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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141135/the-fatty-acid-composition-of-lamb-liver-muscle-and-adipose-tissues-in-response-to-rumen-protected-conjugated-linoleic-acid-cla-supplementation-is-tissue-dependent
#1
Stefano Schiavon, Matteo Bergamaschi, Erika Pellattiero, Alberto Simonetto, Franco Tagliapietra
The tissue-specific response to rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid supply (rpCLA) of liver, two muscles and three adipose tissues of heavy lambs was studied. Twenty-four lambs, 8 months old, divided into 4 groups of 6, were fed at libitum on a ration supplemented without or with a mixture of rpCLA. Silica and hydrogenated soybean oil was the rpCLA coating matrix. The lambs were slaughtered at 11 months of age. Tissues were collected and analysed for their FA profiles. The dietary rpCLA supplement had no influence on carcass fatness nor on the fat content of the liver and tissues, and had little influence on the FA profiles of these tissues...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141038/depot-specific-inflammation-with-decreased-expression-of-atm2-in-white-adipose-tissues-induced-by-high-margarine-lard-intake
#2
Nannan Wang, Jie Guo, Fuding Liu, Mingxia Wang, Chuntao Li, Lihong Jia, Lingling Zhai, Wei Wei, Yinglong Bai
A high-fat diet has been recognized as an important risk factor of obesity, with variable impacts of different fatty acid compositions on the physiological process. To understand the effects of a high-margarine/lard diet, which is a major source of trans fatty acids (TFAs)/ saturated fatty acids (SFAs), elaidic acid as a biomarker of margarine intake was used to screen affected adipokines on mature human adipocytes in vitro. Weaned male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet enriched with margarine/lard to generate obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) models, which were then used to explore the inflammatory responses of depot-specific white adipose tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140901/-state-of-the-art-techniques-in-treating-peripheral-nerve-injury
#3
Carrie A Kubiak, Theodore A Kung, David L Brown, Paul S Cederna, Stephen W P Kemp
BACKGROUND -: Peripheral nerve injuries remain a major clinical concern as they often lead to chronic disability and significant health care expenditures. Despite advancements in microsurgical techniques to enhance nerve repair, biologic approaches are needed to augment nerve regeneration and improve functional outcomes after injury. METHODS -: Presented herein is a review of the current literature on state of the art techniques to enhance functional recovery for patients with nerve injury...
November 11, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140808/randomized-trial-evaluating-the-effect-of-aged-garlic-extract-with-supplements-versus-placebo-on-adipose-tissue-surrogates-for-coronary-atherosclerosis-progression
#4
Irfan Zeb, Naser Ahmadi, Ferdinand Flores, Matthew J Budoff
AIMS: Increased epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), pericardial adipose tissue (PAT), periaortic adipose tissue (PaAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) are mediators of metabolic risk, and are associated with the severity of coronary artery calcium (CAC). Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been shown to reduce the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. This study evaluates the effect of AGE with supplements (AGE+S) on EAT, PAT, SAT, and PaAT. METHODS: Sixty asymptomatic participants participated in a randomized trial evaluating the effect of AGE+S versus placebo on coronary atherosclerosis progression, and underwent CAC at baseline and after 12 months of treatment...
November 14, 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140576/comparison-between-qualitative-and-quantitative-assessment-of-background-parenchymal-enhancement-on-breast-mri
#5
Akshat C Pujara, Artem Mikheev, Henry Rusinek, Yiming Gao, Chloe Chhor, Kristine Pysarenko, Harikrishna Rallapalli, Jerzy Walczyk, Melanie Moccaldi, James S Babb, Amy N Melsaether
BACKGROUND: Potential clinical implications of the level of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on breast MRI are increasing. Currently, BPE is typically evaluated subjectively. Tests of concordance between subjective BPE assessment and computer-assisted quantified BPE have not been reported. PURPOSE OR HYPOTHESIS: To compare subjective radiologist assessment of BPE with objective quantified parenchymal enhancement (QPE). STUDY TYPE: Cross-sectional observational study...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140567/human-adipose-derived-stromal-cell-isolation-methods-and-use-in-osteogenic-and-adipogenic-in-vivo-applications
#6
Elizabeth Brett, Ruth Tevlin, Adrian McArdle, Eun Young Seo, Charles K F Chan, Derrick C Wan, Michael T Longaker
Adipose tissue represents an abundant and easily accessible source of multipotent cells, which may serve as excellent building blocks for tissue engineering. This article presents a newly described protocol for isolating adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) from human lipoaspirate, compared to the standard protocol for harvesting ASCs established in 2001. Human ASC isolation is performed using two methods, and resultant cells are compared through cell yield, cell viability, cell proliferation and regenerative potential...
