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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782940/defining-osteoblast-and-adipocyte-lineages-in-the-bone-marrow
#1
J L Pierce, D L Begun, J J Westendorf, M E McGee-Lawrence
Bone is a complex endocrine organ that facilitates structural support, protection to vital organs, sites for hematopoiesis, and calcium homeostasis. The bone marrow microenvironment is a heterogeneous niche consisting of multipotent musculoskeletal and hematopoietic progenitors and their derivative terminal cell types. Amongst these progenitors, bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMSCs) may differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, myogenic, and chondrogenic lineages to support musculoskeletal development as well as tissue homeostasis, regeneration and repair during adulthood...
May 18, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782915/new-insights-into-the-natural-course-of-knee-osteoarthritis-early-regulation-of-cytokines-and-growth-factors-with-emphasis-on-sex-dependent-angiogenesis-and-tissue-remodeling-a-pilot-study
#2
Kalle Kisand, Ann Tamm, Mare Lintrop, Agu Tamm
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to identify cytokine profiles associated with radiographic phenotypes of knee osteoarthritis (rKOA) with a focus on early stage of the disease. METHODS: The pilot population study involved 60 middle-aged patients (mean age 50±7.3y.). Standardized weight-bearing anteroposterior and axial radiographs were used to assess rKOA severity in tibiofemoral (TFJ) of patellofemoral joint (PFJ) by grading system (grades 0-3). Luminex (xMAP® ) technology was used to simultaneously assess 60 biomarkers...
May 18, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781904/adipose-stromal-vascular-fraction-gel-grafting-a-new-method-for-tissue-volumization-and-rejuvenation
#3
Yao Yao, Junrong Cai, Pan Zhang, Yunjun Liao, Yi Yuan, Ziqing Dong, Feng Lu
BACKGROUND: The clinical outcomes of fat grafting vary and are technique-dependent. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) gel is a novel, mechanically processed fat product with high concentrations of adipose tissue-derived stem cells and other SVF cells. This study evaluated the volumization and rejuvenation effects of SVF-gel. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the volumization and rejuvenation effects of SVF-gel. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center study included 126 patients who underwent SVF-gel grafting and 78 who underwent conventional lipoinjection for various indications from March 2015 to February 2017...
May 16, 2018: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778537/a-new-indanedione-derivative-alleviates-symptoms-of-diabetes-by-modulating-rage-nf-kappab-pathway-in-db-db-mice
#4
Gulnaz Khan, Meha Fatima Aftab, Bilquees Bano, Khalid Mohammed Khan, Munazza Murtaza, Sonia Siddiqui, M Hafizur Rehman, Rizwana Sanaullah Waraich
Accumulating evidence indicates that a number of tissues are damaged due to build-up of abnormal amount of Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs) in several diseases including diabetes. Currently AGE inhibitors are scarce in clinical use indicating a need for development of new anti-AGE agents. The aim of the current study is to identify the new AGE inhibitors and to decipher their mechanism of action for alleviating symptoms of diabetes in mice. Among several derivatives, one of the derivatives of indanedione, IDD-24 demonstrated highest inhibition of AGE formation and AGE mediated reactive oxygen species production in HepG-2 and mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
May 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778311/a-rare-cause-of-primary-hyperparathyroidism-parathyroid-lipoadenoma
#5
Sabri Özden, Servet Güreşci, Barış Saylam, Gül Dağlar
OBJECTIVE: The main cause of primary hyperparathyroidism is a single parathyroid adenoma. Parathyroid lipoadenomas contain abundance of fat cells. Because of these histological features, they can mimic normal parathyroid tissue at the histopathologic examination and radiological imaging could be difficult to localize lipoadenomas. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: In this case report, we present three cases of functional parathyroid lipoadenomas. CONCLUSION: Preoperative imaging modalities often can't localize lipoadenoma...
