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Beta cells AND Transcription factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817646/genetic-dissection-of-endothelial-transcriptional-activity-of-zebrafish-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptors-ahrs
#1
Wade W Sugden, Roberto C Leonardo-Mendonça, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo, Arndt F Siekmann
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor conserved across phyla from flies to humans. Activated by a number of endogenous ligands and environmental toxins, studies on AHR function and gene regulation have largely focused on a toxicological perspective relating to aromatic hydrocarbons generated by human activities and the often-deleterious effects of exposure on vertebrates mediated by AHR activation. A growing body of work has highlighted the importance of AHR in physiologic processes, including immune cell differentiation and vascular patterning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815582/activation-of-twist1-by-col11a1-promotes-chemoresistance-and-inhibits-apoptosis-in-ovarian-cancer-cells-by-modulating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-ikk%C3%AE-expression
#2
Yi-Hui Wu, Yu-Fang Huang, Tzu-Hao Chang, Cheng-Yang Chou
We have shown that collagen type XI alpha 1 (COL11A1) promotes ovarian cancer progression and is associated with chemoresistance to cisplatin and paclitaxel in ovarian cancer cells. Here, we demonstrate how COL11A1 regulates twist family basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 1-related protein 1 (TWIST1) to induce chemoresistance and inhibit apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Small interfering RNA-mediated reduction in COL11A1 protein levels increased the chemosensitivity to cisplatin and paclitaxel via downregulated TWIST1 expression...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811300/epigenetic-regulation-by-the-menin-pathway
#3
Zijie Feng, Jian Ma, Xianxin Hua
There is a trend of increasing prevalence of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), and the inherited multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome serves as a genetic model to investigate how NETs develop and the underlying mechanisms. Menin, encoded by the MEN1 gene, at least partly acts as a scaffold protein by interacting with multiple partners to regulate cellular homeostasis of various endocrine organs. Menin has multiple functions including regulating several important signaling pathways by controlling gene transcription...
August 15, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810742/determination-of-rate-limiting-factor-for-formation-of-beta-catenin-destruction-complexes-using-absolute-protein-quantification
#4
Masashi Kitazawa, Tomohisa Hatta, Koji Ogawa, Eriko Fukuda, Naoki Goshima, Tohru Natsume
Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays important roles in both ontogenesis and development. In the absence of a Wnt stimulus, β-catenin is degraded by a multiprotein "destruction complex" that includes Axin, APC, GSK3B, and FBXW11. Although the key molecules required for transducing Wnt signals have been identified, a quantitative understanding of this pathway has been lacking. Here, we calculated the absolute number of β-catenin destruction complexes by absolute protein quantification using LC-MS/MS. Similar amounts of destruction complex-constituting proteins and β-catenin interacted, and the number of destruction complexes was calculated to be about 1,468 molecules/cell...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810525/in-vitro-anticancer-activities-of-osthole-against-renal-cell-carcinoma-cells
#5
Lei Liu, Jun Mao, Qifei Wang, Zhiwei Zhang, Guangzhen Wu, Qizhen Tang, Bin Zhao, Lianhong Li, Quanlin Li
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common urinary malignancy that is resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Osthole, a monomer compound extracted from a traditional Chinese herb, has potent anti-tumor effects on various types of cancer cells. However, the therapeutic effects of osthole on RCC remain unclear. In our study, osthole could suppress the proliferation and colony formation of two RCC cell lines, ACHN and 786-O cells, in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with osthole resulted in a significant, dose-dependent increase in the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (cleaved caspase-3 and Bax) and decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and survivin), which were consistent with evidence of apoptotic nuclear morphology revealed by DAPI staining...
August 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799137/ethanol-alters-app-processing-and-aggravates-alzheimer-associated-phenotypes
#6
Daochao Huang, Mengjiao Yu, Shou Yang, Dandan Lou, Weitao Zhou, Lingling Zheng, Zhe Wang, Fang Cai, Weihui Zhou, Tingyu Li, Weihong Song
The majority of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases are sporadic with unknown causes. Many dietary factors including excessive alcohol intake have been reported to increase the risk to develop AD. The effect of alcohol on cognitive functions and AD pathogenesis remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the relationship between ethanol exposure and Alzheimer's disease. Cell cultures were treated with ethanol at different dosages for different durations up to 48 h and an AD model mouse was fed with ethanol for 4 weeks...
August 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790514/the-vhl-tumor-suppressor-gene-insights-into-oxygen-sensing-and-cancer
#7
William G Kaelin
Mammalian cells sense changes in oxygen and transduce that information into adaptive changes in gene expression using a conserved pathway that converges on the heterodimeric transcription factor called hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), which contains a labile alpha subunit and a stable beta subunit. In the presence of oxygen, the alpha subunit is hydroxylated on one (or both) of two highly conserved prolyl residues by an Egg-Laying Defective Nine (EglN) [also called Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain (PHD)] dioxygenase, which recruits an ubiquitin ligase complex containing the VHL tumor suppressor gene product...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771191/somatic-host-cell-alterations-in-hpv-carcinogenesis
#8
REVIEW
Tamara R Litwin, Megan A Clarke, Michael Dean, Nicolas Wentzensen
High-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infections cause cancers in different organ sites, most commonly cervical and head and neck cancers. While carcinogenesis is initiated by two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, increasing evidence shows the importance of specific somatic events in host cells for malignant transformation. HPV-driven cancers share characteristic somatic changes, including apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC)-driven mutations and genomic instability leading to copy number variations and large chromosomal rearrangements...
