the susceptible range (vancomycin MIC creep), are being reported worldwide. Resorting to a meta-analysis approach, this study aims to assess the evidence of vancomycin MIC creep. METHODS: We searched for studies in the Pubmed database. The inclusion criteria for study eligibility included the possibility of retrieving from the reported data values of vancomycin MIC and information concerning the applied MIC methodology...
June 22, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646389/photodynamic-therapy-controls-of-staphylococcus-aureus-intradermal-infection-in-mice
#3
Palloma Porto Almeida, Ítalo Sousa Pereira, Karine Bitencourt Rodrigues, Lorena Santos Leal, Andressa Souza Marques, Luciano Pereira Rosa, Francine Cristina da Silva, Robson Amaro Augusto da Silva
Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus lead to skin infections, as well as soft tissues and bone infections. Given the communal resistance to antibiotics developed by strains of this bacterium, photodynamic therapy emerges as a promising alternative treatment to control and cure infections. Females of the Balb/C mice were infected with 10(8) CFU of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and divided into four distinct groups: P-L- (negative control group), P+L- (group exposed only to curcumin), P-L+ (group exposed only to LED incidence of 450 nm, 75 mW/cm(2), and 54 J/cm(2) for 10 min), and P+L+ (group exposed to curcumin followed by 10 min of LED irradiation) (n = 24)...
June 23, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645883/the-first-nationwide-surveillance-of-antibacterial-susceptibility-patterns-of-pathogens-isolated-from-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-dermatology-departments-in-japan
#4
Shinichi Watanabe, Takamitsu Ohnishi, Akira Yuasa, Hiroshi Kiyota, Satoshi Iwata, Mitsuo Kaku, Akira Watanabe, Junko Sato, Hideaki Hanaki, Motomu Manabe, Tamio Suzuki, Fujio Otsuka, Michiko Aihara, Ken Iozumi, Takeshi Tamaki, Yuichi Funada, Mikio Shinozaki, Motoko Kobayashi, Masaru Okuda, Go Kikyo, Kumi Kikuchi, Yoshitane Okada, Masanori Takeshima, Osamu Kaneko, Natsuki Ogawa, Rie Ito, Ryuhei Okuyama, Shinji Shimada, Tadamichi Shimizu, Naohito Hatta, Maeda Manabu, Kiyohiro Tsutsui, Toshihiro Tanaka, Yoshiki Miyachi, Hideo Asada, Fukumi Furukawa, Ichiro Kurokawa, Keiji Iwatsuki, Michihiro Hide, Masahiko Muto, Osamu Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Niihara, Kenji Takagaki, Yasuo Kubota, Koji Sayama, Shigetoshi Sano, Masutaka Furue, Takuro Kanekura
To investigate the trends of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens isolated from skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTI) at dermatology departments in Japan, a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide survey in 2013. Three main organisms were collected from SSTI at 30 dermatology departments in medical centers and 10 dermatology clinics. A total of 860 strains - 579 of Staphylococcus aureus, 240 of coagulase-negative Staphylococci, and 41 of Streptococcus pyogenes - were collected and shipped to a central laboratory for antimicrobial susceptibility testing...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645784/the-effect-of-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-on-the-expression-of-novel-methicillin-resistance-markers-determined-using-cdna-aflp-approach-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#5
Mohammad Neshvan Hoorijani, Hosein Rostami, Maryam Pourhajibagher, Nasim Chiniforush, Mansour Heidari, Babak Pourakbari, Hossein Kazemian, Kambiz Davari, Vahid Amini, Reza Raoofian, Abbas Bahador
BACKGROUND: Widespread methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and absence of effective antimicrobial agents has led to limited therapeutic options for treating MRSA infection. We aimed to evaluate the effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) on the expression of novel identified methicillin resistance markers (NIMRMs) in S. aureus using complementary DNA-Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) approaches to address the therapeutic alternatives for MRSA infections...
June 20, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642157/genome-comparisons-of-two-taiwanese-community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-st59-clones-support-the-multi-origin-theory-of-ca-mrsa
#6
Ye Feng, Hsiu-Ling Chen, Chih-Jung Chen, Chyi-Liang Chen, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
Sequence type (ST) 59 is an epidemic lineage of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in Asia. Two ST59 clones are prevalent in Taiwan: the Taiwan clone (TW) causes severe infections, whereas the Asian-Pacific clone (AP) is usually commensal. In this study, we sequenced the genome and transcriptome of the representative strains of these two clones and found their differences to focus on three mobile genetic elements: TW carries SCCmec Type VT, Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-encoding prophage ΦSa2, whereas AP carries SCCmec Type IV and staphylokinase (SAK)-encoding prophage ΦSa3...