May 16, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778021/the-homing-of-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-the-subsequent-modulation-of-macrophage-polarization-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#6
Yaqi Yin, Haojie Hao, Yu Cheng, Jieqing Gao, Jiejie Liu, Zongyan Xie, Qi Zhang, Li Zang, Weidong Han, Yiming Mu
Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs), with both immunomodulatory and pro-regenerative properties, are promising for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). As efficient cell therapy largely relies on appropriate homing to target tissues, knowing where and to what extent injected UC-MSCs have homed is critically important. However, bio-distribution data for UC-MSCs in T2DM subjects are extremely limited. Beneficial effects of UC-MSCs on T2DM subjects are associated with increased M2 macrophages, but no systemic evaluation of M2 macrophages has been performed in T2DM individuals...
May 15, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777756/peroxiredoxin-5-regulates-adipogenesis-attenuating-oxidative-stress-in-obese-mouse-models-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#7
Mi Hye Kim, Sun-Ji Park, Jung-Hak Kim, Jung Bae Seong, Kyung-Min Kim, Hyun Ae Woo, Dong-Seok Lee
Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a hallmark of obesity. Peroxiredoxin 5 (Prx5), which is a cysteine-dependent peroxidase enzyme, has an intensive ROS scavenging activity because it is located in the cytosol and mitochondria. Therefore, we focused on the role of Prx5 in regulating mitochondrial ROS and adipogenesis. We demonstrated that Prx5 expression was upregulated during adipogenesis and Prx5 overexpression suppressed adipogenesis by regulating cytosolic and mitochondrial ROS generation...
May 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777704/dietary-mung-bean-protein-reduces-high-fat-diet-induced-weight-gain-by-modulating-host-bile-acid-metabolism-in-a-gut-microbiota-dependent-manner
#8
Akiho Nakatani, Xuan Li, Junki Miyamoto, Miki Igarashi, Hitoshi Watanabe, Asuka Sutou, Keita Watanabe, Takayasu Motoyama, Nobuhiko Tachibana, Mitsutaka Kohno, Hiroshi Inoue, Ikuo Kimura
The 8-globulin-rich mung bean protein (MPI) suppresses hepatic lipogenesis in rodent models and reduces fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels in obese adults. However, its effects on mitigating high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and the mechanism underlying these effects remain to be elucidated. Herein, we examined the metabolic phenotype, intestinal bile acid (BA) pool, and gut microbiota of conventionally raised (CONV-R) male C57BL/6 mice and germ-free (GF) mice that were randomized to receive either regular HFD or HFD containing mung bean protein isolate (MPI) instead of the dairy protein present in regular HFD...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777263/folate-treatment-of-pregnant-rat-dams-abolishes-metabolic-effects-in-female-offspring-induced-by-a-paternal-pre-conception-unhealthy-diet
#9
Jian Li, Yong-Ping Lu, Oleg Tsuprykov, Ahmed A Hasan, Christoph Reichetzeder, Mei Tian, Xiao Li Zhang, Qin Zhang, Guo-Ying Sun, Jingli Guo, Mohamed M S Gaballa, Xiao-Ning Peng, Ge Lin, Berthold Hocher
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Paternal high-fat diet prior to mating programmes impaired glucose tolerance in female offspring. We examined whether the metabolic consequences in offspring could be abolished by folate treatment of either the male rats before mating or the corresponding female rats during pregnancy. METHODS: Male F0 rats were fed either control diet or high-fat, high-sucrose and high-salt diet (HFSSD), with or without folate, before mating. Male rats were mated with control-diet-fed dams...
