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fat tissue

Fereidoon Shahidi, Adriano Costa de Camargo
Edible oils are the major natural dietary sources of tocopherols and tocotrienols, collectively known as tocols. Plant foods with low lipid content usually have negligible quantities of tocols. However, seeds and other plant food processing by-products may serve as alternative sources of edible oils with considerable contents of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Tocopherols are among the most important lipid-soluble antioxidants in food as well as in human and animal tissues. Tocopherols are found in lipid-rich regions of cells (e...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shiho Fujisaka, Siegfried Ussar, Clary Clish, Suzanne Devkota, Jonathan M Dreyfuss, Masaji Sakaguchi, Marion Soto, Masahiro Konishi, Samir Softic, Emrah Altindis, Ning Li, Georg Gerber, Lynn Bry, C Ronald Kahn
Interactions of diet, gut microbiota, and host genetics play important roles in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we have investigated the molecular links between gut microbiota, insulin resistance, and glucose metabolism in 3 inbred mouse strains with differing susceptibilities to metabolic syndrome using diet and antibiotic treatment. Antibiotic treatment altered intestinal microbiota, decreased tissue inflammation, improved insulin signaling in basal and stimulated states, and improved glucose metabolism in obesity- and diabetes-prone C57BL/6J mice on a high-fat diet (HFD)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Thobias Romu, Nils Dahlström, Olof Dahlqvist Leinhard, Magnus Borga
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a robust water-fat separation method for T1-weighted symmetric two-point Dixon data. THEORY AND METHODS: A method for water-fat separation by phase unwrapping of the opposite-phase images by phase-sensitive reconstruction (PSR) is introduced. PSR consists of three steps; (1), identification of clusters of tissue voxels; (2), unwrapping of the phase in each cluster by solving Poisson's equation; and (3), finding the correct sign of each unwrapped opposite-phase cluster, so that the water-fat images are assigned the correct identities...
October 24, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Sayantan Nath, Sankar Kumar Ghosh, Yashmin Choudhury
INTRODUCTION: A murine model of type 2 diabetes mellitus was used to compare the antidiabetic effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor vildagliptin and biguanide, metformin. METHODS: Swiss albino mice (n=20 males; n=25 females) were given high fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 3weeks followed by low dose (40mgkg(-1) body weight, bw daily) of streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally five times from the 22nd day of treatment onwards, with HFD continued up to 26th day...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Zheng Huimei, Xiaohang Yang, Yongmei Xi
Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in our understanding of the Drosophila fat body and its functions in energy storage, immune response and nutrient sensing. The fat body interplays with other tissues to respond to the physiological needs of the body's growth and coordinates various metabolic processes at different developmental stages and under different environmental conditions. The identification of various conserved genetic functions and signaling pathways relating to the Drosophila fat body may provide clues to lipometabolic disease and other aspects of tissue remodeling in humans...
October 20, 2016: Life Sciences
Nam Su Oh, Ji Hoon Koh, Mi Ri Park, Younghoon Kim, Sae Hun Kim
This study examined the effects of Maillard reaction products reacted by casein and lactose (cMRP) and of cMRP fermented by Lactobacillus fermentum H9 (F-cMRP) on hypolipidemic and antiinflammatory effects in rats fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HD). The HD-fed rats had significantly increased hepatic triglyceride concentrations compared with the rats fed a normal diet. It was shown that treatment with simvastatin, L. fermentum H9 (H9), cMRP, and F-cMRP decreased total triglycerides in the liver compared with the HD group...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Wei Wang, Gen-Jin Yang, Ju Zhang, Chen Chen, Zhen-Yu Jia, Jia Li, Wei-Dong Xu
BACKGROUND: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an autoimmune rheumatic disease mostly affecting the axial skeleton. Currently, anti-tumour necrosis factor α (anti-TNF-α) represents an effective treatment for AS that may delay the progression of the disease and alleviate the symptoms if the diagnosis can be made early. Unfortunately, effective diagnostic biomarkers for AS are still lacking; therefore, most patients with AS do not receive timely and effective treatment. The intent of this study was to determine several key metabolites as potential biomarkers of AS using metabolomic methods to facilitate the early diagnosis of AS...
