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Beta cells AND Transcription factors

Shawna S Kim, Georgia Nikoloudaki, Mark Darling, Michael J Rieder, Douglas W Hamilton
Drug-induced gingival enlargement (DIGE) is a fibrotic condition associated with systemic administration of the anti-epileptic drug, phenytoin. We have previously demonstrated that periostin, which is transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) inducible gene, is upregulated in various fibrotic conditions including gingival enlargement associated with nifedipine. The objective of this study was to assess periostin expression in phenytoin-induced gingival enlargement (PIGE) tissues and to investigate the mechanisms underlying periostin expression...
June 19, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Nipin Sp, Dong Young Kang, Doh Hoon Kim, Jong Hwan Park, Hyo Gun Lee, Hye Jee Kim, Pramod Darvin, Yeong-Min Park, Young Mok Yang
Targeted cancer therapy with natural compounds is more effective than nontargeted therapy. Nobiletin is a flavonoid derived from citrus peel that has anticancer activity. Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is a member of the class B scavenger receptor family that is involved in importing fatty acids into cells. CD36 plays a role in tumor angiogenesis by binding to its ligand, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), and then interacting with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1). CD36 is implicated in tumor metastasis through its roles in fatty acid metabolism...
June 15, 2018: Nutrients
Jue-Long Wang, Chin-Wang Chen, Mu-Rou Tsai, Shu-Fen Liu, Tsuing-Jeu Hung, Yu-Ju-Hung, Wen-Teng Chang, Ming-Der Shi, Pei-Fang Hsieh, Yu-Lin Yang
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) is a transcriptional coactivator that regulates energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, mitochondrial dysfunction has been indicated as an established risk factor for the development of renal fibrosis. However, whether PGC-1α is involved in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis is unknown. In this study, we treated NRK-49F (normal rat kidney fibroblast) cells with transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) for 24h to establish an in vitro fibrosis model...
June 15, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Rafailia A A Beta, Nikolaos A A Balatsos
Circadian rhythms are ubiquitous time-keeping processes in eukaryotes with a period of ~24 hr. Light is perhaps the main environmental cue (zeitgeber) that affects several aspects of physiology and behaviour, such as sleep/wake cycles, orientation of birds and bees, and leaf movements in plants. Temperature can serve as the main zeitgeber in the absence of light cycles, even though it does not lead to rhythmicity through the same mechanism as light. Additional cues include feeding patterns, humidity, and social rhythms...
June 17, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Zhiliang Lu, Yuan Li, Yun Che, Jianbing Huang, Shouguo Sun, Shuangshuang Mao, Yuanyuan Lei, Ning Li, Nan Sun, Jie He
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles in multiple cellular processes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, the involvement of lncRNAs in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) signaling pathway, the critical tumor cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis pathway, remains poorly understood. To address this issue, we compared the lncRNAs expression patterns of NSCLC cells treated with and without TGFβ1 treatment. We observed that one of the most prominent hits, TGFβ-induced lncRNA (TBILA), promoted NSCLC progression and was upregulated in tumor tissues...
June 13, 2018: Cancer Letters
Qian Sun, Qianlei Yang, Hui Xu, Junchao Xue, Chao Chen, Xingfen Yang, Xiaohua Gao, Qizhan Liu
Chronic exposure to arsenic, a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with the incidence of diabetes. However, the mechanisms for arsenite-induced reduction of insulin remain largely unclear. After CD1 mice were treated with 20 or 40 ppm arsenite in the drinking water for 12 months, the mice showed reduced fasting insulin levels, a depression in glucose clearance, and lower insulin content in the pancreas. The levels of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β-cells isolated from arsenite-exposed mice were low compared to those for control mice...
June 14, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Yi Yuan, Ling Zhao, Ning Ma, Zhuang Ye, Zhenyu Jiang, Congqiu Chu
Objectives: This study aims to assess the complement 3 (C3) expressions in whole blood cells and verify a pathway toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)/ transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1)/C3 for C3 regulation in mediating thrombocytopenia (TCP) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients and methods: The study included 63 newly diagnosed SLE patients (2 males, 61 females; mean age 39.5 years; range 15 to 67 years). Whole blood messenger ribonucleic acid expression for C3, TLR9 and TGF-β1 were measured by quantitative reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction in SLE patients with TCP (n=38) and age- and sex-matched SLE patients without TCP (n=25) at baseline and in 10 SLE patients with TCP after four weeks of treatment...
