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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656062/the-impact-of-antibiotic-prescription-rates-on-the-incidence-of-mrsa-bloodstream-infections-a-county-level-u-s-wide-analysis
#1
Nikolaos Andreatos, Fadi Shehadeh, Elina Eleftheria Pliakos, Eleftherios Mylonakis
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infection with socioeconomic factors and antibiotic prescriptions at the county level. METHODS: MRSA bloodstream infection rates were extracted from the Medicare Hospital Compare database. Data on socioeconomic factors and antibiotic prescriptions were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau and the Medicare Part D database, respectively. RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, antibiotic prescriptions demonstrated a powerful positive association with MRSA bloodstream infection rates [Coefficient (Coeff): 0...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655672/effect-of-pulsed-xenon-ultraviolet-room-disinfection-devices-on-microbial-counts-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-aerobic-bacterial-colonies
#2
John E Zeber, Christopher Pfeiffer, John W Baddley, Jose Cadena-Zuluaga, Eileen M Stock, Laurel A Copeland, Janet Hendricks, Jwan Mohammadi, Marcos I Restrepo, Chetan Jinadatha
BACKGROUND: Inadequate environmental disinfection represents a serious risk for health care-associated infections. Technologic advancements in disinfection practices, including no-touch devices, offer significant promise to improve infection control. We evaluated one such device, portable pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV) units, on microbial burden during an implementation trial across 4 Veterans Affairs hospitals. METHODS: Environmental samples were collected before and after terminal room cleaning: 2 facilities incorporated PX-UV disinfection into their cleaning protocols and 2 practiced manual disinfection only...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651276/liposome-entrapment-of-bacteriophages-improves-wound-healing-in-a-diabetic-mouse-mrsa-infection
#3
Sanjay Chhibber, Jasjeet Kaur, Sandeep Kaur
Diabetic populations are more prone to developing wound infections which results in poor and delayed wound healing. Infection with drug resistant organisms further worsen the situation, driving searches for alternative treatment approaches such as phage therapy. Major drawback of phage therapy, however, is low phage persistence in situ , suggesting further refinement of the approach. In the present work we address this issue by employing liposomes as delivery vehicles. A liposome entrapped phage cocktail was evaluated for its ability to resolve a Staphylococcus aureus -induced diabetic excission wound infection...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650891/-fourteen-cases-of-implanted-central-venous-access-port-related-bloodstream-infection
#4
Toshihiko Sakai, Masakazu Kono, Chie Koumura, Yuri Oyano, Noriko Sakuma, Hirokazu Tojima
We conducted a clinical study involving cases of central venous(CV)port-related infection in Tokyo Rosai Hospital. Fourteen patients with suspected CV port-related infection at Tokyo Rosai Hospital between April 2015 and January 2017 were observed. Identical bacterial types were detected from 2 sets of blood cultures and cultures from the catheter tip, and a definitive diagnosis was made. Data on patient background, causative bacteria, quick sequentialorgan failure assessment (qSOFA)score, CV port placement period, presence or absence of local inflammatory findings, and prognosis were analysed...
March 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649598/methicillin-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-among-patients-colonized-with-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus
#5
Nabin K Shrestha, Thomas G Fraser, Steven M Gordon
OBJECTIVES: We have noticed that patients colonized with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) rarely get methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections. The purpose of this study was to compare the odds of a Staphylococcus aureus (SA) infection being an MRSA infection in MSSA carriers, MRSA carriers, and non-carriers of SA. METHODS: Hospitalizations of adult patients at the Cleveland Clinic Health System from 2008 to 2015 were screened to identify those where the patient was tested for SA colonization...
April 9, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644442/-current-aspects-of-the-definition-and-diagnosis-of-sepsis-and-antibiotic-resistance
#6
REVIEW
Frank M Brunkhorst, Petra Gastmeier, Muna Abu Sin
Hospital mortality of patients with secondary sepsis remains high at around 40%. Because of the methodological deficiencies of the definitions used so far, valid epidemiological data on secondary sepsis that allow for national and international comparisons are lacking. Since 2016, new clinical diagnostic tools that are also suitable for sepsis screening outside of intensive care units have been available. To counteract the high mortality of nosocomial sepsis, new approaches to the early identification of at-risk patients are needed...
April 11, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642449/characterization-of-a-new-staphylococcus-aureus-kayvirus-harboring-a-lysin-active-against-biofilms
#7
Luís D R Melo, Ana Brandão, Ergun Akturk, Silvio B Santos, Joana Azeredo
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most relevant opportunistic pathogens involved in many biofilm-associated diseases, and is a major cause of nosocomial infections, mainly due to the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains. Consequently, alternative methods to eradicate the pathogen are urgent. It has been previously shown that polyvalent staphylococcal kayviruses and their derived endolysins are excellent candidates for therapy. Here we present the characterization of a new bacteriophage: vB_SauM-LM12 (LM12)...
