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Pyruvate AND Visceral fat

Marco G Alves, Ângela Moreira, Marta Guimarães, Mário Nora, Mario Sousa, Pedro F Oliveira, Mariana P Monteiro
Adipose tissue (AT) is involved in dysmetabolism pathogenesis. Regional fat distribution and functioning may contribute to obesity-related metabolic disorders and adverse health outcomes. Specific fat depots are suggested to possess unique biological properties, but specific metabolic profiles of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) remain unknown. We aimed to characterize VAT and SAT glucose metabolism, and their correlation with body mass index (BMI). AT samples from patients (n = 12; F:M, 9:3) with a mean age of 46 years (26-83 years) and an average BMI of 29...
December 2017: BBA Clinical
Ichiro Tokubuchi, Yuji Tajiri, Shimpei Iwata, Kento Hara, Nobuhiko Wada, Toshihiko Hashinaga, Hitomi Nakayama, Hiroharu Mifune, Kentaro Yamada
OBJECTIVE: Metformin is known to have a beneficial effect on body weight and body composition, although the precise mechanism has not been elucidated yet. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of metformin on energy metabolism and anthropometric factors in both human subjects and rats. METHODS: In human studies, metformin (1500mg/day) was administered to 23 healthy subjects and 18 patients with type 2 diabetes for 2 weeks. Metabolic parameters and energy metabolism were measured during a meal tolerance test in the morning before and after the treatment of metformin...
2017: PloS One
Rhianna C Laker, Evan P Taddeo, Yasir N Akhtar, Mei Zhang, Kyle L Hoehn, Zhen Yan
The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is a key regulator of mitochondrial function that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease. Cyclophilin D (CypD) is a critical regulator that directly binds to mPTP constituents to facilitate the pore opening. We previously found that global CypD knockout mice (KO) are protected from diet-induced glucose intolerance; however, the tissue-specific function of CypD and mPTP, particularly in the control of glucose homeostasis, has not been ascertained...
2016: PloS One
Jose Barrera, Ken L Chambliss, Mohamed Ahmed, Keiji Tanigaki, Bonne Thompson, Jeffrey G McDonald, Chieko Mineo, Philip W Shaul
Despite the capacity of estrogens to favorably regulate body composition and glucose homeostasis, their use to combat obesity and type 2 diabetes is not feasible, because they promote sex steroid-responsive cancers. The novel selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) bazedoxifene acetate (BZA) uniquely antagonizes both breast cancer development and estrogen-related changes in the female reproductive tract. How BZA administered with conjugated estrogen (CE) or alone impacts metabolism is unknown. The effects of BZA or CE + BZA on body composition and glucose homeostasis were determined in ovariectomized female mice fed a Western diet for 10-12 wk...
August 1, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ori Nov, Hagit Shapiro, Hilla Ovadia, Tanya Tarnovscki, Irit Dvir, Elad Shemesh, Julia Kovsan, Ilan Shelef, Yaron Carmi, Elena Voronov, Ron N Apte, Eli Lewis, Yulia Haim, Daniel Konrad, Nava Bashan, Assaf Rudich
The inflammasome has been recently implicated in obesity-associated dys-metabolism. However, of its products, the specific role of IL-1β was clinically demonstrated to mediate only the pancreatic beta-cell demise, and in mice mainly the intra-hepatic manifestations of obesity. Yet, it remains largely unknown if IL-1β, a cytokine believed to mainly function locally, could regulate dysfunctional inter-organ crosstalk in obesity. Here we show that High-fat-fed (HFF) mice exhibited a preferential increase of IL-1β in portal compared to systemic blood...
2013: PloS One
Rajendra Raghow
Using mice that lack retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 gene (Raldh1-/- mice), Kierfer et al demonstrated that retinoids (metabolites of Vitamin A) play an important role in the regulation of cellular metabolisms and energetics. The Aldh1a1-/- mice were leaner and less prone to accumulate subcutaneous and visceral fat, and to acquire insulin resistance on high fat diet. Their lower fasting glucose levels concomitant with reduced hepatic expression of glucose 6-phosphatase and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxy kinase genes indicated that Aldh1a1-/- mice were defective in gluconeogenesis...