October 22, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Maryam Mashmoul, Azrina Azlan, Norhafizah Mohtarrudin, Barakatun Nisak Mohd Yusof, Huzwah Khaza'ai, Hock Eng Khoo, Mehdi Farzadnia, Mohammad Taher Boroushaki
BACKGROUND: Saffron is the dried stigma of Crocus sativus L. flower which commonly used as a natural remedy to enhance health and even fights disease in the Middle-East and Southeast Asian countries. METHODS: This study was aimed to investigate protective effect of saffron extract and crocin in fatty liver tissue of high-fat diet induced obese rats. A total of 36 healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups. Two groups served as controls, a normal diet (ND) and a high-fat diet (HFD)...
October 22, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
I-Ting Tsai, Chao-Ping Wang, Teng-Hung Yu, Yung-Chuan Lu, Chih-Wen Lin, Li-Fen Lu, Cheng-Ching Wu, Fu-Mei Chung, Yau-Jiunn Lee, Wei-Chin Hung, Chia-Chang Hsu
Adipocytokines play an important role in adipose tissue homeostasis, especially in obesity-associated disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver and their complications including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although visfatin is an adipocytokine highly expressed in visceral fat that has been demonstrated to play a critical role in the progression of human malignancies, little is known about the role of visfatin in HCC associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection...
October 19, 2016: Cytokine
Arash Momeni, Suhail K Kanchwala
BACKGROUND: Autologous breast reconstruction is associated with long-term patient satisfaction that is superior to implant-based approaches. Occasionally, however, patients who desire autologous reconstruction present with inadequate donor-site volume. A hybrid approach, combining free flap reconstruction with simultaneous implant placement, is a solution. We present our experience with the use of mesh for improved pocket control using this reconstructive modality. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database of patients undergoing autologous breast reconstruction was performed...
October 22, 2016: Microsurgery
Norimitsu Shirai, Frank J Geoly, Walter F Bobrowski, Carlin Okerberg
Drug-induced phospholipidosis is characterized by intracellular accumulation of phospholipids with lamellar bodies in cells exposed to xenobiotics. Demonstration of the lamellar bodies by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is the hallmark for a definitive diagnosis of phospholipidosis. However, the preparation of tissue samples for TEM and their ultrastructural evaluation are technically challenging and time consuming. Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is essentially a fat stain, and the staining mechanism is based upon the osmication of unsaturated lipids...
October 21, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Filip B J L Stillaert, Casper Sommeling, Salvatore D'Arpa, David Creytens, Koenraad Van Landuyt, Herman Depypere, Rudy Van den Broecke, Stan Monstrey, Phillip N Blondeel, Wayne A Morrison
BACKGROUND: Breast reconstruction involves the use of autologous tissues or implants. Occasionally, microsurgical reconstruction is not an option because of insufficient donor tissues. Fat grafting has become increasingly popular in breast surgery. The challenge with this technique is how to reconstruct a stable and living "scaffold" that resembles a breast. METHODS: Breast reconstruction (n = 7) was performed using intratissular expansion with serial deflation-lipofilling sessions...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Yujin Myung, Heeyeon Kwon, Changsik Pak, Hobin Lee, Jae Hoon Jeong, Chan Yeong Heo
BACKGROUND: Breast augmentation with fat transfer does not bear the risks associated with silicone implantation. The method can potentially be especially useful in Asian women, who often reject augmentation mammoplasty with implants. This prospective clinical trial evaluated the effects of external breast expansion on breast density and vessel count using magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: Thirty-four enrolled patients were instructed to apply one of two devices, the conventional BRAVA device (used in the AESTES trial) or a novel external expansion device (EVERA) designed for Asian women, continuously for 8 h per day for 12 weeks...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Dong Wook Kim, Eun Ji Kim, Eun Na Kim, Myung Whun Sung, Tack-Kyun Kwon, Yong Woo Cho, Seong Keun Kwon
Vocal fold paralysis results from various etiologies and can induce voice changes, swallowing complications, and issues with aspiration. Vocal fold paralysis is typically managed using injection laryngoplasty with fat or synthetic polymers. Injection with autologous fat has shown excellent biocompatibility. However, it has several disadvantages such as unpredictable resorption rate, morbidities associated with liposuction procedure which has to be done in operating room under general anesthesia. Human adipose-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) grafts have been reported to form new adipose tissue and have greater biostability than autologous fat graft...