May 18, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777149/stretching-reduces-tumor-growth-in-a-mouse-breast-cancer-model
#10
L Berrueta, J Bergholz, D Munoz, I Muskaj, G J Badger, A Shukla, H J Kim, J J Zhao, H M Langevin
There is growing interest in developing non-pharmacological treatments that could boost natural defenses against cancer and contribute to primary and secondary cancer prevention. Recent studies have shown that gentle daily stretching for 10 minutes can reduce local connective tissue inflammation and fibrosis. Because mechanical factors within the stroma can influence the tumor microenvironment, we hypothesized that stretching would reduce the growth of tumors implanted within locally stretched tissues and tested this hypothesis in a mouse orthotopic breast cancer model...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777107/differentiation-of-periapical-granulomas-and-cysts-by-using-dental-mri-a-pilot-study
#11
Alexander Juerchott, Thorsten Pfefferle, Christa Flechtenmacher, Johannes Mente, Martin Bendszus, Sabine Heiland, Tim Hilgenfeld
The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate whether periapical granulomas can be differentiated from periapical cysts in vivo by using dental magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Prior to apicoectomy, 11 patients with radiographically confirmed periapical lesions underwent dental MRI, including fat-saturated T2-weighted (T2wFS) images, non-contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images with and without fat saturation (T1w/T1wFS), and contrast-enhanced fat-saturated T1-weighted (T1wFS+C) images. Two independent observers performed structured image analysis of MRI datasets twice...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776537/comparative-study-on-metabolite-level-in-tissue-specific-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-an-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#12
Seul Ji Lee, TacGhee Yi, Soo Hyun Ahn, Dong Kyu Lim, Si-Na Kim, Hyun-Joo Lee, Yun-Kyoung Cho, Jae-Yol Lim, Jong-Hyuk Sung, Jeong-Ho Yun, Johan Lim, Sun U Song, Sung Won Kwon
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising therapeutic option for cell-based therapy due to their immunomodulatory and regenerative properties. They can be isolated from various adult tissues, including bone marrow, fat, dental tissue, and glandular tissue. Although they share common characteristics, little is known about the biological differences between MSC populations derived from different tissues. In this study, we used MS to compare the endogenous metabolite level in the human MSCs originating from the bone marrow, adipose tissue, periodontal ligaments, and salivary glands...
September 18, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775920/il-33-stimulates-expression-of-the-gpr84-ex33-fatty-acid-receptor-gene-and-of-cytokine-and-chemokine-genes-in-human-adipocytes
#13
Mohamed S Zaibi, Małgorzata A Kępczyńska, Parvathy Harikumar, Suliman Y Alomar, Paul Trayhurn
Expression of GPCR fatty acid sensor/receptor genes in adipocytes is modulated by inflammatory mediators, particularly IL-1β. In this study we examined whether the IL-1 gene superfamily member, IL-33, also regulates expression of the fatty acid receptor genes in adipocytes. Human fat cells, differentiated from preadipocytes, were incubated with IL-33 at three different dose levels for 3 or 24 h and mRNA measured by qPCR. Treatment with IL-33 induced a dose-dependent increase in GPR84 mRNA at 3 h, the level with the highest dose being 13...
May 15, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775748/microrna-204-5p-regulates-3t3-l1-preadipocyte-proliferation-apoptosis-and-differentiation
#14
Jingjing Du, Peiwen Zhang, Mailin Gan, Xue Zhao, Yan Xu, Qiang Li, Yanzhi Jiang, Guoqing Tang, Mingzhou Li, Jinyong Wang, Xuewei Li, Shunhua Zhang, Li Zhu
Obesity due to excessive lipid accumulation is closely associated with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and inflammation. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie adipogenesis is crucial to develop treatments for diseases related to obesity. Here, we found that the microRNA-204-5p (miR-204-5p) was expressed at low levels in fat tissues from obese mice fed long-term with a high-fat diet (HFD). Overexpression or inhibition of miR-204-5p in vitro in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly inhibited or promoted 3T3-L1 proliferation, respectively, an effect mediated by regulating cell proliferation factors...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775616/amelioration-of-uvb-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-fat-1-transgenic-mouse-skin
#15
Hye-Won Yum, Seong Hoon Kim, Jing X Kang, Young-Joon Surh
ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in some fish oils, are known to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals and increase host immunoresponsiveness. As UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated in apoptotic cell death, this study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic capacity of fat-1 transgenic mice capable of converting ω-6 to ω-3 PUFAs. Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice and fat-1 mice were maintained on the AIN-93 diet supplemented with 10% safflower oil rich in ω-6 PUFAs for 5 weeks...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774599/deep-convolutional-neural-network-for-segmentation-of-knee-joint-anatomy
#16
Zhaoye Zhou, Gengyan Zhao, Richard Kijowski, Fang Liu
PURPOSE: To describe and evaluate a new segmentation method using deep convolutional neural network (CNN), 3D fully connected conditional random field (CRF), and 3D simplex deformable modeling to improve the efficiency and accuracy of knee joint tissue segmentation. METHODS: A segmentation pipeline was built by combining a semantic segmentation CNN, 3D fully connected CRF, and 3D simplex deformable modeling. A convolutional encoder-decoder network was designed as the core of the segmentation method to perform high resolution pixel-wise multi-class tissue classification for 12 different joint structures...