June 19, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640901/mrsa-infections-in-norway-a-study-of-the-temporal-evolution-2006-2015
#7
Francesco Di Ruscio, Jørgen Vildershøj Bjørnholt, Truls Michael Leegaard, Aina E Fossum Moen, Birgitte Freiesleben de Blasio
BACKGROUND: Norway has one of the lowest prevalences of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in the world. This study exploits the extensive data on MRSA infections in the Norwegian surveillance system to investigate the important factors defining the MRSA epidemiology. METHODS: We performed a quasi-Poisson regression of the monthly notification rate (NR) of MRSA infections reported from January 2006 to December 2015, comparing the time trend among people with an immigrant vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640870/dominance-of-community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-clones-in-a-maternity-hospital
#8
Edet E Udo, Noura Al-Sweih
BACKGROUND: Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major pathogen causing healthcare- and community- acquired infections. The purpose of this study was to characterize MRSA isolated at the Maternity Hospital between 2006 and 2011 for their genetic relatedness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MRSA isolates were investigated using a combination of antibiogram, Staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) and spa typing to determine their relatedness to MRSA isolated in other Kuwait hospitals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640002/trends-in-diagnoses-among-hospitalizations-of-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents-in-the-us-2003-2012
#9
Stacey A Hurst, Alexander C Ewing, Sascha R Ellington, Athena P Kourtis
OBJECTIVE: Using data from 2003-2012, we updated a previous analysis of trends in hospitalizations of HIV-infected children and adolescents in the US. METHODS: We used data from the Kids´ Inpatient Database of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project to derive nationally representative estimates of the number of hospitalizations and the rates per 1000 hospitalizations of select discharge diagnoses and procedures in 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012 among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children and adolescents ≤18 years, excluding hospitalizations for conditions related to pregnancy/delivery and neonatal diagnoses...
June 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636355/semisynthetic-flavone-derived-antimicrobials-with-therapeutic-potential-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#10
Shuimu Lin, Jun-Jie Koh, Thet Tun Aung, Wan Ling Wendy Sin, Fanghui Lim, Lin Wang, Rajamani Lakshminarayanan, Lei Zhou, Donald T H Tan, Derong Cao, Roger W Beuerman, Li Ren, Shouping Liu
A new series of semisynthetic flavone-based small molecules mimicking antimicrobial peptides has been designed from natural icaritin to combat drug-resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections. Compound 6 containing two arginine residues exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA, and very low toxicity to mammalian cells, resulting in a high selectivity of more than 511, comparable to that of several membrane-active antibiotics in clinical trials. Our data show for the first time that icaritin derivatives effectively kill bacteria...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634536/telavancin-a-novel-semisynthetic-lipoglycopeptide-agent-to-counter-the-challenge-of-resistant-gram-positive-pathogens
#11
REVIEW
Biswadeep Das, Chayna Sarkar, Debasmita Das, Amit Gupta, Arnav Kalra, Shubham Sahni
Telavancin (TD-6424), a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide vancomycin-derivative, is a novel antimicrobial agent developed by Theravance for overcoming resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, specifically methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) had approved telavancin in 2009 for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA (S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus anginosus group, or Enterococcus faecalis)...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634535/effectiveness-and-safety-of-daptomycin-in-patients-with-infective-endocarditis-undergoing-heart-valve-replacement-a-subgroup-analysis-from-real-world-data
#12
Achyut Guleri, Riccardo Utili, Pascal Dohmen, Kamal Hamed
BACKGROUND: European Cubicin(®) Outcomes Registry and Experience (EU-CORE) was a retrospective, non-interventional, multicenter registry that collected real-world clinical outcomes following daptomycin use for the treatment of Gram-positive infections. EU-CORE data from patients with infective endocarditis (IE) who underwent heart valve replacement were analysed. METHODS: Clinical outcomes were assessed as success (cured or improved), failure, or non-evaluable...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633678/variation-in-empiric-coverage-versus-detection-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-hospitalizations-for-community-onset-pneumonia-across-128-us-veterans-affairs-medical-centers
#13
Barbara E Jones, Kevin Antoine Brown, Makoto M Jones, Benedikt D Huttner, Tom Greene, Brian C Sauer, Karl Madaras-Kelly, Michael A Rubin, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Matthew H Samore
OBJECTIVE To examine variation in antibiotic coverage and detection of resistant pathogens in community-onset pneumonia. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING A total of 128 hospitals in the Veterans Affairs health system. PARTICIPANTS Hospitalizations with a principal diagnosis of pneumonia from 2009 through 2010. METHODS We examined proportions of hospitalizations with empiric antibiotic coverage for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAER) and with initial detection in blood or respiratory cultures...
