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Sergio Polakof, Didier Rémond, Jérémie David, Dominique Dardevet, Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux
OBJECTIVES: High-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHS) overfeeding is one of the main factors responsible for the increased prevalence of metabolic disorders. Elevated levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including insulin resistance (IR). The aim of this study was to elucidate whether elevated BCAA levels are the cause or the consequence of IR and to determine the mechanisms and tissues involved in such a phenotype. METHODS: We performed a 2-mo follow-up on minipigs overfed an HFHS diet and focused on kinetics fasting and postprandial (PP) BCAA levels and BCAA catabolism in key tissues...
November 27, 2017: Nutrition
Brooke McClarren, Ronke Olabisi
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into any mesenchymal tissue, including bone, cartilage, muscle, and fat. MSC differentiation can be influenced by a variety of stimuli, including environmental and mechanical stimulation, scaffold physical properties, or applied loads. Numerous studies have evaluated the effects of vibration or cyclic tensile strain on MSCs towards developing a mechanically based method of differentiation, but there is no consensus between studies and each investigation uses different culture conditions, which also influence MSC fate...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
Chien Wen Su, Chih-Yu Chen, Yali Li, Shao Rong Long, William Massey, Deepak Vijaya Kumar, W Allan Walker, Hai Ning Shi
Epidemiological studies indicate an inverse correlation between the prevalence of the so-called western diseases, such as obesity and metabolic syndrome, and the exposure to helminths. Obesity, a key risk factor for many chronic health problems, is rising globally and is accompanied by low-grade inflammation in adipose tissues. The precise mechanism by which helminths modulate metabolic syndrome and obesity is not fully understood. We infected high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice with the intestinal nematode parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus and observed that helminth infection resulted in significantly attenuated obesity...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Naoki Ohno, Tosiaki Miyati, Shuto Suzuki, Hirohito Kan, Toshitaka Aoki, Yoshitaka Nakamura, Yuki Hiramatsu, Satoshi Kobayashi, Toshifumi Gabata
PURPOSE: To suppress olefinic signals and enable simultaneous and quantitative estimation of multiple functional parameters associated with water and lipid, we investigated a modified method using chemical shift displacement and recovery-based separation of lipid tissue (SPLIT) involving acquisitions with different inversion times (TIs), echo times (TEs), and b-values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-shot diffusion echo-planar imaging (SSD-EPI) with multiple b-values (0-3000 s/mm2 ) was performed without fat suppression to separate water and lipid images using the chemical shift displacement of lipid signals in the phase-encoding direction...
March 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Babu Nageswararao Kanuri, Sanjay C Rebello, Priya Pathak, Hobby Agarwal, Jitendra S Kanshana, Deepika Awasthi, Anand P Gupta, Jiaur R Gayen, Kumaravelu Jagavelu, Madhu Dikshit
Oxidative stress due to enhanced production or reduced scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been associated with diet (dyslipidemia) induced obesity and insulin resistance (IR). The present study was undertaken to assess the role of p47phox in IR using wild type (WT) and p47phox-/- mice, fed with different diets (HFD, LFD or Chow). Augmented body weight, glucose intolerance and reduced insulin sensitivity were observed in p47phox-/- mice fed with 45% HFD and 10% LFD. Further, body fat and circulating lipids was increased significantly with 5 weeks LFD feeding in p47phox-/- mice, while parameters of energy homeostasis were reduced as compared to WT mice...
March 16, 2018: Free Radical Research
Ji Young Kim, Kyu Lim, Kyung Hee Kim, Jin Hyun Kim, Jin Sun Choi, Seung-Cheol Shim
N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have anti-inflammatory effects and were considered useful for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recently, several studies suggested that n-3 PUFAs attenuated arthritis in animal model and human, however the mechanism is still unclear. Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine mainly produced by T helper 17 (Th17) cells which cause tissue inflammation and bone erosion leading to joint destruction. In contrast, regulatory T (Treg) cells down-regulate various immune responses by suppression of naïve T cells...
2018: PloS One
Katsuyuki Taguchi, Toshihide Itoh, Matthew K Fuld, Eric Fournie, Okkyun Lee, Kyo Noguchi
OBJECTIVES: A novel imaging technique ("X-map") has been developed to identify acute ischemic lesions for stroke patients using non-contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (NE-DE-CT). Using the 3-material decomposition technique, the original X-map ("X-map 1.0") eliminates fat and bone from the images, suppresses the gray matter (GM)-white matter (WM) tissue contrast, and makes signals of edema induced by severe ischemia easier to detect. The aim of this study was to address the following 2 problems with the X-map 1...