2016: PloS One
Wei Huang, Jiyuan Wu, Huiqin Yang, Yin Xiong, Rui Jiang, Tianpen Cui, Duyun Ye
Abnormal features of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-derived neutrophils, promoted aberrant immune response, have inspired new studies of the induction of autoimmunity and the development of organ damage in SLE. In this study, we explore the effect of milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) on the aberrant nitrification features in pristane-induced lupus. SLE patients and mice with pristane-induced lupus develop autoantibodies associated with MFG-E8 overproduction. However, the deletion of MFG-E8 leads to uncontrolled early pulmonary and peritoneal inflammation and tissue damage in mice with pristane-induced lupus...
October 21, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Connie F Matthiesen, Anne-Helene Tauson
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition in fetal life and during suckling have in some animal studies resulted in adaptive changes related to the fat and glucose metabolism, which in the long term might predispose the offspring for metabolic disorders such as obesity later in life. The objective was to study the effect of fetal life malnutrition in male mink on the gene expression of leptin and adiponectin in different adipose tissue sites. RESULTS: Thirty-two male mink, strict carnivore species, exposed to low (FL) or adequate (FA) protein provision the last 16...
October 20, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Christian Carpéné, Francisco Les, Mounia Hasnaoui, Simon Biron, Picard Marceau, Denis Richard, Jean Galitzky, Denis R Joanisse, Pascale Mauriège
Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), identical to primary amine oxidase or vascular adhesion protein-1, is a membrane enzyme that generates hydrogen peroxide. SSAO is highly expressed at the adipocyte surface, and its plasma levels increase with type 2 diabetes. Since visceral adipose tissue (AT) is more tightly associated with obesity complications than subcutaneous (SC) abdominal fat, we compared SSAO activity in plasma and 4 distinct AT locations in 48 severely obese women (body mass index (BMI), averaging 54 ± 11 kg/m(2)), with or without a dysmetabolic profile...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Marcin Kozakiewicz, Leszek Olbrzymek, Ludomir Stefanczyk, Marek Olszycki, Piotr Komorowski, Bogdan Walkowiak, Bartłomiej Konieczny, Michał Krasowski, Jerzy Sokołowski
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to present a new possibility to create radio-opaque implant material for craniomaxillofacial reconstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The test disks made of the own compound of polyethylenes with addiction of 2, 4, and 6 % of weight TiO2 was investigated for cytotoxicity [each group 15 disks respectively]. Next, computed tomography of the disks was performed in environment of muscle and fat. Hardness, tensile modulus and strength, and compressive modulus and strength were tested too...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
Alyssandra N Baniqued, Jorge M Zuniga, Thomas C Strunc, Katie M Keenan, Agrini K Boken, Jeffrey J Anderson
The purpose of this study was to determine if the amount of subcutaneous tissue over the quadriceps affects the assessment of mean power frequency at the fatigue threshold (MPFFT). It was hypothesized that greater skinfold values will result in lower power outputs associated to the MPFFT. Fourteen adults (Mean ± SD age = 20.7 ± 0.99; body weight = 72.8 ± 12.6 kg) performed an incremental cycle ergometry test to exhaustion while surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were measured from the vastus lateralis...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
Almudena Gómez-Hernández, Nuria Beneit, Sabela Díaz-Castroverde, Óscar Escribano
This review focuses on the contribution of white, brown, and perivascular adipose tissues to the pathophysiology of obesity and its associated metabolic and vascular complications. Weight gain in obesity generates excess of fat, usually visceral fat, and activates the inflammatory response in the adipocytes and then in other tissues such as liver. Therefore, low systemic inflammation responsible for insulin resistance contributes to atherosclerotic process. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between body mass index and brown adipose tissue activity has been described...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
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