April 7, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629890/infective-complications-after-free-flaps-reconstruction-in-patients-affected-by-head-and-neck-cancer-our-experience-on-77-cases
#8
Giovanni Dell'Aversana Orabona, Raffaele Corvino, Fabio Maglitto, Vincenzo Abbate, Paola Bonavolontà, Antonio Romano, Giovanni Salzano, Luigi Califano
AIM: The success rates of free flaps in patients undergoing head and neck cancer (HNC) surgery are very high (95%- 97%) but the development of a surgical site infection (SSI) can put flap viability at risk. The aim of our study is to identify the risk factors for SSI in patients undergo free flaps reconstruction after head and neck cancer removal. MATERIAL OF STUDY: Seventyseven patients (44 male and 33 female) from April 2006 to April 2015 admitted at the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery of the University of Naples "Federico II" were included in this study...
2018: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628915/gas-plasma-pre-treatment-increases-antibiotic-sensitivity-and-persister-eradication-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#9
Li Guo, Ruobing Xu, Yiming Zhao, Dingxin Liu, Zhijie Liu, Xiaohua Wang, Hailan Chen, Michael G Kong
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of serious nosocomial infections, and recurrent MRSA infections primarily result from the survival of persister cells after antibiotic treatment. Gas plasma, a novel source of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and RNS (reactive nitrogen species) generation, not only inactivates pathogenic microbes but also restore the sensitivity of MRSA to antibiotics. This study further found that sublethal treatment of MRSA with both plasma and plasma-activated saline increased the antibiotic sensitivity and promoted the eradication of persister cells by tetracycline, gentamycin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin, and vancomycin...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628252/processing-and-antibacterial-properties-of-chitosan-coated-alginate-fibers
#10
Mélanie Dumont, Régis Villet, Manon Guirand, Alexandra Montembault, Thierry Delair, Stéphane Lack, Michel Barikosky, Agnès Crepet, Pierre Alcouffe, Frédéric Laurent, Laurent David
The preparation of chitosan-coated alginate fibers by a wet spin process is presented and the characterization of the antibacterial activities of these fibers is discussed. Preformed calcium alginate fibers were passed in chitosan acetate solutions. The coagulation method of the coating consisted in the immersion of fibers in a bath of calcium dihydroxide solution (0.1 M). The antibacterial evaluation was achieved by a CFU (Colony-Forming Units) counting method after 6 h of incubation at 37 °C. The incorporation of chitosan on calcium alginate fibers brings antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and various Staphylococcus aureus strains namely MSSA (Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus), CA-MRSA (Community Associated Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and HA-MRSA (Healthcare Associated Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) which make these chitosan-coated fibers potential candidates for wound dressing materials...
June 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625989/a-cell-penetrating-peptide-fused-phage-lysin-kills-intracellular-mrsa-in-keratinocytes-and-treatment-for-skin-infections-of-mice
#11
ZhaoFei Wang, LiCheng Kong, Yang Liu, Qiang Fu, ZeLin Cui, Jian Wang, JingJiao Ma, HengAn Wang, YaXian Yan, JianHe Sun
Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ) is the major pathogen that causes skin and skin structure infections, which is able to survive and persist in keratinocytes of the epidermis. Since the evolution of multi-drug resistant bacteria, the use of phages and their lysins presents a promising alternative approach. In this study, a cell wall hydrolase (also called lysin) derived from Staphylococcus phage JD007, short for JDlys, was identified. The JDlys showed a strong lytic activity against MRSA strains from different sources and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) types...
April 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624479/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-anti-bacterial-efficacy-of-absorbable-barbed-polydioxanone-monofilament-tissue-control-device-with-triclosan
#12
Shubhangi Bhende, Daniel Burkley, Jesse Nawrocki
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo anti-bacterial efficacy of STRATAFIX™ Symmetric PDS™ Plus Knotless Tissue Control Devices in comparison with standard absorbable polydioxanone devices lacking triclosan, utilizing challenges by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. METHODS: The STRATAFIX™ Symmetric PDS™ Plus Knotless Tissue Control Device was tested for in vitro efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), S...
April 6, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620501/are-commercial-providers-a-viable-option-for-clinical-bacterial-sequencing
#13
Kathy Raven, Beth Blane, Carol Churcher, Julian Parkhill, Sharon J Peacock
Bacterial whole-genome sequencing in the clinical setting has the potential to bring major improvements to infection control and clinical practice. Sequencing instruments are not currently available in the majority of routine microbiology laboratories worldwide, but an alternative is to use external sequencing providers. To foster discussion around this we investigated whether send-out services were a viable option. Four providers offering MiSeq sequencing were selected based on cost and evaluated based on the service provided and sequence data quality...
April 5, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619291/mrsa-prevalence-among-patient-transport-staff-in-hamburg
#14
Anja Schablon, Olaf Kleinmüller, Albert Nienhaus, Claudia Peters
Introduction: Patient transport employees frequently come into contact with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) and therefore are at a greater risk of infection than the general population. These pathogens pose a significant challenge for employees of patient transport services since they can spread over long distances through patient transfers. To date, little is known about the occupational risk of MRSA infection in patient transport settings. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of MRSA in patient transport personnel, including taxi drivers, as well as the potential risk factors for MRSA colonization...
