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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813107/climatic-characteristics-of-the-2010-2016-drought-in-the-semiarid-northeast-brazil-region
#1
José A Marengo, Lincoln M Alves, Regina C S Alvala, Ana Paula Cunha, Sheila Brito, Osvaldo L L Moraes
This study discusses the climatological aspects of the most severe drought ever recorded in the semiarid region Northeast Brazil. Droughts are recurrent in the region and while El Nino has driven some of these events others are more dependent on the tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperature fields. The drought affecting this region during the last 5 years shows an intensity and impact not seen in several decades in the regional economy and society. The analysis of this event using drought indicators as well as meteorological fields shows that since the middle 1990s to 2016, 16 out of 25 years experienced rainfall below normal...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813103/nutrition-facts-and-limits-for-micronutrients-in-tree-species-used-in-urban-forestry
#2
Flávia G K Brun, Eleandro J Brun, Dionatan Gerber, Denise A Szymczak, Eduardo K Londero, Evandro A Meyer, Márcio C Navroski
There is a huge lack of researches that evaluate the nutritional limits in tree species used in urban forestry, especially in terms of micronutrients. This study aimed to establish limits and range of micronutrients levels for the proper development of tree species utilized in urban forestry. The study was conducted in the city of Santa Maria-RS-Brazil. Through forest inventory, 23 forest species present in urban forest were selected, and 05 vegetative branches of each tree were collected, in which the contents of B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were analyzed...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813097/avian-communities-in-the-amazonian-cangas-vegetation-biogeographic-affinities-components-of-beta-diversity-and-conservation
#3
Sérgio H Borges, Marcos P D Santos, Leonardo M S Soares, Antonita S DA Silva
The Amazonian cangas is a vegetation type distributed as patches of open vegetation embedded in a matrix of tropical forest and that grows over iron-rich soils in the Serra dos Carajás region. To characterize cangas avifauna, we surveyed birds in eight patches varying from 43 to 1,366 hectares. Cangas avifauna has compositional affinities with savannas widespread throughout the Amazon and other biomes, and we estimate that more than 200 bird species occurs in this habitat. Species composition was relatively homogeneous, and the similarity among cangas patches was the dominant component of the beta-diversity...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813096/cytotoxicity-and-bacterial-membrane-destabilization-induced-by-annona-squamosa-l-extracts
#4
Nícolas C C Pinto, Jucélia B Silva, Laura M Menegati, Maria Clara M R Guedes, Lucas B Marques, Thiago P DA Silva, Rossana C N DE Melo, Elaine M DE Souza-Fagundes, Marcos J Salvador, Elita Scio, Rodrigo L Fabri
This study aimed to further investigate the cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines and several bacterial strains of Annona squamosa and its mode of action. Methanol extracts of A. squamosa leaves (ASL) and seeds (ASS) were used. ASL showed significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and E. faecalis with MIC values of 78, 78 and 39 µg/mL respectively. Moreover, ASL exhibited significant biofilm disruption, rapid time dependent kinetics of bacterial killing, increased membrane permeability and significantly reduced the cell numbers and viability...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813095/evaluation-of-cell-proliferation-and-endometrial-thickness-of-bitches-in-different-periods-of-diestrus
#5
Vanessa S A Gossler, Francislaine A G Santos, Aline R DE Azevedo, Priscila C Gonçalves, Hugo A Rigolo, Cleonice Trevisan, Ana Paula B Masseno, Ana Paula M M Cardoso, Paula C Papa, Caliê Castilho, Ines C Giometti
This study aimed to determine the histological features of the endometrium of bitches, as well as the cell proliferation at specific moments of diestrus, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days post ovulation, correlating the endometrial thickness with the uterine cell proliferation and the metabolic state (weight, blood glucose and plasma cholesterol) of the animals. Therefore, the right and left uterine horns of 26 clinically healthy bitches submitted to ovariohysterectomy were histologically analyzed 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days post ovulation...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813094/fatty-acid-profile-in-vertical-strata-of-elephant-grass-subjected-to-intermittent-stocking