November 15, 2017: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140420/growth-trajectories-breast-size-and-breast-tissue-composition-in-a-british-pre-birth-cohort-of-young-women
#7
Rachel Denholm, Bianca De Stavola, John H Hipwell, Simon J Doran, Marta C Busana, Martin O Leach, David J Hawkes, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva
Mammographic % density, the proportion of fibroglandular tissue in the breast, is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but its determinants in young women are unknown. We examined associations between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) breast-tissue composition at age 21 years and prospectively-collected measures of body size and composition from birth to early adulthood, and markers of puberty (all standardized), in a sample of 500 nulliparous women from a pre-birth cohort of children born in Avon, England, in 1991-1992 and followed up to 2011-2014...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140299/pdgfr%C3%AE-regulated-by-mir-34a-and-foxo1-promotes-adipogenesis-in-porcine-intramuscular-preadipocytes-through-erk-signaling-pathway
#8
Yun-Mei Sun, Jin Qin, Shu-Ge Liu, Rui Cai, Xiao-Chang Chen, Xiang-Ming Wang, Wei-Jun Pang
Suitable intramuscular fat (IMF) content improves porcine meat quality. The vital genes regulating IMF deposition are necessary for the selection and breeding of an IMF trait. However, the effect and mechanism of PDGFRα on IMF deposition are still unclear. Here, PDGFRα is moderately expressed in porcine longissimus dorsi muscle (LD), whereas it highly expressed in white adipose tissue (WAT). Moreover, PDGFRα-positive cells were located in the gaps of LD fibers which there were IMF adipocytes. Compared with 180-day-old and lean-type pigs, the levels of PDGFRα were much higher in one-day-old and fat-type pigs...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139555/tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-inhibits-intestinal-inflammation-and-barrier-disruption-in-nafld-mice
#9
Weijun Wang, Jinfang Zhao, Wenfang Gui, Dan Sun, Haijiang Dai, Li Xiao, Huikuan Chu, Fan Du, Qingjing Zhu, Bernd Schnabl, Kai Huang, Ling Yang, Xiaohua Hou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The gut-liver axis is associated with the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Targeting the gut-liver axis and bile acid-based pharmaceuticals are potential therapies for NAFLD. The effect of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a candidate medicine for NAFLD, on intestinal barrier function, intestinal inflammation, gut lipid transport and microbiota composition in a murine NAFLD model were analysed. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES: An NAFLD mouse model was established by feeding mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks...
November 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138472/functional-characterization-of-the-ucp1-associated-oxidative-phenotype-of-human-epicardial-adipose-tissue
#10
Kanta Chechi, Pierre Voisine, Patrick Mathieu, Mathieu Laplante, Sébastian Bonnet, Frédéric Picard, Philippe Joubert, Denis Richard
Brown fat presence and metabolic activity has been associated with lower body mass index, higher insulin sensitivity and better cardiometabolic profile in humans. We, and others, have previously reported the presence of Ucp1, a marker of brown adipocytes, in human epicardial adipose tissue (eAT). Characterization of the metabolic activity and associated physiological relevance of Ucp1 within eAT, however, is still awaited. Here, we validate the presence of Ucp1 within human eAT and its 'beige' nature. Using in-vitro analytical approaches, we further characterize its thermogenic potential and demonstrate that human eAT is capable of undergoing enhanced uncoupling respiration upon stimulation...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138470/obesity-promoting-and-anti-thermogenic-effects-of-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-in-mice
#11
Akira Ishii, Goro Katsuura, Hirotaka Imamaki, Hiroyuki Kimura, Keita P Mori, Takashige Kuwabara, Masato Kasahara, Hideki Yokoi, Kousaku Ohinata, Tomoko Kawanishi, Junichi Tsuchida, Yuji Nakamoto, Kazuwa Nakao, Motoko Yanagita, Masashi Mukoyama, Kiyoshi Mori
