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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107771/a-prospective-study-of-maternal-fetal-and-neonatal-outcomes-in-the-setting-of-cesarean-section-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#1
Margo S Harrison, Omrana Pasha, Sarah Saleem, Sumera Ali, Elwyn Chomba, Waldemar A Carlo, Ana L Garces, Nancy F Krebs, K Michael Hambidge, Shivaprasad S Goudar, Bhala Kodkany, Sangappa Dhaded, Richard J Derman, Archana Patel, Patricia L Hibberd, Fabian Esamai, Edward A Liechty, Janet L Moore, Dennis Wallace, Elizabeth M McClure, Menachem Miodovnik, Marion Koso-Thomas, Jose Belizan, Robert L Goldenberg
Cesarean section (CS) rates are increasing globally with an unclear effect on pregnancy outcomes. The study objective was to quantify maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries associated with CS compared to vaginal delivery (VD) both within and across sites MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective population-based study including home and facility births in 337,153 women with a VD and 47,308 women with a CS from 2010 to 2015 was performed in Guatemala, India, Kenya, Pakistan, Zambia, and Democratic Republic of Congo...
January 20, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107737/contrast-enhanced-spectral-mammography-cesm-versus-mri-in-the-high-risk-screening-setting-patient-preferences-and-attitudes
#2
Jordana Phillips, Matthew M Miller, Tejas S Mehta, Valerie Fein-Zachary, Audrey Nathanson, Wendy Hori, Rita Monahan-Earley, Priscilla J Slanetz
PURPOSE: Our study evaluates patient preferences toward screening CESM versus MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As part of a prospective study, high-risk patients had breast MRI and CESM. Patients completed an anonymous survey to evaluate preferences regarding the two modalities. RESULTS: 88% of participants completed the survey. 79% preferred CESM over MRI if the exams had equal sensitivity. 89% would be comfortable receiving contrast as part of an annual screening test...
December 28, 2016: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107709/quantification-of-fatty-acids-in-the-muscle-of-antarctic-fish-trematomus-bernacchii-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-optimization-of-the-analytical-methodology
#3
C Truzzi, S Illuminati, A Annibaldi, M Antonucci, G Scarponi
This work presents data on the quantification of fatty acids (FAs, in terms of mass unit per tissue weight) in the muscle of Trematomus bernacchii, a key species in Antarctica, often used as bioindicator for contamination studies. Modifications in fatty acids content should be considered a useful biomarker to study how contaminants affect Antarctic biota. Until now, very few studies quantified fatty acids of muscle of T. bernacchii, and only as percentage of a single fatty acid on total lipids. To perform the quantification of fatty acids, we used an analytical method based on a fast microwave-assisted extraction of lipids from a lyophilized sample, a base-catalyzed trans-esterification of lipid extract to obtain Fatty Acids Methyl Esters (FAMEs), and a separation and identification of FAMEs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
December 31, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107703/how-universal-is-coverage-and-access-to-diagnosis-and-treatment-for-chagas-disease-in-colombia-a-health-systems-analysis
#4
Zulma M Cucunubá, Jennifer M Manne-Goehler, Diana Díaz, Pierre Nouvellet, Oscar Bernal, Andrea Marchiol, María-Gloria Basáñez, Lesong Conteh
Limited access to Chagas disease diagnosis and treatment is a major obstacle to reaching the 2020 World Health Organization milestones of delivering care to all infected and ill patients. Colombia has been identified as a health system in transition, reporting one of the highest levels of health insurance coverage in Latin America. We explore if and how this high level of coverage extends to those with Chagas disease, a traditionally marginalised population. Using a mixed methods approach, we calculate coverage for screening, diagnosis and treatment of Chagas...
January 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107676/characterization-of-a-new-ultrasound-device-designed-for-measuring-cortical-porosity-at-the-human-tibia-a-phantom-study
#5
M Gräsel, C-C Glüer, R Barkmann
Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements of trabecular bone are a useful tool for the assessment of osteoporotic fracture risk. However, cortical bone properties (e.g. porosity) have an impact on bone strength as well and thus current research is focused on QUS assessment of cortical bone properties. Simulation studies of ultrasound propagation through cortical bone indicate that anisotropy, calculated from the ratio of the velocities in axial and tangential directions, is correlated with porosity. However, this relationship is affected by error sources, specifically bone surface curvature and variability of probe positioning...
