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Beta cells AND Transcription factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691338/the-efficacy-of-the-interferon-alpha-beta-response-versus-arboviruses-is-temperature-dependent
#1
Whitney C Lane, Matthew D Dunn, Christina L Gardner, L K Metthew Lam, Alan M Watson, Amy L Hartman, Kate D Ryman, William B Klimstra
Interferon alpha/beta (IFN-α/β) is a critical mediator of protection against most viruses, with host survival frequently impossible in its absence. Many studies have investigated the pathways involved in the induction of IFN-α/β after virus infection and the resultant upregulation of antiviral IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) through IFN-α/β receptor complex signaling. However, other than examining the effects of genetic deletion of induction or effector pathway components, little is known regarding the functionality of these responses in intact hosts and whether host genetic or environmental factors might influence their potency...
April 24, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682177/chemerin-induces-endothelial-cell-inflammation-activation-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-beta-and-monocyte-endothelial-adhesion
#2
Georgios K Dimitriadis, Jaspreet Kaur, Raghu Adya, Alexander D Miras, Harman S Mattu, John G Hattersley, Gregory Kaltsas, Bee K Tan, Harpal S Randeva
Chemerin, a chemoattractant protein, acts via a G-protein coupled chemokine receptor, i.e. Chemokine like Receptor 1/ChemR23; levels of which are elevated in pro-inflammatory states such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity and T2DM patients are at high risk of developing cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis. We have reported that chemerin induces human endothelial cell angiogenesis and since dysregulated angiogenesis and endothelial dysfunction are hallmarks of vascular disease; we sought to determine the effects of chemerin on monocyte-endothelial adhesion, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), a critical pro-inflammatory transcription factor...
March 30, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675560/patterns-of-differential-gene-expression-in-a-cellular-model-of-human-islet-development-and-relationship-to-type-2-diabetes-predisposition
#3
Marta Perez-Alcantara, Christian Honoré, Agata Wesolowska-Andersen, Anna L Gloyn, Mark I McCarthy, Mattias Hansson, Nicola L Beer, Martijn van de Bunt
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Most type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants identified via genome-wide association studies (GWASs) appear to act via the pancreatic islet. Observed defects in insulin secretion could result from an impact of these variants on islet development and/or the function of mature islets. Most functional studies have focused on the latter, given limitations regarding access to human fetal islet tissue. Capitalising upon advances in in vitro differentiation, we characterised the transcriptomes of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines differentiated along the pancreatic endocrine lineage, and explored the contribution of altered islet development to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes...
April 19, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667554/establishment-of-novel-reporter-cells-stably-maintaining-transcription-factor-driven-human-secreted-alkaline-phosphatase-expression
#4
Riho Kurata, Asuka Kumagai, Xiaofeng Cui, Masamitsu Harada, Jun Nagai, Yasuhiro Yoshida, Kei-Ichi Ozaki, Yoshimasa Tanaka, Tomo Yonezawa
BACKGROUND: Transcriptional regulation is very important and pivotal function in myriad biological responses. Thus, methods to determine transcriptional activity are required in not only basic medical research but also drug discovery. We established novel reporter constructs using human secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) and Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA) 1, which can maintain constructs synchronized to host cell replication. METHODS: We established nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkB) or interferon regulatory factor (IRF) driven SEAP expression constructs and then, introduced them into culture cells...
April 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665320/reduced-lymphotoxin-beta-production-by-tumour-cells-is-associated-with-loss-of-follicular-dendritic-cell-phenotype-and-diffuse-growth-in-follicular-lymphoma
#5
Giuseppina Pepe, Arianna Di Napoli, Claudia Cippitelli, Stefania Scarpino, Emanuela Pilozzi, Luigi Ruco
Cytokine production is essential for follicular dendritic cell (FDC) maintenance and organization of germinal centres. In follicular lymphoma, FDCs are often disarrayed and may lack antigens indicative of terminal differentiation. We investigated the in situ distribution of cells producing lymphotoxin-beta (LTB), lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA) transcripts in human reactive lymph nodes and in follicular lymphomas with follicular or diffuse growth pattern. LTB was the cytokine most abundantly produced in germinal centres...
