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MRSA infection

Xing Wang, Qian Liu, He Zhang, Xia Li, Weichun Huang, Qihua Fu, Min Li
Staphylococcus aureus is known as an invasive human pathogen, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, information on community-associated S. aureus (CA-SA) from bloodstream infections (BSI) in children in China remains scarce. This study aimed to investigate the molecular characteristics of 78 CA-SA isolates recovered from pediatric patients with BSI between 2012 and 2017 in Shanghai. All isolates including 51 (65.4%) methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and 27 (34.6%) methicillin-resistant S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gi Yong Lee, Kyung Mi Kang, Seung Hyun Back, Jin Yang Baek, So Hyun Kim, Jong-Hwan Park, Soo-Jin Yang
In Korea, the major clonal type of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is sequence type 72 (ST72) with staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IV (ST72-MRSA-IV). In this study, we used a previously well-characterized isogenic pair of ST72 vancomycin (VAN) susceptible-and VAN intermediate-MRSA strains (VSSA303 and VISA072) and several VSSA strains complemented with plasmids expressing single-point mutated genes (dprAG196C , femAF92C , vraRE127K , and vraSRE127K ) identified in the VISA strain...
June 21, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
James P Moley, Mary S McGrath, Jeffrey F Granger, Paul Stoodley, Devendra H Dusane
Antibiotic-loaded calcium sulfate beads (CS-B) are used to treat biofilm-related periprosthetic joint infections (PJI). A previous study has shown that such beads are effective in reducing lawns biofilms grown on agar plates; however, the ability of CS-B to eradicate biofilms grown on solid orthopaedic material surfaces has not been investigated. We grew biofilms of bioluminescent strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Xen41 and a USA300 MRSA Staphylococcus aureus SAP231 on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (PE), hydroxyapatite (HA), and 316L stainless steel (SS) coupons for three days under static growth conditions, with daily nutrient exchange...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Maha Jahangir, Marrium Nawaz, Fareha Jabbar, Fahad Khan, Nimra Hasnain
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common congenital abnormality, which accounts for 20-40% of all the adult patients with congenital heart diseases. Due to the slow velocity of shunt flow, ASD has a negligible risk for infective endocarditis (IE). However, intravenous drug abuse (IVDA) is a potential cause for IE. IE remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Our case report demonstrates the atypical presentation of IE in an ASD patient. The diagnosis was made on the basis of modified Duke criteria, and blood cultures were found out to be positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)...
April 15, 2018: Curēus
Ehsanollah Ghaznavi-Rad, Nasimeh Fard-Mousavi, Ali Shahsavari, Ali Japoni-Nejad, Alex Van Belkum
Background and Objectives: Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS) are important nosocomial pathogens. They may serve as a reservoir of SCC mec , the genomic island encoding amongst other methicillin resistance. This study was designed to determine the distribution of different SCC mec types from MR-CoNS isolated from clinical specimens in a tertiary hospital in central Iran, having high frequency of nosocomial methicillin-resistant staphylococcal infections. Materials and Methods: We evaluated isolates from patients attending the Vali-Asr Hospital located in the center of Iran, from February to December 2012...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Y Liu, L Fan, Y Q Tang, Z Y Zhang
Objective: To investigate the prevalence and drug sensitivity of nasal Staphylococcus aureus infection in patients with chronic sinusitis and healthy controls. Method: Bacterial culture and drug sensitivity test were performed in 71 patients with CRS (experimental group) and 103 healthy controls (control group). The infection rate of Staphylococcus aureus and the sensitivity of the drug were analyzed based on these results. Result: Twenty-nine Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from 71 cases of patients in the experimental group, and the positive rate was 40...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Amit Kumar Singh, Loveleena Agarwal, Akash Kumar, Chandrim Sengupta, Ravinder Pal Singh
Introduction: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of nasal colonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of oxacillin and vancomycin, inducible clindamycin resistance, and antimicrobial resistance pattern of S. aureus among children of Barabanki district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: School-going children of age group of 5-15 years were identified and selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Melanie Roch, Maria Celeste Varela, Agustina Taglialegna, Warren E Rose, Adriana E Rosato
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients confers a worse clinical outcome with increased rate of declined lung function. Telavancin, an approved lipoglycopeptide used to treat infections due to S. aureus has a dual mode of action causing inhibition of the peptidoglycan synthesis and membrane depolarization. CF-associated MRSA infections remain an important problem with no foreseeable decline in prevalence rates. Although telavancin is currently in clinical use for complicated skin infections and hospital-acquired pneumonia, the activity against CF- associated S...