January 4, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107667/two-opposite-dose-dependent-effects-of-diazinon-on-the-motor-activity-of-the-rat-ileum
#6
Saša M Trailović, Djordje S Marjanović, Teodora Vidonja Uzelac, Mirjana Milovanović, Jelena Nedeljković Trailović
Acute poisoning with OPs may lead to a range of neurological effects, which cannot be explained by AChE inhibition alone. Several OPs interact directly with cholinergic receptors in mammals, but such data does not exist for invertebrates. The aim of current study was to investigate the direct and indirect effects of diazinon on the contractions of rat ileum and to compare those effects on the nervemuscle preparation of the Ascaris suum. In the presence of increasing concentrations of diazinon (3, 10 and 30nM), EFS-induced ileal contractions were increased significantly...
January 10, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107660/guided-growth-of-auditory-neurons-bioactive-particles-towards-gapless-neural-electrode-interface
#7
Hao Li, Fredrik Edin, Hisamitsu Hayashi, Olafur Gudjonsson, Niklas Danckwardt-Lillieström, Håkan Engqvist, Helge Rask-Andersen, Wei Xia
Cochlear implant (CI) is a successful device to restore hearing. Despite continuous development, frequency discrimination is poor in CI users due to an anatomical gap between the auditory neurons and CI electrode causing current spread and unspecific neural stimulation. One strategy to close this anatomical gap is guiding the growth of neuron dendrites closer to CI electrodes through targeted slow release of neurotrophins. Biodegradable calcium phosphate hollow nanospheres (CPHSs) were produced and their capacity for uptake and release of neurotrophins investigated using (125)I-conjugated glia cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)...
December 23, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107658/validation-of-a-personalized-curved-muscle-model-of-the-lumbar-spine-during-complex-dynamic-exertions
#8
Jaejin Hwang, Gregory G Knapik, Jonathan S Dufour, Thomas M Best, Safdar N Khan, Ehud Mendel, William S Marras
Previous curved muscle models have typically examined their robustness only under simple, single-plane static exertions. In addition, the empirical validation of curved muscle models through an entire lumbar spine has not been fully realized. The objective of this study was to empirically validate a personalized biologically-assisted curved muscle model during complex dynamic exertions. Twelve subjects performed a variety of complex lifting tasks as a function of load weight, load origin, and load height. Both a personalized curved muscle model as well as a straight-line muscle model were used to evaluate the model's fidelity and prediction of three-dimensional spine tissue loads under different lifting conditions...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107599/the-prevalence-and-impact-of-chronic-neuropathic-pain-on-daily-and-social-life-a-nationwide-study-in-a-japanese-population
#9
S Inoue, T Taguchi, T Yamashita, M Nakamura, T Ushida
BACKGROUND: This study marks the first epidemiological evaluation of the prevalence and burden of chronic neuropathic pain (NeP) in an Asian population. The objective of this nationwide cross-sectional study was to identify the characteristics of individuals with NeP, detect the NeP features that affect their quality of life (QOL), and demonstrate the negative effects of NeP on social and daily living as well as comorbidities including depression, anxiety and sleep disorders. METHODS: We mailed a cross-sectional, population-based epidemiological survey to a random nationwide sample of 10,000 Japanese adults over 20 years old...
January 20, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107569/use-of-higher-maximum-doses-and-infusion-rates-compared-with-those-used-in-standard-unfractionated-heparin-therapy-is-associated-with-adequate-anticoagulation-without-increased-bleeding-in-both-obese-and-nonobese-patients-with-cardiovascular-indications
#10
Catherine K Floroff, Nicole M Palm, Daniel H Steinberg, Eric R Powers, Barbara S Wiggins
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the time to achieve therapeutic activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) values and occurrence of bleeding based on standard unfractionated heparin (UFH) weight-based dosing recommendations compared with an aggressive weight-based UFH dosing strategy using higher maximum doses and infusion rates in both obese and nonobese patients who presented with non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction or unstable angina (NSTEMI/UA) or atrial fibrillation. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
January 20, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107561/beta-blockers-for-hypertension
#11
REVIEW
Charles S Wiysonge, Hazel A Bradley, Jimmy Volmink, Bongani M Mayosi, Lionel H Opie
BACKGROUND: Beta-blockers refer to a mixed group of drugs with diverse pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. They have shown long-term beneficial effects on mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) when used in people with heart failure or acute myocardial infarction. Beta-blockers were thought to have similar beneficial effects when used as first-line therapy for hypertension. However, the benefit of beta-blockers as first-line therapy for hypertension without compelling indications is controversial...