August 3, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754339/interleukin-1-receptor-knockout-mice-develop-epidermal-cysts-and-show-an-altered-innate-immune-response-following-exposure-to-ultraviolet-b-radiation
#9
Nikhil N Kulkarni, Christopher A Adase, Ling-Juan Zhang, Andrew W Borkowski, Fengwu Li, James A Sanford, Daniel J Coleman, Carlos Aguilera, Arup K Indra, Richard L Gallo
In this study, we observed that mice lacking the interleukin 1 receptor (IL1r(-/-)), or deficient in interleukin 1-beta (IL1-β), developed multiple epidermal cysts after chronic ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure. Cysts that developed in IL1r(-/-) mice were characterized by the presence of the hair follicle marker Sox 9, keratins (K10 and K14) and normal melanocyte distribution and retinoid X receptor α (RXR α) expression. The increased incidence of cysts in IL1r(-/-) mice was associated with less skin inflammation as characterized by decreased recruitment of macrophages, and their skin also maintained epidermal barrier function compared to wild-type mice...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752966/-the-study-of-the-effect-and-mechanism-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-in-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-mice
#10
Mei Liu, Si Gou, Hai-Tao Chen, Zhong-Hua Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential value and mechanisms of glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. METHODS: Mice were treated with a single sublethal dose of BLM (3 mg/kg ) via intratracheal infusion to produce pulmonary fibrosis, and then liraglutide (2 mg/kg) was given to the mice for 28 days by intraperitoneal injection. 28 days after BLM infusion, the number of total cells, macrophages and neutrophils, lymphocytes, and the content of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured...
July 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752115/acinar-to-ductal-metaplasia-induced-by-transforming-growth-factor-beta-facilitates-kras-g12d-driven-pancreatic-tumorigenesis
#11
Nicolas Chuvin, David F Vincent, Roxane M Pommier, Lindsay B Alcaraz, Johann Gout, Cassandre Caligaris, Karam Yacoub, Victoire Cardot, Elodie Roger, Bastien Kaniewski, Sylvie Martel, Celia Cintas, Sophie Goddard-Léon, Amélie Colombe, Julie Valantin, Nicolas Gadot, Emilie Servoz, Jennifer Morton, Isabelle Goddard, Anne Couvelard, Vinciane Rebours, Julie Guillermet, Owen J Sansom, Isabelle Treilleux, Ulrich Valcourt, Stéphanie Sentis, Pierre Dubus, Laurent Bartholin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) acts either as a tumor suppressor or as an oncogene, depending on the cellular context and time of activation. TGFβ activates the canonical SMAD pathway through its interaction with the serine/threonine kinase type I and II heterotetrameric receptors. Previous studies investigating TGFβ-mediated signaling in the pancreas relied either on loss-of-function approaches or on ligand overexpression, and its effects on acinar cells have so far remained elusive...
September 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749240/epigenetic-dysregulation-of-the-erythropoietic-transcription-factor-klf1-and-the-beta-like-globin-locus-in-juvenile-myelomonocytic-leukemia
#12
Silvia Fluhr, Christopher Felix Krombholz, Angelina Meier, Thomas Epting, Oliver Mücke, Christoph Plass, Charlotte M Niemeyer, Christian Flotho
Increased levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) are a hallmark of more than half of the children diagnosed with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). Elevated HbF levels in JMML are associated with DNA hypermethylation of distinct gene promoter regions in leukemic cells. Since the regulation of globin gene transcription is known to be under epigenetic control, we set out to study the relation of DNA methylation patterns at β-/γ-globin promoters, mRNA and protein expression of globins, and epigenetic modifications of genes encoding the globin-regulatory transcription factors BCL11A and KLF1 in nucleated erythropoietic precursor cells of patients with JMML...
July 27, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745240/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-a-friend-a-foe-or-a-bystander-in-the-neurodegenerative-cascade-and-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Gurdeep Marwarha, Othman Ghribi
Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that was discovered nearly three decades ago. Since its discovery, this protein complex has been implicated in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes such as inflammation, insulin resistance, synaptic plasticity and memory as well as pathological conditions including cancer, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. This review literature is focused on the potential role NF-κB may play in the etipathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease...