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, lipocalin 2 or LCN2) is an iron carrier protein whose circulating level is increased by kidney injury, bacterial infection and obesity, but its metabolic consequence remains elusive. To study physiological role of LCN2 in energy homeostasis, we challenged female Lcn2 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice with high fat diet (HFD) or cold exposure. Under normal diet, physical constitutions of Lcn2 KO and WT mice were indistinguishable. During HFD treatment, Lcn2 KO mice exhibited larger brown adipose tissues (BAT), consumed more oxygen, ate more food and gained less body weights as compared to WT mice...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138356/the-soluble-pro-renin-receptor-does-not-influence-lithium-induced-diabetes-insipidus-but-does-provoke-beiging-of-white-adipose-tissue-in-mice
#12
Kevin T Yang, Fei Wang, Xiaohan Lu, Kexin Peng, Tianxin Yang, J David Symons
Earlier we reported that the recombinant soluble (pro) renin receptor sPRR-His upregulates renal aquoporin-2 (AQP2) expression, and attenuates polyuria associated with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) induced by vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) antagonism. Patients that receive lithium therapy develop polyuria associated NDI that might be secondary to downregulation of renal AQP2. We hypothesized that sPRR-His attenuates indices of NDI associated with lithium treatment. Eight-week-old male C57/BL6 mice consumed chow supplemented with LiCl (40 mmol/kg diets) for 14 days...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138256/low-neonatal-plasma-n-6-n-3-pufa-ratios-regulate-offspring-adipogenic-potential-and-condition-adult-obesity-resistance
#13
Michael C Rudolph, Matthew R Jackman, David M Presby, Julie A Houck, Patricia G Webb, Ginger C Johnson, Taylor K Soderborg, Becky A de la Houssaye, Ivana V Yang, Jacob E Friedman, Paul S MacLean
Adipose tissue expansion (ATE) progresses rapidly during postnatal life, influenced by both prenatal maternal factors and postnatal developmental cues. The ratio of n-6 relative to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is thought to regulate perinatal adipogenesis, but the cellular mechanisms and long-term effects are not well understood. We lowered the fetal and postnatal n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio exposure in wildtype offspring, under standard maternal dietary fat amounts, to test effects of low n-6/n-3 ratios on offspring adipogenesis and adipogenic potential...
November 14, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138223/effect-of-maternal-high-fat-diet-on-key-components-of-the-placental-and-hepatic-endocannabinoid-system
#14
Kushal Gandhi, Cun Li, Nadezhda German, Cezary Skobowiat, Maira Carrillo, Raja Reddy Kallem, Eneko Larumbe, Stacy Martinez, Marcel Chuecos, Gary Ventolini, Peter Nathanielsz, Natalia Schlabritz-Loutsevitch
INTRODUCTION: Involvement of endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) in obesity is well-characterized. However, information regarding eCB physiology in obesity associated with pregnancy is sparse. METHODS: From at least 9 months before conception, non-pregnant baboons (Papio spp.) were fed a diet of either 45% fat (HFD; n=11) or 12% fat or a control diet (CTR; n=11), and dietary intervention continued through pregnancy. Maternal and fetal venous plasma samples were evaluated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to quantify anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG)...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138005/distinct-hypoxic-regulation-of-preadipocyte-factor-1-pref-1-in-preadipocytes-and-mature-adipocytes
#15
Yunwon Moon, Seongyeol Lee, Bongju Park, Hyunsung Park
Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) is a secretory soluble protein, which exerts pleiotropic effects on maintenance of cancer stem cell characteristics and commitment of mesenchymal stem cell lineages by inhibiting adipogenesis. Observations that obesity renders the microenvironment of adipose tissues hypoxic and that hypoxia inhibits adipogenesis lead us to investigate whether hypoxia increases the expression of anti-adipogenic Pref-1 in preadipocytes, mature adipocytes, and adipose tissues from obese mouse. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, hypoxia induces Pref-1 by a hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1)-dependent mechanism accompanied by increase in the levels of the active histone mark, acetylated H3K9/14 (H3K9/14Ac)...