June 18, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
A Young J Park, Joshua Wang, Jordanna Jayne, Lynn Fukushima, Adupa P Rao, David Z D'Argenio, Paul M Beringer
Over the past decade, the prevalence of infections involving Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has increased significantly. Tedizolid (TZD) demonstrates excellent activity against MRSA and a favorable safety profile. The pharmacokinetics of several antibiotics has shown to be altered in CF patients. The purpose of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of tedizolid in this population. Eleven patients with CF were randomized to receive tedizolid phosphate 200 mg PO or IV once daily for 3 doses, with minimum 2-day washout, followed by crossover to the remaining dosage form...
June 18, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Toney T Poovelikunnel, Paulo E Budri, Anna C Shore, David C Coleman, Hilary Humphreys, Deirdre Fitzgerald-Hughes
Sequential methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from patients following attempted mupirocin nasal decolonisation showed an increase in mupirocin resistance (MR) from 6.6% to 20%. MR isolates from patients who failed decolonization yielded indistinguishable spa types and carried multiple antimicrobial- and antiseptic-resistance genes, which may guide infection control and prevention.
June 18, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Sharmeen Nishat, Leah M Wuescher, Randall G Worth
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that can cause mild to severe life threatening infections in many tissues and organs. Platelets are known to participate in protection against S. aureus by directly killing and enhancing the activities of neutrophils and macrophages in clearing S. aureus infection. Platelets have also been shown to induce monocyte differentiation into dendritic cells and to enhance activation of dendritic cells. Therefore, in the present study, we explored the role of platelets in enhancing bone marrow derived dendritic cell (BMDC) function against S...
June 18, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Valentina Monistero, Hans Ulrich Graber, Claudia Pollera, Paola Cremonesi, Bianca Castiglioni, Enriqueta Bottini, Alejandro Ceballos-Marquez, Laura Lasso-Rojas, Volker Kroemker, Nicole Wente, Inge-Marie Petzer, Carlos Santisteban, Jeff Runyan, Marcos Veiga Dos Santos, Bruna Gomes Alves, Renata Piccinini, Valerio Bronzo, Mohamed Salah Abbassi, Meriam Ben Said, Paolo Moroni
Staphylococcus aureus is recognized worldwide as one of the major agents of dairy cow intra-mammary infections. This microorganism can express a wide spectrum of pathogenic factors used to attach, colonize, invade and infect the host. The present study evaluated 120 isolates from eight different countries that were genotyped by RS-PCR and investigated for 26 different virulence factors to increase the knowledge on the circulating genetic lineages among the cow population with mastitis. New genotypes were observed for South African strains while for all the other countries new variants of existing genotypes were detected...
June 17, 2018: Toxins
Assaf Rokney, Moti Baum, Shalom Ben-Shimol, Orli Sagi, Einav Anuka, Vered Agmon, David Greenberg, Lea Valinsky, Dana Danino
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are emerging worldwide. High CA-MRSA carriage rates were previously described in healthy Bedouin children. We assessed demographic, clinical and molecular characteristics of pediatric MRSA infections in southern Israel. METHODS: The Soroka University Medical Center laboratory serves the entire population of southern Israel, divided into two ethnic groups, Bedouins and Jews...