July 25, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739109/generation-of-glucose-sensitive-insulin-secreting-beta-like-cells-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-by-incorporating-a-synthetic-lineage-control-network
#14
Pratik Saxena, Daniel Bojar, Henryk Zulewski, Martin Fussenegger
We previously reported novel technology to differentiate induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) into glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells by engineering a synthetic lineage-control network regulated by the licensed food additive vanillic acid. This genetic network was able to program intricate expression dynamics of the key transcription factors Ngn3 (neurogenin 3, OFF-ON-OFF), Pdx1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1, ON-OFF-ON) and MafA (V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homologue A, OFF-ON) to guide the differentiation of IPSC-derived pancreatic progenitor cells to beta-like cells...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734833/transforming-growth-factor-beta-promotes-liver-tumorigenesis-in-mice-via-upregulation-of-snail
#15
Hyuk Moon, Hye-Lim Ju, Sook In Chung, Kyung Joo Cho, Jung Woo Eun, Suk Woo Nam, Kwang-Hyub Han, Diego F Calvisi, Simon Weonsang Ro
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) suppresses early stages of tumorigenesis, but also contributes to migration and metastasis of cancer cells. A large number of human tumors contain mutations that inactivate its receptors, or downstream proteins such as Smad transcription factors, indicating that the TGFB signaling pathway prevents tumor growth. We investigated the effects of TGFB inhibition on liver tumorigenesis in mice. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice received hydrodynamic tail injections of transposons encoding HRAS(G12V) and a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to downregulate p53, or those encoding HRAS(G12V) and MYC, or those encoding HRAS(G12V) and TAZ(S89), to induce liver tumor formation; mice were also given injections of transposons encoding SMAD7 or shRNA against SMAD2, SMAD3, SMAD4, or SNAI1 (Snail), with or without ectopic expression of Snail...
July 19, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720517/transient-receptor-potential-trpm3-channels-pharmacology-signaling-and-biological-functions
#16
REVIEW
Gerald Thiel, Sandra Rubil, Andrea Lesch, Lisbeth A Guethlein, Oliver G Rössler
The transient receptor potential melastatin-3 (TRPM3) channel belongs to the family of transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels that are expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types, including dorsal root ganglia, cardiomyocytes and pancreatic beta-cells. Although its natural ligands are currently unknown, TRPM3 channels can be activated by the neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate, the synthetic ligand CIM0216, and by noxious heat. TRPM3 channels are regulated by phosphoinositides, and perhaps by calmodulin...
July 16, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708594/hypoxia-favors-myosin-heavy-chain-beta-gene-expression-in-an-hif-1alpha-dependent-manner
#17
Lucia Binó, Jiřina Procházková, Katarzyna Anna Radaszkiewicz, Jan Kučera, Jana Kudová, Jiří Pacherník, Lukáš Kubala
The potentiation of the naturally limited regenerative capacity of the heart is dependent on an understanding of the mechanisms that are activated in response to pathological conditions such as hypoxia. Under these conditions, the expression of genes suggested to support cardiomyocyte survival and heart adaptation is triggered. Particularly important are changes in the expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. We propose here that alterations in the expression profiles of MHC genes are induced in response to hypoxia and are primarily mediated by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)...
July 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707661/-the-effects-of-interleukin-1-beta-and-gamma-quantum-braking-radiation-on-mesenchymal-progenitor-cells
#18
A E Bigildeev, E A Zezina, N J Drize
In murine bone-marrow stromal microenvironment cells and in human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MMSCs), proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) serves as a growth factor. In murine bone tissue, IL-1β expression increases in vivo after irradiation. Here, we have presented our evaluation of the effects of exogenous IL-1β on the expression of NF-kB transcription factors in human MMSCs and stromal layer cells of murine long-term bone marrow cultures (LTBMCs). The cytokine signaling pathway was also activated in murine LTBMC by braking electron radiation in doses of 3-12 Gy...
May 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701922/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-promotes-functional-improvement-associated-with-cntf-stat3-activation-after-hemi-sectioned-spinal-cord-injury-in-tree-shrews
#19
Liu-Lin Xiong, Fei Liu, Bing-Tuan Lu, Wen-Ling Zhao, Xiu-Juan Dong, Jia Liu, Rong-Ping Zhang, Piao Zhang, Ting-Hua Wang
Hemi-sectioned spinal cord injury (hSCI) can lead to spastic paralysis on the injured side, as well as flaccid paralysis on the contralateral side, which can negatively affect a patient's daily life. Stem-cell therapy may offer an effective treatment option for individuals with hSCI. To examine the role of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation on hSCI and explore related mechanisms in the tree shrews, here, we created a model of hSCI by inducing injury at the tenth thoracic vertebra (T10)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701588/igfbp2-plays-an-important-role-in-heat-shock-protein-27-mediated-cancer-progression-and-metastasis
#20
Chin-Sheng Hung, Chien-Yu Huang, Chia-Hwa Lee, Wei-Yu Chen, Ming-Te Huang, Po-Li Wei, Yu-Jia Chang
Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a key chaperone that interacts with over 200 client proteins. The expression of Hsp27 might be correlated with poor outcome in many types of cancer. Previous study indicated that Hsp27 might be an important biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the detailed mechanism is less well understood. The shRNA-mediated silencing of Hsp27 decreased the proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cells. In a xenograft model, the silencing of Hsp27 reduced tumor progression...
July 5, 2017: Oncotarget
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