#6
Kamila M Dias, Daniel Schmitt, Giselle R Rodolfo, Francisco C Deschamps, Guilherme N Camargo, Raphael S Pereira, André F Sbrissia
The milk and meat from animals with a pasture-based diet have higher proportions of CLA and C18:3 and lower omega-6:omega-3 ratios than products from animals with diets based on corn silage and concentrate. However, most of the published studies have evaluated fatty acid profiles in temperate climate grasses and the literature with tropical grasses is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological and fatty acid compositions in the vertical strata of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813090/brazilian-consensus-on-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-part-1-diagnosis-steroid-therapy-and-perspectives
#7
Alexandra P Q C Araujo, Alzira A S de Carvalho, Eduardo B U Cavalcanti, Jonas Alex M Saute, Elmano Carvalho, Marcondes C França, Alberto R M Martinez, Monica de M M Navarro, Anamarli Nucci, Maria Bernadete D de Resende, Marcus Vinicius M Gonçalves, Juliana Gurgel-Giannetti, Rosana H Scola, Cláudia F da R Sobreira, Umbertina C Reed, Edmar Zanoteli
Significant advances in the understanding and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) took place since international guidelines were published in 2010. Our objective was to provide an evidence-based national consensus statement for multidisciplinary care of DMD in Brazil. A combination of the Delphi technique with a systematic review of studies from 2010 to 2016 was employed to classify evidence levels and grade of recommendations. Our recommendations were divided in two parts. We present Part 1 here, where we describe the guideline methodology and overall disease concepts, and also provide recommendations on diagnosis, steroid therapy and new drug treatment perspectives for DMD...
August 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813044/short-bent-core-molecules-x-ray-polarization-dielectricity-texture-and-electro-optics-investigations
#8
S Torgova, S P Sreenilayam, Yu P Panarin, O Francescangeli, F Vita, J K Vij, E Pozhidaev, M Minchenko, C Ferrero, A Strigazzi
Bent-core liquid crystals based on 1,2,4-oxadiazole as a central unit have been the first mesogens to exhibit a ferroelectric response in the nematic phase. This behavior has been widely recognized as due to the presence of smectic-like polar cybotactic clusters permeating the nematic phase. Unfortunately, these compounds exhibited rather high melting points, about 120 °C, due to the presence of four benzene rings in the molecules. Here we describe the synthesis and physical characterization of a new series of BC mesogens, featuring the same bent core as the previous compounds but shorter outer substituents...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813030/an-overview-of-factors-associated-with-adherence-to-lifestyle-modification-programs-for-weight-management-in-adults
#9
REVIEW
Alice W Y Leung, Ruth S M Chan, Mandy M M Sea, Jean Woo
This review aims to provide an overview of the factors associated with adherence reported in existing literature on lifestyle modification programs for weight management among the adult population. An electronic search was performed using PubMed, Medline, PsycINFO and PsycARTICLE to identify studies that examined the factors of adherence to lifestyle modification programs with explicit definition of adherence indicators. We identified 19 studies published between 2004 and 2016. The most commonly used indicator of adherence was attrition, followed by attendance, self-monitoring and dietary adherence...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813008/dietary-fructose-enhances-the-ability-of-low-concentrations-of-angiotensin-ii-to-stimulate-proximal-tubule-na%C3%A2-%C2%BA-reabsorption
#10
Agustin Gonzalez-Vicente, Pablo D Cabral, Nancy J Hong, Jessica Asirwatham, Nianxin Yang, Jessica M Berthiaume, Fernando P Dominici, Jeffrey L Garvin
Fructose-enriched diets cause salt-sensitive hypertension. Proximal tubules (PTs) reabsorb 70% of the water and salt filtered through the glomerulus. Angiotensin II (Ang II) regulates this process. Normally, dietary salt reduces Ang II allowing the kidney to excrete more salt, thereby preventing hypertension. We hypothesized that fructose-enriched diets enhance the ability of low concentrations of Ang II to stimulate PT transport. We measured the effects of a low concentration of Ang II (10(-12) mol/L) on transport-related oxygen consumption (QO₂), and Na/K-ATPase and Na/H-exchange (NHE) activities and expression in PTs from rats consuming tap water (Control) or 20% fructose (FRUC)...