2018: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619261/septic-pulmonary-emboli-and-renal-abscess-caused-by-staphylococcus-aureus-in-an-hiv-infected-patient
#15
Isaí Medina-Piñón, Alan Ledif Reyes-Mondragón, Michel Fernando Martínez-Reséndez, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz
Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of bacteremia in the general population and can lead to serious metastatic infection particularly in immunocompromised persons. However, prompt diagnosis and management can result in favorable outcomes. In the following case report, the clinical course of an HIV-infected man is presented; he developed bloodstream infection (BSI) and associated complications: septic pulmonary embolism, right renal abscess, and ipsilateral renal vein thrombosis. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was identified as the cause of sepsis and successfully treated with surgery and antimicrobials...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618431/investigation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-prevailing-in-the-environment-of-khyber-teaching-hospital-peshawar-pakistan
#16
Farmanullah Khan, Bashir Ahmad, Jawad Ahmed, Han Sang Yoo, Shumaila Bashir
The hospital environment plays an important role in the spread of microorganisms, including multi drug resistant (MDR) strains. Patients can acquire Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) which can reside in the clinical setup that are not cleaned and can spread through air droplets, bed clothing, and healthcare workers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of S. aureus in the Khyber Teaching Hospital (KTH). A total of 200 samples were collected from the floor, walls, air and inanimate objects in different wards of the KTH, during May 2012 to September 2012...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616014/routine-whole-genome-sequencing-for-outbreak-investigations-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-a-national-reference-center
#17
Geraldine Durand, Fabien Javerliat, Michèle Bes, Jean-Baptiste Veyrieras, Ghislaine Guigon, Nathalie Mugnier, Stéphane Schicklin, Gaël Kaneko, Emmanuelle Santiago-Allexant, Coralie Bouchiat, Patrícia Martins-Simões, Frederic Laurent, Alex Van Belkum, François Vandenesch, Anne Tristan
The French National Reference Center for Staphylococci currently uses DNA arrays and spa typing for the initial epidemiological characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains. We here describe the use of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to investigate retrospectively four distinct and virulent S. aureus lineages [clonal complexes (CCs): CC1, CC5, CC8, CC30] involved in hospital and community outbreaks or sporadic infections in France. We used a WGS bioinformatics pipeline based on de novo assembly (reference-free approach), single nucleotide polymorphism analysis, and on the inclusion of epidemiological markers...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615766/aspermerodione-a-novel-fungal-metabolite-with-an-unusual-2-6-dioxabicyclo-2-2-1-heptane-skeleton-as-an-inhibitor-of-penicillin-binding-protein-2a
#18
Yuben Qiao, Xiaotian Zhang, Yan He, Weiguang Sun, Wenya Feng, Junjun Liu, Zhengxi Hu, Qianqian Xu, Hucheng Zhu, Jinwen Zhang, Zengwei Luo, Jianping Wang, Yongbo Xue, Yonghui Zhang
Rising drug resistance limits the treatment options infected by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A promising solution for overcoming the resistance of MRSA is to inhibit the penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a). A novel terpene-polyketide hybrid meroterpenoid, aspermerodione (1), characterized by an unusual 2,6-dioxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane core skeleton, and a new heptacyclic analogue, andiconin C (2), were isolated and identified from the liquid cultures of endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615348/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-nasal-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-among-children-in-central-taiwan
#19
Hui-Hsien Pan, Yhu-Chering Huang, Chih-Jung Chen, Fang-Liang Huang, Pei-Ju Ting, Jing-Yang Huang, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Tzou-Yien Lin, Po-Yen Chen
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) causes diseases ranging from mild skin infections to invasive diseases. Carriage of S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is a significant risk factor for subsequent staphylococcal infection. Several studies discussed MRSA colonization in Taiwan, but mostly in northern Taiwan. This is the first study that estimates the prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization in healthy children and identifies the potential risk factors in central Taiwan...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614973/in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-bioactive-glass-s53p4-on-multiresistant-pathogens-causing-osteomyelitis-and-prosthetic-joint-infection
#20
Mateus Trinconi Cunha, Maria Aparecida Murça, Stanley Nigro, Giselle Burlamaqui Klautau, Mauro José Costa Salles
BACKGROUND: Conventional local treatment for medullary osteomyelitis (OM) includes insertion of antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement. Nevertheless, PMMA may delivery irregular concentration of antibiotic to surrounding tissue. We aimed to compare the in vitro antibacterial activity of Bioactive Glass (BAG) S53P4, which is a compound showing local antibacterial activity, to that of antibiotic-loaded PMMA against multidrug resistant bacteria from OM isolates. METHODS: We studied convenience samples of multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms obtained from patients presenting OM and prosthetic joint infection (PJI)...
April 3, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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