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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641310/potentiating-the-effects-of-radiotherapy-in-rectal-cancer-the-role-of-aspirin-statins-and-metformin-as-adjuncts-to-therapy
#1
K J Gash, A C Chambers, D E Cotton, A C Williams, M G Thomas
BACKGROUND: Complete tumour response (pCR) to neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with a reduction in local recurrence and improved disease-free and overall survival, but is achieved in only 20-30% of patients. Drug repurposing for anti-cancer treatments is gaining momentum, but the potential of such drugs as adjuncts, to increase tumour response to chemo-radiotherapy in rectal cancer, is only just beginning to be recognised. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted and all studies investigating the use of drugs to enhance response to neo-adjuvant radiation in rectal cancer were included...
June 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640782/perioperative-venous-thromboembolism-a-review
#2
Ronald J Gordon, Frederick W Lombard
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant problem in the perioperative period, increasing patient morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. It is also considered the most preventable of the major postoperative complications. Despite widespread adoption of prophylaxis guidelines, it appears that morbidity from the disease has not substantially changed within the past 2 decades. It is becoming clear that current prophylaxis efforts are not sufficient. Using more potent anticoagulants may decrease the incidence of VTE, but increase the risk for bleeding and infection...
June 20, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639101/prevention-and-treatment-of-cancer-targeting-chronic-inflammation-research-progress-potential-agents-clinical-studies-and-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
Yong Zhang, Weijia Kong, Jiandong Jiang
Numerous experimental and clinical studies indicate that chronic inflammation is closely related to the initiation, progression, and spread of cancer, in which proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and transcription factors, such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), play pivotal roles. Stimulated by proinflammatory cytokines, NF-κB and STAT3 can modulate the expression of target genes, most of which are oncogenic ones, and promote the survival, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells...
May 29, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637375/anticoagulant-therapy-for-recurrent-in-stent-thrombosis-following-carotid-artery-stenting-a-case-report
#4
Akinori Miyakoshi, Hiroki Toda, Makoto Hayase, Takeshi Kawauchi, Yuki Oichi, Etsuko Hattori
We report a case in which strict anticoagulant therapy management was useful for a recurrent in-stent thrombosis after carotid artery stenting (CAS). An 84-year-old man presented with cognitive decline that progressed rapidly over two months. Head magnetic resonance imaging showed an acute-stage infarct occurring frequently in the right cerebral hemisphere, and he underwent hospitalization and treatment. On neck magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), severe stenosis was found at the origin of the right internal carotid artery...
January 1, 2017: Interventional Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626088/secondary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-international-insights-from-the-tecos-trial
#5
Neha J Pagidipati, Ann Marie Navar, Karen S Pieper, Jennifer B Green, M Angelyn Bethel, Paul W Armstrong, Robert G Josse, Darren K McGuire, Yuliya Lokhnygina, Jan H Cornel, Sigrun Halvorsen, Timo E Strandberg, Tuncay Delibasi, Rury R Holman, Eric D Peterson
Background -Intensive risk factor modification significantly improves outcomes for patients with diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the degree to which secondary prevention treatment goals are achieved in international clinical practice is unknown. Methods -Attainment of 5 secondary prevention parameters-aspirin use, lipid control (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <70 mg/dL or statin therapy), blood pressure control (<140 mmHg systolic, <90 mmHg diastolic), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker use, and non-smoking status-was evaluated among 13,616 patients from 38 countries with diabetes and known CVD at entry into TECOS...
June 16, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622686/alpha-glucosidase-inhibitor-use-is-associated-with-decreased-colorectal-neoplasia-risk-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-receiving-colonoscopy-a-retrospective-study
#6
Yohei Horibe, Seiji Adachi, Tomohiko Ohno, Naoe Goto, Mitsuru Okuno, Midori Iwama, Osamu Yamauchi, Takao Kojima, Koshiro Saito, Takashi Ibuka, Ichiro Yasuda, Hiroshi Araki, Hisataka Moriwaki, Masahito Shimizu
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to clarify the factors that influence the incidence of colorectal neoplasia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Among a total of 1176 patients who underwent total colonoscopy at our hospital, we retrospectively analyzed 168 patients with type 2 DM. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were then performed to identify the risk factors associated with colorectal neoplasia...