March 14, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Christiane Scheffler, Louisa-Marie Krützfeldt, Parasmani Dasgupta, Michael Hermanussen
Body height has traditionally been looked upon as a mirror of the condition of society, short height being an indicator of poor nutritional status, poor education, and low social status and income. This view has recently been questioned. We aimed to quantify the effects of nutrition, education, sibship size, and household income, factors that are conventionally considered to be related to child growth, on body height of children and adolescents raised under urban Indian conditions. Sample and methods: We re-analyzed several anthropometric measurements and questionnaires with questions on sibship size, fathers' and mother's education, and monthly family expenditure, from two cross-sectional growth studies performed in Kolkata, India...
March 15, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Ayako Uchinaka, Yuri Kawashima, Yuki Sano, Shogo Ito, Yusuke Sano, Kai Nagasawa, Natsumi Matsuura, Mamoru Yoneda, Yuichiro Yamada, Toyoaki Murohara, Kohzo Nagata
Melatonin regulates circadian rhythms but also has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that ameliorate metabolic disorders. We investigated the effects of the selective melatonin agonist ramelteon on cardiac and adipose tissue pathology in the DahlS.Z-Leprfa /Leprfa (DS/obese) rat, a model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Rats were treated with a low (0.3 mg/kg per day) or high (8 mg/kg per day) dose of ramelteon from 9 to 13 weeks of age. Ramelteon treatment at either dose attenuated body weight gain, left ventricular fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction, as well as cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation, without affecting hypertension or insulin resistance...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Gibeom Kwon, Sungho Ghil
Warm temperature acclimation-associated 65-kDa protein (Wap65) is known to respond to elevated water temperatures and the corresponding gene from several fish species has been cloned. Expression of Wap65 gene is induced by various physiological stresses, such as increase in water temperature, immune response and heavy metal exposure. Two isolated Wap65 genes, Wap65-1 and Wap65-2, display distinct tissue distribution and physiological functions despite high sequence homology. In a previous study, we identified the Wap65-1 gene (kmWap65-1) from Kumgang fat minnow, Rhynchocypris kumgangensis, a small freshwater fish endemic to Korea...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Sanjay Mhalasakant Khaladkar, Kunaal Mahesh Jain, Rajesh Kuber, Sidappa Gandage
Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a life-threatening severe form of pyelonephritis usually occurring in patients with diabetes mellitus with or without obstructive uropathies in whom there is necrotizing infection leading to the gas production of an unclear mechanism involving the renal parenchyma and the collecting system. Necrotizing fasciitis is characterized by progressive necrosis of fat and fascia due to deep-seated infection of subcutaneous tissue. It has a fulminant course with considerable mortality...
2018: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Ursula J Lemberger, Claudia D Fuchs, Christian Schöfer, Andrea Bileck, Christopher Gerner, Tatjana Stojakovic, Makoto M Taketo, Michael Trauner, Gerda Egger, Christoph H Österreicher
Background: Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a crucial role in embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis, metabolism and malignant transformation of different organs including the liver. Continuous β-catenin signaling due to somatic mutations in exon 3 of the Ctnnb1 gene is associated with different liver diseases including cancer and cholestasis. Results: Expression of a degradation resistant form of β-catenin in hepatocytes resulted in 100% mortality within 31 days after birth...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Mary Guaraldi, Thomas B Shea
Objective: We examined genetic and dietary challenge on hippocampal oxidative damage. Mice expressing (ApoE+/+) or lacking apolipoprotein E (ApoE-/-) were maintained on a standard diet or a high fat /high cholesterol (challenge) diet for 11-31 weeks. Similar levels of oxidative species were observed for ApoE+/+ and -/- mice maintained on the basal diet. Method: However, treatment of ApoE-/- homogenates with hydrogen peroxide and iron increased oxidative species by >100%, indicating an equivalent amount of potential oxidative species in latent form...