May 17, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773865/perlecan-a-heparan-sulfate-proteoglycan-regulates-systemic-metabolism-with-dynamic-changes-in-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle
#17
Yuri Yamashita, Satoshi Nakada, Toshinori Yoshihara, Takeshi Nara, Norihiko Furuya, Takashi Miida, Nobutaka Hattori, Eri Arikawa-Hirasawa
Perlecan (HSPG2), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is a component of basement membranes and participates in a variety of biological activities. Here, we show physiological roles of perlecan in both obesity and the onset of metabolic syndrome. The perinatal lethality-rescued perlecan knockout (Hspg2-/- -Tg) mice showed a smaller mass and cell size of white adipose tissues than control (WT-Tg) mice. Abnormal lipid deposition, such as fatty liver, was not detected in the Hspg2-/- -Tg mice, and those mice also consumed more fat as an energy source, likely due to their activated fatty acid oxidation...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773671/targeted-inhibition-of-cd74-attenuates-adipose-cox-2-mif-mediated-m1-macrophage-polarization-and-retards-obesity-related-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#18
Pei-Chi Chan, Ting-Ni Wu, Ying-Chuan Chen, Chieh-Hua Lu, Martin Wabitsch, Yu-Feng Tian, Po-Shiuan Hsieh
Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation is crucial to the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance. Our aim was to investigate the contribution of COX-2/MIF-mediated crosstalk between hypertrophic adipocytes and macrophages to the etiology of AT inflammation and involvement of CD74 using human SGBS adipocytes, THP-1 macrophages and mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. The MIF and CD74 mRNA levels in the adipocytes and SVCs (stromal vascular cells) of white fat were highly correlated with body weight, HOMA-IR and adipose macrophage marker expression levels, especially those in SVCs...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773653/inhibition-of-protein-arginine-methyltransferase-5-enhances-hepatic-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#19
Lei Huang, Jehnan Liu, Xiao-Ou Zhang, Katelyn Sibley, Sonia M Najjar, Mary M Lee, Joae Qiong Wu
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) regulates gene expression either transcriptionallyly by symmetric dimethylation of arginine residues on histones H4R3, H3R8 and H2AR3, or at the post-translational level by methylation of non-histone target proteins. While emerging evidence suggests that PRMT5 functions as an oncogene, its role in metabolic diseases is not well defined. We investigated the role of PRMT5 in promoting high fat-induced hepatic steatosis. High fat diet up-regulated PRMT5 levels in the liver, but not in other metabolically relevant tissues such as skeletal muscle or white and brown adipose tissue...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773398/sulfated-polysaccharide-mediated-tgf-%C3%AE-1-presentation-in-pre-formed-injectable-scaffolds-for-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#20
Neha Ashok Waghmare, Aditya Arora, Arijit Bhattacharjee, Dhirendra S Katti
In this work, a plant-derived polysaccharide carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was chemically modified to incorporate sulfate groups to facilitate binding of cationic growth factors. The sulfated CMC (heparin mimic) was then used with CMC (glycosaminoglycan mimic) and gelatin (collagen mimic) to fabricate injectable pre-formed, macroporous scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. These scaffolds demonstrated high resilience and shape memory, thereby making them injectable through a 14G needle for up to 4-6 aspiration and injection cycles...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
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