April 2018: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656307/alveolar-bone-protective-effect-of-hiziki-extracts-on-the-progression-of-periodontitis
#6
Don-Gil Lee, Yu-Kyong Shin, Jae-Hee Park, Sang-Yong Park, Eunson Hwang, Jung-Eun Yang, Hae Jo, Ki-Young Kim, Gafurjon T Mavlonov, Tae-Hoo Yi
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of hiziki extract on alveolar bone loss, inflammation, and osteo-biomarker expression in hPDL cells (10, 50, 100 μg/ml final concentrations in culture medium) and on a ligature-induced periodontitis rat model (50, 100, 200 mg/kg with oral administration). Hiziki extract increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized nodule formation in hPDL cell. In western blot analysis, hiziki extract resulted in increased expression of osteoblast markers, including transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), SMAD anchor for receptor activation (SARA) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) in hDPL cells...
April 14, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642438/sesamol-inhibited-melanogenesis-by-regulating-melanin-related-signal-transduction-in-b16f10-cells
#7
Po-Yuan Wu, Ya-Jhen You, Yi-Jung Liu, Chien-Wei Hou, Chin-Sheng Wu, Kuo-Ching Wen, Chien-Yih Lin, Hsiu-Mei Chiang
Melanin is synthesized through a series of interactions catalyzed by melanogenic enzymes such as tyrosinase, dopachrome tautomerase (tyrosinase-related protein-2; TRP-2), and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1). Tyrosinase plays a key role in catalysing the initial and limiting steps of melanogenesis. The melanin that results from melanogenesis has the protective effect of absorbing ultraviolet radiation. However, overproduction of melanin, in addition to altering the appearance of skin, may lead to skin disorders such as melasma, solar lentigo, and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation...
April 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627338/a-comparative-review-on-estrogen-receptors-in-the-reproductive-male-tract-of-non-mammalian-vertebrates
#8
REVIEW
Mariailaria Verderame, Rosaria Scudiero
Estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) are transcription factors known to be involved in the regulation of many complex physiological processes in mammals. They are expressed primarily in the reproductive tract of all vertebrates females, thus indicating important and conserved functions in female reproductive success. ERs are also present in physiological different tissues as bone, brain, liver, skin and adipose tissues, in both females and males. In the latter, ERs have been found also in the genital tract, supporting the findings of a complex role for estrogen in spermatogenesis and, more generally, in male reproduction...
April 5, 2018: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624700/sarcomatoid-pilomatrix-carcinoma
#9
Angel Fernandez-Flores, David S Cassarino
Pilomatrical (pilomatrix) carcinoma is a rare cutaneous adnexal tumor with matrical differentiation and recurrent and metastatic potential. Sarcomatoid pilomatrix carcinoma is a rare variant which shows a sarcomatoid component intermingling with the epithelial one. There are only four cases previously published. We present an additional case on the hand of a 78 year-old man which appeared as a 6 mm hyperkeratotic ─focally ulcerated─ plaque. A shave biopsy demonstrated a dermal infiltrative neoplasm, composed of markedly atypical-appearing basaloid cells with focal necrotic/ghost cells, as well as an intimately associated population of atypical oval to spindle-shaped cells...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623071/transcriptional-regulation-of-the-peripheral-pathway-for-the-anaerobic-catabolism-of-toluene-and-m-xylene-in-azoarcus-sp-cib
#10
Blas Blázquez, Manuel Carmona, Eduardo Díaz
Alkylbenzenes, such as toluene and m -xylene, are an important class of contaminant hydrocarbons that are widespread and tend to accumulate in subsurface anoxic environments. The peripheral pathway for the anaerobic oxidation of toluene in bacteria consists of an initial activation catalyzed by a benzylsuccinate synthase (encoded by bss genes), and a subsequent modified β-oxidation of benzylsuccinate to benzoyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA (encoded by bbs genes). We have shown here that the bss and bbs genes, which are located within an integrative and conjugative element, are essential for anaerobic degradation of toluene but also for m -xylene oxidation in the denitrifying beta-proteobacterium Azoarcus sp...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621130/astaxanthin-promotes-nrf2-are-signaling-to-inhibit-hg-induced-renal-fibrosis-in-gmcs
#11
Xi Xie, Qing Chen, Jun Tao
Oxidative stress is the main cause of diabetic nephropathy (DN) progression. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling is a crucial cellular defense system to cope with oxidative stress. Astaxanthin (AST) is a fat-soluble xanthophyll carotenoid with remarkable antioxidative capacity. AST exerted renal protective in diabetic rats. This study aimed to determine whether AST could alleviate the pathological progress of DN by activating Nrf2/ARE signaling and diminishing the excessive oxidative stress and fibronectin (FN) accumulation in glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) challenged with high glucose (HG)...