November 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137352/maternal-high-calorie-diet-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-senescence-phenotype-in-subcutaneous-fat-of-newborn-mice
#16
Daniele Lettieri-Barbato, Fabiana D'Angelo, Francesca Sciarretta, Giuseppe Tatulli, Flavia Tortolici, Maria Rosa Ciriolo, Katia Aquilano
Mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and senescence-like features are observed in adipose depots in aging and obesity. Herein, we evaluated how maternal high calorie diet (HCD) may impact on subcutaneous adipose tissue (sAT) of the newborn mice. Adult C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided in three groups: normal calorie diet (NCD), HCD and HCD supplemented with niacin 8 weeks before mating. Mothers and pups were then sacrificed and metabolic and molecular analyses were carried out on sAT. HCD induced mitochondria dysfunction in mothers without inflammation and senescence, whereas in pups we also revealed the occurrence of senescent phenotype...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137347/antiandrogenic-and-antimineralocorticoid-health-benefits-of-coc-containing-newer-progestogens-dienogest-and-drospirenone
#17
REVIEW
Pedro-Antonio Regidor, Adolf E Schindler
Data have demonstrated that COCs, besides offering a satisfactory and safe contraception, offer a variety of non-contraceptive health benefits and therapeutic positive aspects. Many prescribes and users, however, do not realize these positive aspects especially the non-contraceptive health benefits. While the contraceptive use is the primary indication for COC use for most women, these users should be advised in regard of the non-contraceptive benefits when contraception is discussed and prescribed. Using COCs specifically for non-contraceptive indications is an off-label use in many clinical situations (only some exceptions as e...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137236/the-nucleocytoplasmic-translocation-and-up-regulation-of-ing5-protein-in-breast-cancer-a-potential-target-for-gene-therapy
#18
Xiao-Qing Ding, Shuang Zhao, Lei Yang, Xin Zhao, Gui-Feng Zhao, Shu-Peng Zhao, Zhi-Jie Li, Hua-Chuan Zheng
Here, we found that ING5 overexpression resulted in a lower proliferation, reduced glucose metabolism, S arrest, decreased migration and invasion, apoptotic induction, fat accumulation, autophagy, senescence and mesenchymal-epithelial-transition of breast cancer cells. It also suppressed the tumor growth of breast cancer cells by inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis and autophagy. ING5-mediated chemoresistance was positively linked to Akt and NF-κB activation, MRP1 and GST-π overexpression, and FBXW7 hypoexpression...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136819/alteration-in-the-liver-metabolome-of-rats-with-metabolic-syndrome-after-treatment-with-hydroxytyrosol-a-mass-spectrometry-and-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-based-metabolomics-study
#19
Ioanna Dagla, Dimitra Benaki, Eirini Baira, Nikolaos Lemonakis, Hemant Poudyal, Lindsay Brown, Anthony Tsarbopoulos, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis, Emmanouel Mikros, Evagelos Gikas
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a group of abnormalities that enhances the risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and stroke. The Mediterranean diet seems to be an important dietary pattern, which reduces the incidence of MetS. Hydroxytyrosol (HT) - a simple phenol found in olive oil - has received increased attention for its antioxidant activity. Recently, the European Foods Safety Authority (EFSA) claimed that dietary consumption of HT exhibits a protective role against cardiovascular disease. In this study, an experimental protocol has been setup, including isolated HT administration in a diet induced model of MetS in young Wistar rats, in order to find out whether HT has a protective effect against MetS...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135894/deferoxamine-preconditioning-of-irradiated-tissue-improves-perfusion-and-fat-graft-retention
#20
John Flacco, Natalie Chung, Charles P Blackshear, Dre Irizarry, Arash Momeni, Gordon K Lee, Dung Nguyen, Geoffrey C Gurtner, Michael T Longaker, Derrick C Wan
BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy is a mainstay in the treatment of many malignancies, but collateral damage to surrounding tissue, with resultant hypovascularity, fibrosis, and atrophy, can be difficult to reconstruct. Fat grafting has been shown to improve the quality of irradiated skin, but volume retention of the graft is significantly decreased. Deferoxamine (DFO) is a FDA-approved iron-chelating medication for acute iron intoxication and chronic iron overload that has also been shown to increase angiogenesis...
November 8, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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