June 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620089/development-and-validation-of-risk-prediction-equations-to-estimate-survival-in-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-cohort-study
#7
Julia Hippisley-Cox, Carol Coupland
Objective To develop and externally validate risk prediction equations to estimate absolute and conditional survival in patients with colorectal cancer. Design Cohort study.Setting General practices in England providing data for the QResearch database linked to the national cancer registry.Participants 44 145 patients aged 15-99 with colorectal cancer from 947 practices to derive the equations. The equations were validated in 15 214 patients with colorectal cancer from 305 different QResearch practices and 437 821 patients with colorectal cancer from the national cancer registry...
June 15, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596210/patients-with-and-without-diabetes-without-significant-angiographic-coronary-artery-disease-have-the-same-risk-of-myocardial-infarction-in-a-real-world-population-receiving-appropriate-prophylactic-treatment
#8
Kevin K W Olesen, Morten Madsen, Gro Egholm, Troels Thim, Lisette O Jensen, Bent Raungaard, Hans E Bøtker, Henrik T Sørensen, Michael Maeng
OBJECTIVE: The risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with diabetes is greater than for patients without diabetes. Consequently, prophylactic treatment is recommended for patients with diabetes and risk factors for ischemic heart disease. We aimed to estimate the risk of adverse cardiac events in patients with and without diabetes with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) after coronary angiography (CAG). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A population-based cohort of patients registered in the Western Denmark Heart Registry who underwent CAG between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2012 was stratified according to the presence or absence of obstructive CAD and diabetes...
June 8, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587579/metabolic-syndrome
#9
Dawn Harris Sherling, Parvathi Perumareddi, Charles H Hennekens
The United States is experiencing its greatest life expectancy ever. Nonetheless, the general health of the US population is far from at an all-time high. An important contributor to the pandemic of cardiovascular disease is that overweight and obesity are also the major determinants of metabolic syndrome, an all too common and all too serious clinical and public health challenge. Clinicians have traditionally evaluated each of the major risk factors contributing to metabolic syndrome on an individual basis...
July 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577619/cardiovascular-risk-assessment
#10
REVIEW
Mark J Pletcher, Andrew E Moran
Cardiovascular risk assessment is fundamental to prevention of cardiovascular disease, because it helps determine the size of the potential benefits that might accrue to individual patients from use of statins, aspirin, and other preventive interventions. Current guidelines recommend specific algorithms for cardiovascular risk assessment that combine information from traditional risk factors including blood pressure, lipids, and smoking, along with age and sex and other factors. These algorithms are the subject of active research and controversy...
July 2017: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574378/-impact-of-atorvastatin-and-rosuvastatin-on-residual-on-clopidogrel-treatment-platelet-reactivity-in-patients-with-ischemic-heart-disease-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-after-acute-coronary-syndrome
#11
T Ovrakh, S Serik, O Kochubiei
In patients with ischemic heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus in 4-6 weeks after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) on stable dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and clopidogrel co-adminstrated with rosuvastatin residual platelet reactivity on adenosine diphosphate was higher than in patients receiving atorvastatin. However, the rate of high residual on-clopidogrel treatment platelet reactivity (RCPR) in rosuvastatin-treated patients exceeded the rate of high RCPR in atorvastatin-treated patients insignificantly...
April 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554213/medication-burden-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndromes
#12
Eric A Wright, Steven R Steinhubl, J B Jones, Pinky Barua, Xiaowei Yan, Ryan Van Loan, Glenda Frederick, Durgesh Bhandary, David Cobden
OBJECTIVES: Cardioprotective medications improve outcomes following acute coronary syndromes (ACS) but add to medication complexity. We set out to describe the use of these medications and quantify medication changes in patients admitted and discharged for ACS. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Using archived data from the electronic health record (EHR), we evaluated patients with ACS admitted to 1 of 2 hospitals between January 2008 and December 2012...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552095/abdominal-aortic-aneurysms-pharmacoepidemiological-studies
#13
Holger Wemmelund
An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an enlargement of the abdominal aorta. It is a common disease in the elderly, with a prevalence of 1-5%. An AAA is normally asymptomatic, and the diagnosis is often incidental, identified when a patient is examined for other conditions. The major risk of having an AAA is sudden rupture and death caused by massive hemorrhaging. As rupture risk increases with increasing AAA diameter, the current management strategies include regular imaging surveillance and elective repair before rupture occurs...