October 15, 2012: World Journal of Diabetes
Antonio Pinto, Darren T Juniper, Mert Sanil, Linda Morgan, Lynne Clark, Helmut Sies, Margaret P Rayman, Holger Steinbrenner
While selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for humans, epidemiological studies have raised concern that supranutritional Se intake may increase the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to determine the impact of Se at a dose and source frequently ingested by humans on markers of insulin sensitivity and signalling. Male pigs were fed either a Se-adequate (0.17 mg Se/kg) or a Se-supranutritional (0.50 mg Se/kg; high-Se) diet. After 16 weeks of intervention, fasting plasma insulin and cholesterol levels were non-significantly increased in the high-Se pigs, whereas fasting glucose concentrations did not differ between the two groups...
September 2012: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Satsuki Kawasaki, Osamu Hasegawa, Shinobu Satoh, Kazushi Numata, Yasuo Terauchi
PURPOSE: Usefulness of abdominal ultrasonography for quantitative estimation of fatty liver by measurement of para- and perirenal sonographic fat thickness (UFT) was investigated. METHODS: Study subjects were 286 patients hospitalized for the treatment of diabetes. These subjects underwent blood chemistry studies, abdominal ultrasonography, and CT. On sonography, the thickness of combined para- and perirenal fat was measured between the kidney and the inner aspect of the abdominal musculature...
November 2010: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
So-Hyun Kim, Seung-Ok Yang, Hee-Su Kim, Yujin Kim, Taesun Park, Hyung-Kyoon Choi
Obesity, whose prevalence is increasing rapidly worldwide, is recognized as a risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, and renal disease. To investigate metabolic changes in the urine of a rat model of obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD), rats were divided into the following four groups based on the diet type and degree of weight gain: normal-diet (ND) low gainers, ND high gainers, HFD low gainers, and HFD high gainers. Biochemical analyses of visceral fat-pad weight, plasma, and liver tissues were performed...
October 2009: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Marion Korach-André, Paolo Parini, Lilian Larsson, Anders Arner, Knut R Steffensen, Jan-Ake Gustafsson
The two liver X receptors (LXRs), LXRalpha and LXRbeta, are transcriptional regulators of cholesterol, lipid, and glucose metabolism and are both activated by oxysterols. Impaired metabolism is linked with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2-diabetes (T2D). In the present study, we aimed to delineate the specific roles of LXRalpha and -beta in metabolic processes. C57Bl/6 female mice were fed a normal or a high-fat diet (HFD) and metabolic responses in wild-type, LXRalpha(-/-), LXRbeta(-/-), and LXRalphabeta(-/-) mice were analyzed...
February 2010: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Amy Noto, Peter Zahradka, Natasha R Ryz, Natalia Yurkova, Xueping Xie, Carla G Taylor
Pancreatic preservation is an important part of diabetes management that may occur with improved peripheral insulin sensitivity and attenuated low-grade adipose tissue inflammation. The objective of the current study was to determine the response of obese, insulin-resistant fa/fa Zucker rats vs lean controls to dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation with respect to pancreatic islet size, insulin resistance, and markers of inflammation and adipose glucose uptake. Six-week-old fa/fa and lean Zucker rats (n = 20 per genotype) were fed either a 1...
January 2007: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
J C Sánchez-Salgado, R R Ortiz-Andrade, F Aguirre-Crespo, J Vergara-Galicia, I León-Rivera, S Montes, R Villalobos-Molina, S Estrada-Soto
Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.) Sprengel is a Mexican medicinal plant that is used in the folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, hepatitis and related diseases. The purpose of the present study was to assess the pharmacological properties of different extracts from Cochlospermum vitifolium bark as potential agent for the treatment of some factors related with metabolic syndrome (MS), a complex disease produced for several pathophysiological factors such as visceral fat obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia and liver steatosis...