2018: Open Neurology Journal
Takeshi Akama, Tae-Hwa Chun
The visceral (VIS) and subcutaneous (SQ) fat pads are developmentally distinct white adipose tissue depots and contribute differently to inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity. The basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional regulator transcription factor 21 (TCF21) is a marker gene for white adipose tissues and is abundantly expressed in VIS-derived adipose stem cells (ASCs), but not in SQ-derived ASCs. However, TCF21's role in regulating fat depot-specific gene expression and function is incompletely understood...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hong-Ren Yu, You-Lin Tain, Mao-Meng Tiao, Chih-Cheng Chen, Jiunn-Ming Sheen, I-Chun Lin, Shih-Wen Li, Ching-Chou Tsai, Yu-Ju Lin, Kai-Sheng Hsieh, Li-Tung Huang
BACKGROUND: Hypertension may result from high-fat (HF) diet induced-obesity and overexposure to glucocorticoids in utero. Recent studies demonstrated the potent contribution of adipose tissue's renin-angiotensin system (RAS) to systemic RAS, which plays a key role in regulating blood pressure (BP). In this study, we investigated the effects of prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure and postnatal HF diet on RAS of adipose tissue. METHODS: RAS and BP of 6-month old rats exposed to prenatal DEX and/or postnatal HF diet were examined...
March 14, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Qingbo Chen, Lei Huang, Dongning Pan, Lihua J Zhu, Yong-Xu Wang
Transcriptional co-activator Prdm16 controls brown fat development and white fat browning, but how this thermogenic function is modulated post-translationally is poorly understood. Here, we report that Cbx4, a Polycomb group protein, is a SUMO E3 ligase for Prdm16 and that Cbx4-mediated sumoylation of Prdm16 is required for thermogenic gene expression. Cbx4 expression is enriched in brown fat and is induced in adipose tissue by acute cold exposure. Sumoylation of Prdm16 at lysine 917 by Cbx4 blocks its ubiquitination-mediated degradation, thereby augmenting its stability and thermogenic function...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Maryam Ahmadian, Sihao Liu, Shannon M Reilly, Nasun Hah, Weiwei Fan, Eiji Yoshihara, Pooja Jha, C Daniel De Magalhaes Filho, Sandra Jacinto, Andrew V Gomez, Yang Dai, Ruth T Yu, Christopher Liddle, Annette R Atkins, Johan Auwerx, Alan R Saltiel, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) adaptively transfers energy from glucose and fat into heat by inducing a gene network that uncouples mitochondrial electron transport. However, the innate transcription factors that enable the rapid adaptive response of BAT are unclear. Here, we identify estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) as a critical factor for maintaining BAT identity. ERRγ is selectively expressed in BAT versus WAT, in which, in the absence of PGC1α, it drives a signature transcriptional network of thermogenic and oxidative genes in the basal (i...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Kyunghwa Baek, Danbi Park, Hyo Rin Hwang, Seong-Gon Kim, Heesu Lee, Jeong-Hwa Baek
We investigated whether β-adrenergic antagonists attenuates dietary fat absorption through the regulation of pancreatic lipase (PNLIP) expression in pancreatic acinar cells in the context of high fat diet feeding. Male six-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned into an ad libitum fed control diet (CON) and a high fat diet (HIGH). Within each diet group, subgroups of mice were treated with vehicle (VEH) or propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist (BB). Over 12 weeks, body weight gain observed in HIGHVEH was mitigated in HIGHBB (+103% vs...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marilena Lepretti, Stefania Martucciello, Mario Alberto Burgos Aceves, Rosalba Putti, Lillà Lionetti
Mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been suggested to play a key role in insulin resistance development. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid accumulation due to mitochondrial dysfunction seemed to be important mechanisms leading to cellular insulin resistance. Moreover, mitochondria are functionally and structurally linked to ER, which undergoes stress in conditions of chronic overnutrition, activating the unfolded protein response, which in turn activates the principal inflammatory pathways that impair insulin action...
March 14, 2018: Nutrients
Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes, Seifu Mideksa, Sintayehu Ambachew
Polyunsaturated Fatty acids have multiple effects in peripheral tissues and pancreatic beta cell function. The n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids prevent and reverse high-fat-diet induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. Insulin secretion is stimulated by glucose, amino acids, and glucagon- like peptide-1 in tissue containing high levels of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids than lower level of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids. Also, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids led to decreased production of prostaglandin, which in turn contributed to the elevation of insulin secretion...
March 14, 2018: Adipocyte
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