August 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812927/a-community-health-advisor-program-to-reduce-cancer-screening-disparities-in-the-deep-south-and-appalachia-the-american-cancer-society-s-cha-collaborative
#11
Kara S Riehman, Marcie Fisher-Borne, Jeremy M Martinez, Morgan Daven, Letitia Thompson, Mona N Fouad, Edward E Partridge
INTRODUCTION: Cancer disparities continue to exist in the United States. Community health advisors (CHAs) can play a critical role in addressing cancer disparities. The American Cancer Society (ACS) implemented a 3-year pilot CHA program in the South based on an evidence-based program to increase breast cancer screening. STUDY DESIGN: Evaluation assessed the extent to which ACS successfully implemented the program. Quantitative data were tracked and reported by ACS staff, and qualitative data were collected through focus groups and interviews with volunteer participants...
September 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812893/%C3%AE-sulfinyl-benzoates-as-precursors-to-li-and-mg-carbenoids-for-the-stereoselective-iterative-homologation-of-boronic-esters
#12
Giorgia Casoni, Murat Kucukdisli, James M Fordham, Matthew Burns, Eddie L Myers, Varinder K Aggarwal
The stereoselective reagent-controlled homologation of boronic esters is one of a small number of iteratable synthetic transformations that if automated could form the basis of a veritable molecule-making machine. Recently, α-stannyl triisopropylbenzoates and α-sulfinyl chlorides have emerged as useful building blocks for the iterative homologation of boronic esters. However, α-stannyl benzoates need to be prepared using stoichiometric amounts of the (+)- or (-)-enantiomer of the scarcely available and expensive diamine sparteine; also, these building blocks, together with the byproducts that are generated during homologation, are perceived as being toxic...
August 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812737/human-exposure-and-sensitivity-to-globally-extreme-wildfire-events
#13
David M J S Bowman, Grant J Williamson, John T Abatzoglou, Crystal A Kolden, Mark A Cochrane, Alistair M S Smith
Extreme wildfires have substantial economic, social and environmental impacts, but there is uncertainty whether such events are inevitable features of the Earth's fire ecology or a legacy of poor management and planning. We identify 478 extreme wildfire events defined as the daily clusters of fire radiative power from MODIS, within a global 10 × 10 km lattice, between 2002 and 2013, which exceeded the 99.997th percentile of over 23 million cases of the ΣFRP 100 km(-2) in the MODIS record. These events are globally distributed across all flammable biomes, and are strongly associated with extreme fire weather conditions...
February 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812714/grand-challenges-for-the-study-of-cultural-evolution
#14
J Brewer, M Gelfand, J C Jackson, I F MacDonald, P N Peregrine, P J Richerson, P Turchin, H Whitehouse, D S Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812690/young-inversion-with-multiple-linked-qtls-under-selection-in-a-hybrid-zone
#15
Cheng-Ruei Lee, Baosheng Wang, Julius P Mojica, Terezie Mandáková, Kasavajhala V S K Prasad, Jose Luis Goicoechea, Nadeesha Perera, Uffe Hellsten, Hope N Hundley, Jenifer Johnson, Jane Grimwood, Kerrie Barry, Stephen Fairclough, Jerry W Jenkins, Yeisoo Yu, Dave Kudrna, Jianwei Zhang, Jayson Talag, Wolfgang Golser, Kathryn Ghattas, M Eric Schranz, Rod Wing, Martin A Lysak, Jeremy Schmutz, Daniel S Rokhsar, Thomas Mitchell-Olds
Fixed chromosomal inversions can reduce gene flow and promote speciation in two ways: by suppressing recombination and by carrying locally favoured alleles at multiple loci. However, it is unknown whether favoured mutations slowly accumulate on older inversions or if young inversions spread because they capture pre-existing adaptive quantitative trait loci (QTLs). By genetic mapping, chromosome painting and genome sequencing, we have identified a major inversion controlling ecologically important traits in Boechera stricta...