February 12, 2007: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Michele Colombo, Mogens Kruhoeffer, Soeren Gregersen, Andreas Agger, PerBendix Jeppesen, Torben Oerntoft, Kjeld Hermansen
Energy restriction (ER) causes metabolic improvement in the prediabetic and diabetic state. Little information exists on the mechanism of action of ER, for example, on the changes at the transcriptional gene level in insulin-sensitive tissues. To gain further insight, we have investigated changes in gene expressions in skeletal muscle, liver, fat, and pancreatic islets after ER in male Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Eighteen Zucker diabetic fatty rats were divided at the age of 7 weeks into a control group (ad libitum diet) and an ER group (30% ER compared with the control group)...
January 2006: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Catherine Deveaud, Bertrand Beauvoit, Stéphanie Hagry, Anne Galinier, Audrey Carrière, Bénédicte Salin, Jacques Schaeffer, Sylvie Caspar-Bauguil, Yvette Fernandez, Jean-Baptiste Gordien, Dominique Breilh, Luc Penicaud, Louis Casteilla, Michel Rigoulet
Although it is well accepted that treatment with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) modifies fat metabolism and fat distribution in humans, the mechanisms underlying these modifications are not yet known. The present investigation examines the effects of chronic oral administration of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) on the mitochondrial metabolism and the redox status management of rat white adipose tissues originating from two anatomical sites, as well as of the rat liver. Results showed that AZT treatment induced differential effects on the mitochondrial functions depending on the anatomical localisation...
July 1, 2005: Biochemical Pharmacology
Sally Chiu, Janis S Fisler, Glenda M Espinal, Peter J Havel, Judith S Stern, Craig H Warden
OBJECTIVE: Effects of ectopic expression of the agouti signaling protein were studied on responses to diet restriction and exercise in C57BL/6J (B6) mice and obese B6 mice congenic for the yellow agouti mutation [B6.Cg-Ay (Ay)]. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Adult male Ay mice were either kept sedentary or exercised on a running wheel and fed ad libitum or diet restricted until weight matched to ad libitum-fed B6 control mice. Body composition, plasma lipids, leptin, and adiponectin were measured...
August 2004: Obesity Research
Joan Tordjman, Geneviève Chauvet, Joëlle Quette, Elmus G Beale, Claude Forest, Bénédicte Antoine
Thiazolidinediones are used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus because they decrease plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and fatty acid levels. Thiazolidinediones are agonists for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, a nuclear receptor that is highly expressed in fat tissue. We identify glyceroneogenesis as a target of thiazolidinediones in cultured adipocytes and fat tissues of Wistar rats. The activation of glyceroneogenesis by thiazolidinediones occurs mainly in visceral fat, the same fat depot that is specifically implicated in the progression of obesity to type 2 diabetes...
May 23, 2003: Journal of Biological Chemistry
T Noguchi, T Tanaka
The Wistar fatty rat is a model of obese non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Males, but not females, develop hyperglycemia, glucouria and polyuria within 8 weeks of age. The regulation of gene expression by insulin has been shown to be differentially impaired in the liver of the fatty rats. The genes resistant to insulin include glucokinase gene and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene. In contrast, L-type pyruvate kinase gene responds to insulin normally, raising the possibility that the signaling pathway from the insulin receptor to the insulin-resistant genes, but not to the insulin-sensitive genes, is defective at a point beyond the receptor kinase in the fatty rats...
September 1995: Obesity Research
R Cotter, R C Johnson, S K Young, L I Lin, W B Rowe
This study was conducted to assess the potential metabolic competitive interactions of intravenous medium-chain-triglyceride (MCT) and long-chain-triglyceride (LCT) lipid emulsions. To assess this competition increasing concentrations of LCT emulsion were added to an intravenous dose of MCT emulsion of 3.0 g/kg body wt up to a maximum dose of 3.0 g LCTs/kg body wt. Blood samples were assessed for competitive interactions by analyzing the following metabolites: glucose, insulin, lactate, pyruvate, ketones (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate), elimination of triglycerides, and free fatty acids...
October 1989: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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