April 5, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620514/gene-expression-profile-of-hypertrophic-chondrocytes-treated-with-h-2-o-2-a-preliminary-investigation
#12
Ying He, Ying Zhang, Meng-Ying Wang, Meng Zhang, Dan Zhang, Ying Zhang, Zhuo-Cheng Jiang, Feng Wu, Jing-Hong Chen
Objective To identify the osteogenesis genes whose expression is altered in hypertrophic chondrocytes treated with H2 O2 . Methods Murine chondrogenitor cells (ATDC5) were differentiated into hypertrophic chondrocytes by Insulin-Transferrin-Selenium (ITS) treatment, and then treated with H2 O2 . Suitable conditions (concentration, time) were determined by using the MTT assay. After total RNA isolation and cDNA synthesis, the levels of 84 genes were determined using the PCR array, whereas quantitative RT-PCR was carried out to validate the PCR array data...
March 30, 2018: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611404/mir-212-attenuates-mpp%C3%A2-%C2%BA-induced-neuronal-damage-by-targeting-klf4-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#13
Yanfeng Song, Ying Liu, Xiaowei Chen
PURPOSE: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common age-dependent neurodegenerative disease. MiR-212 has been demonstrated to exert protective effects in several neurological disorders. The present study aimed to investigate the role and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-212 in PD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced SH-SY5Y cells were applied as a PD model in vitro. RT-qPCR was used to measure the expression of miR-212 and Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) mRNA...
May 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594354/detection-of-the-merkel-cell-polyomavirus-in-the-neuroendocrine-component-of-combined-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#14
Thibault Kervarrec, Mahtab Samimi, Pauline Gaboriaud, Tarik Gheit, Agnès Beby-Defaux, Roland Houben, David Schrama, Gaëlle Fromont, Massimo Tommasino, Yannick Le Corre, Eva Hainaut-Wierzbicka, Francois Aubin, Guido Bens, Hervé Maillard, Adeline Furudoï, Patrick Michenet, Antoine Touzé, Serge Guyétant
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. The main etiological agent is Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), detected in 80% of cases. About 5% of cases, called combined MCC, feature an admixture of neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine tumor cells. Reports of the presence or absence of MCPyV in combined MCC are conflicting, most favoring the absence, which suggests that combined MCC might have independent etiological factors and pathogenesis. These discrepancies might occur with the use of different virus identification assays, with different sensitivities...