January 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107529/complement-activation-and-stat4-expression-are-associated-with-early-inflammation-in-diabetic-wounds
#12
Kenji M Cunnion, Neel K Krishna, Haree K Pallera, Angela Pineros-Fernandez, Magdielis Gregory Rivera, Pamela S Hair, Brittany P Lassiter, Ryan Huyck, Mary A Clements, Antoinette F Hood, George T Rodeheaver, Patrick S Cottler, Jerry L Nadler, Anca D Dobrian
: Diabetic non-healing wounds are a major clinical problem. The mechanisms leading to poor wound healing in diabetes are multifactorial but unresolved inflammation may be a major contributing factor. The complement system (CS) is the most potent inflammatory cascade in humans and contributes to poor wound healing in animal models. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) is a transcription factor expressed in immune and adipose cells and contributes to upregulation of some inflammatory chemokines and cytokines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107514/karyopherin-alpha-proteins-regulate-oligodendrocyte-differentiation
#13
Benjamin M Laitman, John N Mariani, Chi Zhang, Setsu Sawai, Gareth R John
Proper regulation of the coordinated transcriptional program that drives oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation is essential for central nervous system myelin formation and repair. Nuclear import, mediated in part by a group of karyopherin alpha (Kpna) proteins, regulates transcription factor access to the genome. Understanding how canonical nuclear import functions to control genomic access in OL differentiation may aid in the creation of novel therapeutics to stimulate myelination and remyelination. Here, we show that members of the Kpna family regulate OL differentiation, and may play distinct roles downstream of different pro-myelinating stimuli...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107505/septic-systems-contribution-to-phosphorus-in-shallow-groundwater-field-scale-studies-using-conventional-drainfield-designs
#14
Sara Mechtensimer, Gurpal S Toor
Septic systems can be a potential source of phosphorus (P) in groundwater and contribute to eutrophication in aquatic systems. Our objective was to investigate P transport from two conventional septic systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench) to shallow groundwater. Two new in-situ drainfields (6.1 m long by 0.61 m wide) with a 3.72 m2 infiltrative surface were constructed. The drip dispersal drainfield was constructed by placing 30.5 cm commercial sand on top of natural soil and the gravel trench drainfield was constructed by placing 30...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107493/white-matter-abnormalities-in-two-different-subtypes-of-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#15
Jianghong Liu, Peipeng Liang, Linlin Yin, Ni Shu, Tengda Zhao, Yi Xing, Fangyu Li, Zhilian Zhao, Kuncheng Li, Ying Han
White matter (WM) degeneration has been found during the course of cognitive decline in both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), however, it is unclear whether there are different WM microstructural abnormalities between two subtypes of aMCI, including single domain aMCI (aMCI-s) and multiple domain aMCI (aMCI-m). Thirty-two patients of aMCI single-domain (aMCI-s), twenty-three patients of aMCI multiple-domain (aMCI-m) and twenty-three healthy normal controls (NC) participated in this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107472/fractionation-of-magnetic-microspheres-in-a-microfluidic-spiral-interplay-between-magnetic-and-hydrodynamic-forces
#16
S Dutz, M E Hayden, U O Häfeli
Magnetic forces and curvature-induced hydrodynamic drag have both been studied and employed in continuous microfluidic particle separation and enrichment schemes. Here we combine the two. We investigate consequences of applying an outwardly directed magnetic force to a dilute suspension of magnetic microspheres circulating in a spiral microfluidic channel. This force is realized with an array of permanent magnets arranged to produce a magnetic field with octupolar symmetry about the spiral axis. At low flow rates particles cluster around an apparent streamline of the flow near the outer wall of the turn...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107464/seed-detection-and-discrimination-by-ground-beetles-coleoptera-carabidae-are-associated-with-olfactory-cues
#17
Sharavari S Kulkarni, Lloyd M Dosdall, John R Spence, Christian J Willenborg