December 2017: Archives of rheumatology
Won-Jung Bae, Jae Suh Park, Soo-Kyung Kang, Il-Keun Kwon, Eun-Cheol Kim
The present study evaluated the protective effects of melatonin in ethanol (EtOH)-induced senescence and osteoclastic differentiation in human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs) and cementoblasts and the underlying mechanism. EtOH increased senescence activity, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the expression of cell cycle regulators (p53, p21 and p16) and senescence-associated secretory phenotype ( SASP ) genes (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α) in HPDLCs and cementoblasts...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shuangshuang Wang, Siwang Hu, Jian Wang, Yahui Liu, Ruochi Zhao, Maoqing Tong, Hanbin Cui, Nan Wu, Xiaomin Chen
BACKGROUND: Arterial calcification is associated with cardiovascular disease as a complication of advanced atherosclerosis and is a significant contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in arterial calcification and is characterized by cellular necrosis, inflammation, and lipoprotein and phospholipid complexes, especially in atherosclerotic calcification. The conditioned medium from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CM) is well known as a rich source of autologous cytokines and is universally used for tissue regeneration in current clinical medicine...
June 13, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Supratim Ghatak, Sanghamitra Raha
Dysregulation of gene expression at RNA and protein level is a hallmark of Huntington's disease (HD). Altered levels of microRNAs and beta catenin in HD were studied earlier; however, any direct involvement of full length, basally-expressing mutant huntingtin (Htt) remained to be elusive. Here we reported that the gain-of-function mutation of full-length basally-expressing Htt in HD cell Q111 (STHdhQ111/HdhQ111) upregulated microRNA-214 and decreased beta catenin & its transcriptional activity in an aggregate-independent manner...
June 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Charles V Mobbs
During differentiation transient, inducers produce permanent changes in gene expression. A similar phenomenon, transcriptional hysteresis, produced by transient or prolonged exposure to glucose, leads to cumulative, persistent, and largely irreversible effects on glucose-regulated gene expression, and may drive key aspects of metabolic memory, obesity, diabetes, and aging, and explain the protective effects of dietary restriction during aging. The most relevant effects of glucose-induced transcriptional hysteresis are the persistent effects of elevated glucose on genes that control glucose metabolism itself...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Sergio Rivas, Inés M Antón, Francisco Wandosell
Wild-type p53 (wtp53) is described as a tumour suppressor gene, and mutations in p53 occur in many human cancers. Indeed, in high-grade malignant glioma, numerous molecular genetics studies have established central roles of RTK-PI3K-PTEN and ARF-MDM2-p53 INK4a-RB pathways in promoting oncogenic capacity. Deregulation of these signalling pathways, among others, drives changes in the glial/stem cell state and environment that permit autonomous growth. The initially transformed cell may undergo subsequent modifications, acquiring a more complete tumour-initiating phenotype responsible for disease advancement to stages that are more aggressive...
June 9, 2018: Cancers
Zsolt Fejes, Zsolt Czimmerer, Tibor Szük, Szilárd Póliska, Attila Horváth, Enikő Balogh, Viktória Jeney, Judit Váradi, Ferenc Fenyvesi, György Balla, István Édes, József Balla, János Kappelmayer, Béla Nagy
We previously found higher level of endothelial cell (EC) activation in patients who suffered from in-stent restenosis after bare-metal stenting compared to subjects who underwent drug-eluting stenting (DES) showing no complications. Here we investigated the potential transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms by which everolimus attenuated EC activation after DES. We studied the effect of everolimus on E-selectin (SELE) and VCAM1 mRNA levels when human coronary artery (HCAECs) and human umbilical vein ECs were challenged with recombinant TNF-α (100 ng/mL) for 1-24 hours in the presence or absence of everolimus using 0...
2018: PloS One
Young-Jin Kim, Ji Young Lee, Hyun-Ju Kim, Do-Hoon Kim, Tae Hee Lee, Mi Suk Kang, Wansu Park
The dry root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, also known as “female ginseng”, is a popular herbal drug amongst women, used to treat a variety of health issues and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the detailed molecular mechanism for anti-inflammatory effects of Angelica sinensis root water extract (ASW). The anti-inflammatory effect of ASW on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages was evaluated by the tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT), Griess reagent assay, multiplex cytokine assay, real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Fluo-4 calcium assay...