May 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548953/from-rapalogs-to-anti-aging-formula
#14
Mikhail V Blagosklonny
Inhibitors of mTOR, including clinically available rapalogs such as rapamycin (Sirolimus) and Everolimus, are gerosuppressants, which suppress cellular senescence. Rapamycin slows aging and extends life span in a variety of species from worm to mammals. Rapalogs can prevent age-related diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, obesity, neurodegeneration and retinopathy and potentially rejuvenate stem cells, immunity and metabolism. Here, I further suggest how rapamycin can be combined with metformin, inhibitors of angiotensin II signaling (Losartan, Lisinopril), statins (simvastatin, atorvastatin), propranolol, aspirin and a PDE5 inhibitor...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534346/the-use-of-inexpensive-broad-spectrum-lower-toxicity-therapeutics-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#15
Goran Marjanovic
The use of new and highly efficient targeted therapies for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is costly and out of reach for many health care systems. On the other hand, in recent years, few inexpensive, broad-spectrum low-toxicity therapeutics have proven to be effective both in the preclinical and clinical settings. In early-stage CLL, the use of 2000 mg of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) from the green tea extract twice a day was able to reduce the absolute leukocyte count. Supplementation of >2000 IU/day of Vitamin D in early low-risk CLL patients is able to delay disease progression and postpone the moment of initiation of the first treatment...
March 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510644/temporal-trends-in-acute-myocardial-infarction-presentation-and-association-with-use-of-cardioprotective-drugs-a-nationwide-registry-based-study
#16
Laerke Smedegaard, Mette Gitz Charlot, Gunnar Hilmar Gislason, Peter Riis Hansen
AIM: The present study aimed to investigate temporal trends in myocardial infarction (MI) presentation with or without ST-segment elevation (STE) and the association with use of cardioprotective drugs prior to admission. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using individual-level linkage of data from Danish nationwide registries, we identified all patients 30 years or older admitted with a first-time MI in the period 2003-2012, and their use of cardioprotective drugs 6 months prior to admission...
May 16, 2017: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509327/the-occurrence-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-different-risk-stratifications-of-clinically-non-cirrhotic-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#17
Teng-Yu Lee, Jaw-Ching Wu, Shi-Hang Yu, Jaw-Town Lin, Ming-Shiang Wu, Chun-Ying Wu
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may be a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its high prevalence challenges current surveillance strategies. We aimed to evaluate HCC incidences in different risk stratifications for non-cirrhotic NAFLD. Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we located 31,571 patients with NAFLD between the years 1998 and 2012. After excluding other causes of hepatitis, underlying cirrhosis, or malignancy, 18,080 patients were recruited for final analysis...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492561/-sacubitril-valsartan-a-new-and-effective-treatment-for-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#18
Michele Senni, Bruno Trimarco, Michele Emdin, Luciano De Biase
Despite significant therapeutic advances, patients with chronic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) remain at high risk for heart failure progression and death. The PARADIGM-HF study, the largest outcome trial in HFrEF, has shown improved cardiovascular outcomes with sacubitril/valsartan (Entresto®, Novartis), previously known as LCZ696, compared with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy, possibly leading us to a new era for heart failure treatment. Sacubitril/valsartan represents a first-in-class drug acting through inhibition of angiotensin receptor and neprilysin, thus modulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vasoactive substances such as natriuretic peptides...
January 2017: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470563/effects-of-qishen-yiqi-dripping-pills-in-reducing-myocardial-injury-and-preserving-microvascular-function-in-patients-undergoing-elective-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-a-pilot-randomized-study
#19
Gui-Xin He, Jun Xie, Hao Jiang, Wei Tan, Biao Xu
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of treatment with Qishen Yiqi Dripping Pills (, QSYQ) on myocardial injury and myocardial microvascular function in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: Eighty patients undergoing elective PCI were randomly assigned to QSYQ and control groups. The QSYQ group received QSYQ at a dosage of 0.5 g 3 times daily (3-7 days before PCI and then daily for 1 month) and regular medication, which comprised of aspirin, clopidogrel, statin, β-blocker, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker in the absence of contradiction...
May 3, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454833/changes-in-cardiovascular-medication-after-coronary-artery-calcium-scanning-and-normal-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-in-symptomatic-patients
#20
Elsemiek M Engbers, Jorik R Timmer, Mohamed Mouden, Siert Knollema, Pieter L Jager, Jan Paul Ottervanger
The impact of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring on subsequent changes in cardiovascular medication use in symptomatic patients with normal myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) findings is not well established. The aim of the current study was to evaluate changes in aspirin and statin use in patients suspected for coronary artery disease after CAC scoring and normal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) MPI. METHODS: In the current study, 1,033 stable symptomatic patients without a known history of coronary artery disease with normal SPECT MPI who underwent concomitant CAC scoring were included...
April 2017: American Heart Journal
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