April 3, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812673/craniofacial-diversification-in-the-domestic-pigeon-and-the-evolution-of-the-avian-skull
#16
Nathan M Young, Marta Linde-Medina, John W Fondon, Benedikt Hallgrímsson, Ralph S Marcucio
A central question in evolutionary developmental biology is how highly conserved developmental systems can generate the remarkable phenotypic diversity observed among distantly related species. In part, this paradox reflects our limited knowledge about the potential for species to both respond to selection and generate novel variation. Consequently, the developmental links between small-scale microevolutionary variations within populations to larger macroevolutionary patterns among species remain unbridged...
March 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812672/rapid-and-direct-recoveries-of-predators-and-prey-through-synchronized-ecosystem-management
#17
Jameal F Samhouri, Adrian C Stier, Shannon M Hennessey, Mark Novak, Benjamin S Halpern, Phillip S Levin
One of the twenty-first century's greatest environmental challenges is to recover and restore species, habitats and ecosystems. The decision about how to initiate restoration is best-informed by an understanding of the linkages between ecosystem components and, given these linkages, an appreciation of the consequences of choosing to recover one ecosystem component before another. However, it remains difficult to predict how the sequence of species' recoveries within food webs influences the speed and trajectory of restoration, and what that means for human well-being...
March 1, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812657/diminishing-returns-epistasis-decreases-adaptability-along-an-evolutionary-trajectory
#18
Andrea Wünsche, Duy M Dinh, Rebecca S Satterwhite, Carolina Diaz Arenas, Daniel M Stoebel, Tim F Cooper
Populations evolving in constant environments exhibit declining adaptability. Understanding the basis of this pattern could reveal underlying processes determining the repeatability of evolutionary outcomes. In principle, declining adaptability can be due to a decrease in the effect size of beneficial mutations, a decrease in the rate at which they occur, or some combination of both. By evolving Escherichia coli populations started from different steps along a single evolutionary trajectory, we show that declining adaptability is best explained by a decrease in the size of available beneficial mutations...
March 1, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812649/decreased-male-reproductive-success-in-association-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#19
Mika H Martikainen, John P Grady, Yi Shiau Ng, Charlotte L Alston, Grainne S Gorman, Robert W Taylor, Robert McFarland, Doug M Turnbull
The reproductive success of men with mitochondrial disease is to date unreported. We compared the age- and era-adjusted reproductive success of 94 British male patients with mitochondrial disease to that of the UK general male population. The reproductive success of men with mitochondrial disease was 65% of that in the general population (95% confidence interval: 53%; 79%), and the effect magnitude was related to the disease severity. This contrasts with the two previous studies finding that the reproductive success of women with mitochondrial DNA disease is not impaired...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812601/recent-extinctions-disturb-path-to-equilibrium-diversity-in-caribbean-bats
#20
Luis Valente, Rampal S Etienne, Liliana M Dávalos
Islands are ideal systems to model temporal changes in biodiversity and reveal the influence of humans on natural communities. Although theory predicts biodiversity on islands tends towards an equilibrium value, the recent extinction of large proportions of island biotas complicates testing this model. The well-preserved subfossil record of Caribbean bats-involving multiple insular radiations-provides a rare opportunity to model diversity dynamics in an insular community. Here, we reconstruct the diversity trajectory in noctilionoid bats of the Greater Antilles by applying a dynamic model of colonization, extinction and speciation to phylogenetic and palaeontological data including all known extinct and extant species...
January 9, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
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