June 21, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633319/immunotherapy-targeting-adenosine-synthase-a-decreases-severity-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-in-mouse-model
#14
Bao-Zhong Zhang, JianPiao Cai, Bin Yu, Lifeng Xiong, Qiubin Lin, Xiao-Yan Yang, Chen Xu, SongYue Zheng, Richard Yi-Tsun Kao, Konghung Sze, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Jian-Dong Huang
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a severe pathogen found in the community and in hospitals. Most notably, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is resistant to almost all antibiotics, which is a growing public health concern. The emergence of drug-resistant strains has prompted the search for alternative treatments such as immunotherapeutic approaches. Previous research showed that S. aureus exploit the immunomodulatory attributes of adenosine to escape host immunity. In this study, we investigated adenosine synthase A (AdsA), a S...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632946/emerging-biomarkers-of-illness-severity-urinary-metabolites-associated-with-sepsis-and-necrotizing-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia
#15
Lilliam Ambroggio, Todd A Florin, Samir S Shah, Richard Ruddy, Larisa Yeomans, Julie Trexel, Kathleen A Stringer
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the potential of metabolomics to identify novel biomarkers of illness severity in a child with fatal necrotizing pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). DESIGN: Case report with two control groups and a metabolomics analysis. PATIENTS: An infant with fatal MRSA pneumonia, four children with influenza pneumonia (pneumonia control group), and seven healthy children with no known infections (healthy control group)...
June 20, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631399/into-the-storm-chasing-the-opportunistic-pathogen-staphylococcus-aureus-from-skin-colonisation-to-life-threatening-infections
#16
James P O'Gara
Colonisation of the human skin by Staphylococcus aureus is a precursor for a variety of infections ranging from boils to sepsis and pneumonia. The rapid emergence of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) following the clinical introduction of this antimicrobial drug and reports of resistance to all currently used anti-staphylococcal drugs has added to its formidable reputation. S. aureus survival on the skin and in vivo virulence is underpinned by a remarkable environmental adaptability, made possible by highly orchestrated regulation of gene expression and a capacity to undertake genome remodelling...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630440/looking-to-nature-for-a-new-concept-in-antimicrobial-treatments-isoflavonoids-from-cytisus-striatus-as-antibiotic-adjuvants-against-mrsa
#17
Ana Cristina Abreu, Aline Coqueiro, Andi R Sultan, Nicole Lemmens, Hye Kyong Kim, Robert Verpoorte, Willem J B van Wamel, Manuel Simões, Young Hae Choi
The spread of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), has shortened the useful life of anti-staphylococcal drugs enormously. Two approaches can be followed to address this problem: screening various sources for new leads for antibiotics or finding ways to disable the resistance mechanisms to existing antibiotics. Plants are resistant to most microorganisms, but despite extensive efforts to identify metabolites that are responsible for this resistance, no substantial progress has been made...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630190/%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics-with-a-high-affinity-for-pbp2-act-synergistically-with-the-ftsz-targeting-agent-txa707-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#18
Edgar Ferrer-González, Malvika Kaul, Ajit K Parhi, Edmond J LaVoie, Daniel S Pilch
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a multi-drug resistant pathogen that poses a significant risk to global health today. We have developed a promising new FtsZ-targeting agent (TXA707) with potent activity against MRSA isolates resistant to current standard-of-care antibiotics. Here we present results that demonstrate differing extents of synergy between TXA707 and a broad range of β-lactam antibiotics (including six cephalosporins, two penicillins, and two carbapenems) against MRSA. To explore whether there is a correlation between the extent of synergy and the preferential antibacterial target of each β-lactam, we determined the binding affinities of the β-lactam antibiotics for each of the four native penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) of S...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630189/in-vitro-activity-of-delafloxacin-and-microbiological-response-against-fluoroquinolone-susceptible-and-non-susceptible-s-aureus-isolates-from-two-phase-3-studies-of-acute-bacterial-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-absssi
#19
S McCurdy, L Lawrence, M Quintas, L Woosley, R Flamm, C Tseng, S Cammarata
Delafloxacin is an investigational anionic fluoroquinolone antibiotic with broad spectrum in vitro activity, including Gram-positive organisms, Gram-negative organisms, atypical organisms, and anaerobes. The in vitro activity of delafloxacin and percent microbiological response in subjects infected with fluoroquinolone susceptible and non-susceptible S. aureus isolates was determined from two global Phase 3 studies of delafloxacin versus vancomycin plus aztreonam in ABSSSI. Patients were enrolled in 23 countries predominately in the US but also Eastern Europe, South America and Asia...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629753/active-identification-of-patients-who-are-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-colonized-is-not-associated-with-longer-duration-of-vancomycin-therapy
#20
Carlos Acuna-Villaorduna, Westyn Branch-Elliman, Judith Strymish, Kalpana Gupta
BACKGROUND: Excessive prescribing of vancomycin among patients admitted to inpatient wards is a challenge for antimicrobial stewardship programs, especially in the setting of expanded screening programs for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Studies examining factors associated with longer duration of vancomycin use are limited. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess the impact of universal MRSA admission screening on duration of vancomycin use at the VA Boston Healthcare System during the period from January 2013-November 2015...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
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