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Ethan Morgan, Sam Hohmann, Jessica Ridgeway, Robert Daum, Michael Z David
Introduction: The incidence of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), for which HIV is a significant risk factor, in United States emergency departments (EDs) increased dramatically after 2000 with the emergence of CA-MRSA. Few studies have examined SSTI incidence among U.S. HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected patients after 2010. Methods: Data were obtained for patient encounters at all academic medical center EDs affiliated with the Vizient clinical data warehouse who had an SSTI-associated ICD-9 code between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2014...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Fu Qiao, Wenzhi Huang, Lin Cai, Zhiyong Zong, Weijia Yin
Objective This study was performed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization upon intensive care unit (ICU) admission and during the ICU stay in mainland China. Methods A prospective observational study was performed in a 50-bed general ICU of a 4300-bed teaching hospital in China from 2011 to 2013. Nasal swabs for MRSA detection were obtained upon ICU admission and at discharge for patients having stayed in the ICU for longer than 3 days...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Eric R Ocheretyaner, Tae Eun Park
The resistance to current antimicrobial agents, including fluoroquinolones, has continued to grow among various pathogens indicating a need for new antimicrobials to combat multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms. In June 2017, delafloxacin received approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) in adults caused by designated susceptible bacteria. Areas covered: This review describes the pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, product information, efficacy, and safety of delafloxacin...
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Chia-Lun Hsu, Yu-Jia Li, Hong-Jyuan Jian, Scott G Harroun, Shih-Chun Wei, Rini Ravindranath, Jui-Yang Lai, Chih-Ching Huang, Huan-Tsung Chang
We have developed a simple and green solution for the synthesis of catalytic gold-doped bismuth oxyiodide (Au/BiOI) nanocomposites at room temperature from an aqueous mixture of gold ions, bismuth ions, and iodide ions. Au nanoparticles (NPs) were formed in situ and doped into BiOI nanosheets. The oxygen vacancies generated in BiOI give rise to its oxidase-like activity, and Au doping facilitated the reaction leading to a 4-fold higher oxidase-like activity of the Au/BiOI nanocomposite. The Au/BiOI nanocomposites showed wide spectrum antimicrobial activity not only against non-multidrug-resistant E...
June 18, 2018: Nanoscale
Ali Hematian, Aazam Monjezi, Ramin Abiri, Parviz Mohajeri, Abbas Farahani, Setareh Soroush, Morovat Taherikalani
Background: Staphylococcus aureus is known to be responsible for nosocomial infections, and the typing method was useful in managing the reservoir of bacteria. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus in the nares and hands of nurses working in Imam Khomeini hospital, Ilam, Iran, as well as to determine the clonal relatedness, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, different virulence, and resistance determinants among these isolates. The evolution of mupirocin activity in the eradication of methicillin-resistant S...
April 2018: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Durairajan Rubini, Sanaulla Farisa Banu, B Narayanan Vedahari, Durai Ramyadevi, Shanmugaraj Gowrishankar, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Paramasivam Nithyanand
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of biofilm-associated and indwelling device related infections. The present study explores the anti-virulent and antibiofilm potency of chitosan extracted from the shells of the marine crab Portunus sanguinolentus against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The chemical characterization results revealed that the extracted chitosan (EC) has structural analogy to that of a commercial chitosan (CC). The extracted chitosan was found to be effective in reducing the staphyloxanthin pigment, a characteristic virulence feature of MRSA that promotes resistance to reactive oxygen species...
June 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Nicola Steinhaus, Mohammed Al-Talib, Prudence Ive, Tom Boyles, Colleen Bamford, Mary-Ann Davies, Marc Mendelson, Sean Wasserman
OBJECTIVES: Limited evidence exists on the management and outcomes of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) in resource-limited settings. The aim of this study was to describe a cohort of South African patients with SAB, and explore the factors associated with complicated infection and death. METHOD: A prospective observational study of patients over the age of 13 years admitted to a South African referral hospital with SAB. RESULTS: One hundred SAB infection episodes occurring in 98 patients were included...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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