March 28, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594149/temporal-dynamics-of-gene-expression-during-endothelial-cell-differentiation-from-human-ips-cells-a-comparison-study-of-signalling-factors-and-small-molecules
#15
Heini Belt, Jonna K Koponen, Tuija Kekarainen, Katja A Puttonen, Petri I Mäkinen, Henri Niskanen, Joni Oja, Galina Wirth, Jari Koistinaho, Minna U Kaikkonen, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
Endothelial cell (EC) therapy may promote vascular growth or reendothelization in a variety of disease conditions. However, the production of a cell therapy preparation containing differentiated, dividing cells presenting typical EC phenotype, functional properties and chemokine profile is challenging. We focused on comparative analysis of seven small molecule-mediated differentiation protocols of ECs from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Differentiated cells showed a typical surface antigen pattern of ECs as characterized with flow cytometry analysis, functional properties, such as tube formation and ability to uptake acetylated LDL...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578200/epigallocatechin-gallate-curcumin-prevent-transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-induced-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-arpe-19-cells
#16
Sivasankar Shanmuganathan, Venil N Sumantran, Narayanasamy Angayarkanni
Background & objectives: Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is characterized by the presence of epiretinal membrane (ERM), which exerts traction and detaches the retina. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells underlies ERM formation. Adjuvant therapies aimed at preventing recurrence of PVR after surgery mostly failed in clinical trials. This study was aimed to evaluate the anti-EMT properties of bio-active compounds epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), curcumin and lycopene as inhibitors of EMT induced by transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) in cultured ARPE-19 cells...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577601/the-effects-of-cobalt-and-chromium-ions-on-tgf-%C3%AE-patterns-and-mineralization-in-human-osteoblast-like-mg63-and-saos-2-cells
#17
Susanne Drynda, Andreas Drynda, Bernd Feuerstein, Jörn Kekow, Christoph H Lohmann, Jessica Bertrand
Bone homeostasis, the balance of bone formation and resorption is affected by numerous influences, such as, hormones, inflammation, mechanical load, and external stimuli. The Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β), which exists in three isoforms in humans, is a major factor in the maintenance of this balance by regulating osteoblast and osteoclast maturation, development, and function. In artificial joint replacements, release of particles or ions from arthroplasties may exert local effects on the periprosthetic tissue and modulate the expression of bone specific genes and functions...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571051/substrate-stiffness-modulates-the-multipotency-of-human-neural-crest-derived-ectomesenchymal-stem-cells-via-cd44-mediated-pdgfr-signaling
#18
Akshaya Srinivasan, Shu-Yung Chang, Shipin Zhang, Wei Seong Toh, Yi-Chin Toh
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated from various mesodermal and ectodermal tissues. While the phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of MSCs stemming from their developmental origins has been acknowledged, the genetic and environmental factors underpinning these differences are not well-understood. Here, we investigated whether substrate stiffness mediated mechanical cues can directly modulate the development of ectodermal MSCs (eMSCs) from a precursor human neural crest stem cell (NCSC) population...
March 14, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570955/human-pancreatic-alpha-to-beta-cell-area-ratio-increases-after-type-2-diabetes-onset
#19
Yukari Fujita, Junji Kozawa, Hiromi Iwahashi, Sho Yoneda, Sae Uno, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Hiroaki Nagano, Akihisa Imagawa, Iichiro Shimomura
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic alpha-cell area and the alpha- to beta-cell area ratio (α/β) might be associated with glucose tolerance. The aim was to clarify how these histological parameters change as glucose tolerance deteriorates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed pancreatic tissues obtained from pancreatectomies in 43 patients. We evaluated the relationships between alpha-cell area or the α/β and various clinical parameters. Additionally, we analyzed alpha-cell proliferation and the expression patterns of various pancreatic transcription factors...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565969/the-rna-binding-protein-celf1-post-transcriptionally-regulates-p27kip1-and-dnase2b-to-control-fiber-cell-nuclear-degradation-in-lens-development
#20
Archana D Siddam, Carole Gautier-Courteille, Linette Perez-Campos, Deepti Anand, Atul Kakrana, Christine A Dang, Vincent Legagneux, Agnès Méreau, Justine Viet, Jeffrey M Gross, Luc Paillard, Salil A Lachke
Opacification of the ocular lens, termed cataract, is a common cause of blindness. To become transparent, lens fiber cells undergo degradation of their organelles, including their nuclei, presenting a fundamental question: does signaling/transcription sufficiently explain differentiation of cells progressing toward compromised transcriptional potential? We report that a conserved RNA-binding protein Celf1 post-transcriptionally controls key genes to regulate lens fiber cell differentiation. Celf1-targeted knockout mice and celf1-knockdown zebrafish and Xenopus morphants have severe eye defects/cataract...
March 22, 2018: PLoS Genetics
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