May 21, 2018: Nutrients
Elizabeth L Kramer, William D Hardie, Satish K Madala, Cynthia R Davidson, John Paul Clancy
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) produces variable lung disease phenotypes that are in part independent of CFTR genotype. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is the best described genetic modifier of the CF phenotype, but its mechanism of action is unknown. We hypothesized that TGFβ is sufficient to drive pathognomonic features of CF lung disease in vivo and that CFTR deficiency enhances susceptibility to pathologic TGFβ effects. METHODS: A CF mouse model and littermate controls were exposed intratracheally to an adenoviral vector containing the TGFβ1 cDNA (Ad-TGFβ), empty vector, or PBS only...
June 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Inna M Yasinska, Isabel Gonçalves Silva, Svetlana S Sakhnevych, Laura Ruegg, Rohanah Hussain, Giuliano Siligardi, Walter Fiedler, Jasmin Wellbrock, Marco Bardelli, Luca Varani, Ulrike Raap, Steffen Berger, Bernhard F Gibbs, Elizaveta Fasler-Kan, Vadim V Sumbayev
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a non-histone protein localised in the cell nucleus, where it interacts with DNA and promotes nuclear transcription events. HMGB1 levels are elevated during acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) progression followed by participation of this protein in triggering signalling events in target cells as a pro-inflammatory stimulus. This mechanism was hypothesised to be employed as a survival pathway by malignant blood cells and our aims were therefore to test this hypothesis experimentally...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Vanessa Martins, Walcy Rosolia Teodoro, Ana Paula Pereira Velosa, Priscila Andrade, Cecília Farhat, Alexandre Todorovic Fabro, Vera Luiza Capelozzi
Anomalous histoarchitecture with increased levels of type-V collagen (Col V) in lungs of human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and bleomycin (BLM) airway-centered interstitial fibrosis suggest that this collagen can be a possible trigger involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) injury model revealed a distal involvement of lung parenchyma with significant endothelial injury and fibrotic response, contrasting with the BLM airway-centered insult. We undertook this study to analyze whether BHT alters distal airway/alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) and extracellular matrix (ECM) signaling involved in the initiation and progression of pulmonary fibrosis in a different pathway concerning overexpression of Col V...
June 5, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Sunyoung Ham, Luize G Lima, Edna Pei Zhi Chai, Alexandra Muller, Richard J Lobb, Sophie Krumeich, Shu Wen Wen, Adrian P Wiegmans, Andreas Möller
Tumor-derived exosomes are being recognized as essential mediators of intercellular communication between cancer and immune cells. It is well established that bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) take up tumor-derived exosomes. However, the functional impact of these exosomes on macrophage phenotypes is controversial and not well studied. Here, we show that breast cancer-derived exosomes alter the phenotype of macrophages through the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor beta (glycoprotein 130, gp130)-STAT3 signaling pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mohamed E M Saeed, Nuha Mahmoud, Yoshikazu Sugimoto, Thomas Efferth, Heba Abdel-Aziz
Betulinic acid (BetA) is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpene isolated from the outer bark of white-barked birch trees and many other medicinal plants. Here, we studied betulinic acid's cytotoxic activity against drug-resistant tumor cell lines. P-glycoprotein ( MDR1/ABCB1 ) and BCRP ( ABCG2 ) are known ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters that mediating MDR. ABCB5 is a close relative to ABCB1, which also mediates MDR. Constitutive activation of the EGF receptor is tightly linked to the development of chemotherapeutic resistance...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Florian Weinberger, Philipp Nicol, Jutta Starbatty, Mandy Stubbendorff, Peter M Becher, Sonja Schrepfer, Thomas Eschenhagen
The transcription factor Islet-1 marks a progenitor cell population of the second heart field during cardiogenesis. In the adult heart Islet-1 expression is limited to the sinoatrial node, the ventricular outflow tract, and parasympathetic ganglia. The regenerative effect in the injured mouse ventricle of thymosin beta-4 (TB4), a 43-aminoacid peptide, was associated with increased Islet-1 immunostaining, suggesting the induction of an Islet-1-positive progenitor state by TB4. Here we aimed to reassess this effect in a genetic model...
June 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
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