Olfactory ability is an element of fitness in many animals, guiding choices among alternatives such as mating partners or food. Ground beetles (Coleoptera; Carabidae), exhibit preferences for prey, and some species are well-known weed seed predators. We used olfactometer-based bioassays to determine if olfactory stimuli are associated with detection of Brassica napus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Thlaspi arvense L. seeds by ground beetles characteristic of agroecosystems, and whether behavioural responses to seed odors depended on seed physiological state (imbibed or unimbibed)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107422/comparison-of-hapmap-and-1000-genomes-reference-panels-in-a-large-scale-genome-wide-association-study
#18
Paul S de Vries, Maria Sabater-Lleal, Daniel I Chasman, Stella Trompet, Tarunveer S Ahluwalia, Alexander Teumer, Marcus E Kleber, Ming-Huei Chen, Jie Jin Wang, John R Attia, Riccardo E Marioni, Maristella Steri, Lu-Chen Weng, Rene Pool, Vera Grossmann, Jennifer A Brody, Cristina Venturini, Toshiko Tanaka, Lynda M Rose, Christopher Oldmeadow, Johanna Mazur, Saonli Basu, Mattias Frånberg, Qiong Yang, Symen Ligthart, Jouke J Hottenga, Ann Rumley, Antonella Mulas, Anton J M de Craen, Anne Grotevendt, Kent D Taylor, Graciela E Delgado, Annette Kifley, Lorna M Lopez, Tina L Berentzen, Massimo Mangino, Stefania Bandinelli, Alanna C Morrison, Anders Hamsten, Geoffrey Tofler, Moniek P M de Maat, Harmen H M Draisma, Gordon D Lowe, Magdalena Zoledziewska, Naveed Sattar, Karl J Lackner, Uwe Völker, Barbara McKnight, Jie Huang, Elizabeth G Holliday, Mark A McEvoy, John M Starr, Pirro G Hysi, Dena G Hernandez, Weihua Guan, Fernando Rivadeneira, Wendy L McArdle, P Eline Slagboom, Tanja Zeller, Bruce M Psaty, André G Uitterlinden, Eco J C de Geus, David J Stott, Harald Binder, Albert Hofman, Oscar H Franco, Jerome I Rotter, Luigi Ferrucci, Tim D Spector, Ian J Deary, Winfried März, Andreas Greinacher, Philipp S Wild, Francesco Cucca, Dorret I Boomsma, Hugh Watkins, Weihong Tang, Paul M Ridker, Jan W Jukema, Rodney J Scott, Paul Mitchell, Torben Hansen, Christopher J O'Donnell, Nicholas L Smith, David P Strachan, Abbas Dehghan
An increasing number of genome-wide association (GWA) studies are now using the higher resolution 1000 Genomes Project reference panel (1000G) for imputation, with the expectation that 1000G imputation will lead to the discovery of additional associated loci when compared to HapMap imputation. In order to assess the improvement of 1000G over HapMap imputation in identifying associated loci, we compared the results of GWA studies of circulating fibrinogen based on the two reference panels. Using both HapMap and 1000G imputation we performed a meta-analysis of 22 studies comprising the same 91,953 individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107418/nf-kappab-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-emt-genes-in-breast-cancer-cells
#19
Bruno R B Pires, Andre L Mencalha, Gerson M Ferreira, Waldemir F de Souza, José A Morgado-Díaz, Amanda M Maia, Stephany Corrêa, Eliana S F W Abdelhay
The metastatic process in breast cancer is related to the expression of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition transcription factors (EMT-TFs) SNAIL, SLUG, SIP1 and TWIST1. EMT-TFs and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation have been associated with aggressiveness and metastatic potential in carcinomas. Here, we sought to examine the role of NF-κB in the aggressive properties and regulation of EMT-TFs in human breast cancer cells. Blocking NF-κB/p65 activity by reducing its transcript and protein levels (through siRNA-strategy and dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin [DHMEQ] treatment) in the aggressive MDA-MB-231 and HCC-1954 cell lines resulted in decreased invasiveness and migration, a downregulation of SLUG, SIP1, TWIST1, MMP11 and N-cadherin transcripts and an upregulation of E-cadherin transcripts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107404/patterns-of-contraceptive-adoption-continuation-and-switching-after-delivery-among-malawian-women
#20
Dawn M Kopp, Nora E Rosenberg, Gretchen S Stuart, William C Miller, Mina C Hosseinipour, Phylos Bonongwe, Mwawi Mwale, Jennifer H Tang
Women who report use of postpartum family planning may not continue their initial method or use it consistently. Understanding the patterns of method uptake, discontinuation, and switching among women after delivery is important to promote uptake and continuation of effective methods of contraception. This is a secondary analysis of 634 Malawian women enrolled into a prospective cohort study after delivery. They completed baseline surveys upon enrollment and follow-up telephone surveys 3, 6, and 12 months post-delivery...
2017: PloS One
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