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Beta cells AND Transcription factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316163/-effects-of-silencing-smad-ubiquitination-regulatory-factor-2-on-the-function-of-human-hypertrophic-scar-derived-fibroblasts
#1
Z Zhang, F Kuang, C L Liu, B Chen, W B Tang, X J Li
Objective: To explore the effects of silencing Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2) on the secretion of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β(1)), alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and collagen type Ⅰ by human hypertrophic scar-derived fibroblasts. Methods: The human normal skin-derived fibroblasts and hypertrophic scar-derived fibroblasts were cultured with explant culture technique from the normal skin and hypertrophic scar tissue, which was obtained from 9 patients with hypertrophic scars after burn...
March 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303467/mir-9-5p-down-regulates-pit2-but-not-pit1-in-human-embryonic-kidney-293-cells
#2
D P Paiva, M Keasey, J R M Oliveira
Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an essential component for structure and metabolism. PiT1 (SLC20A1) and PiT2 (SLC20A2) are members of the mammalian type-III inorganic phosphate transporters. SLC20A2 missense variants are associated with primary brain calcification. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous noncoding regulatory RNAs, which play important roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation. MicroRNA-9 (miR-9) acts at different stages of neurogenesis, is deeply rooted in gene networks controlling the regulation of neural progenitor proliferation, and is also linked with cancers outside the nervous system...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298487/tgf-%C3%AE-triggers-rapid-fibrillogenesis-via-a-novel-t%C3%AE-rii-dependent-fibronectin-trafficking-mechanism
#3
Archana Varadaraj, Laura M Jenkins, Priyanka Singh, Anindya Chanda, John Snider, N Y Lee, Ayelet R Amsalem-Zafran, Marcelo Ehrlich, Yoav I Henis, Karthikeyan Mythreye
Fibronectin (FN) is a critical regulator of extra cellular matrix (ECM) remodeling through its availability and stepwise polymerization for fibrillogenesis. Availability of FN is regulated by its synthesis and turnover, while fibrillogenesis is a multistep integrin dependent process essential for cell migration, proliferation and tissue function. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is an established regulator of ECM remodeling through transcriptional control of ECM proteins. Here, we show that TGF-β, through increased FN trafficking in a transcription and SMAD independent manner, is a direct and rapid inducer of fibrillogenesis required for TGF-β induced cell migration...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295567/melatonin-reverses-h2-o2-induced-senescence-in-sh-sy5y-cells-by-enhancing-autophagy-via-sirtuin-1-deacetylation-of-the-rela-p65-subunit-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#4
Chutikorn Nopparat, Puritat Sinjanakhom, Piyarat Govitrapong
Autophagy, a degradation mechanism that plays a major role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and diminishes in aging, is considered an aging characteristic. Melatonin is an important hormone that plays a wide range of physiological functions, including the anti-aging effect, potentially via the regulation of the Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) pathway. The deacetylation ability of SIRT1 is important for controlling the function of several transcription factors, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-ĸB). Apart from inflammation, NF-ĸB can regulate autophagy by inhibiting Beclin1, an initiator of autophagy...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295288/overexpression-of-foxo3a-is-associated-with-glioblastoma-progression-and-predicts-poor-patient-prognosis
#5
Zhongrun Qian, Li Ren, Dingchang Wu, Xi Yang, Zhiyi Zhou, Quanmin Nie, Gan Jiang, Shuanglin Xue, Weiji Weng, Yongming Qiu, Yingying Lin
Forkhead transcription factor FoxO3a has been reported to have ambiguous functions and distinct mechanisms in various solid tumours, including glioblastoma (GBM). Although a preliminary analysis of a small sample of patients indicated that FoxO3a aberrations in glioma might be related to aggressive clinical behaviour, the clinical significance of FoxO3a in glioblastoma remains unclear. We investigated the expression of FoxO3a in a cohort of 91 glioblastoma specimens and analysed the correlations of protein expression with patient prognosis...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293052/beta-catenin-forms-protein-aggregation-at-high-concentrations-in-hek293tcells
#6
Marie Saghaeian Jazi, Seyed Mahmoud Arab Najafi
BACKGROUND: The canonical Wnt signal transduction (or the Wnt/β-catenin pathway) plays a crucial role in the development of animals and in carcinogenesis. Beta-catenin is the central component of this signaling pathway. The activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling results in the cytoplasmic and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. In the nucleus, β-catenin interacts with the TCF/LEF transcription factors and, therefore, participates in the upregulation or downregulation of some important genes involved in diverse cellular activities...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288171/the-acceleration-of-cardiomyogenesis-in-embryonic-stem-cells-in-vitro-by-serum-depletion-does-not-increase-the-number-of-developed-cardiomyocytes
#7
Katarzyna Anna Radaszkiewicz, Dominika Sýkorová, Lucia Binó, Jana Kudová, Markéta Bébarová, Jiřina Procházková, Hana Kotasová, Lukáš Kubala, Jiří Pacherník
The differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells into various lineages in vitro represents an important tool for studying the mechanisms underlying mammalian embryogenesis. It is a key technique in studies evaluating the molecular mechanisms of cardiomyogenesis and heart development and also in embryotoxicology. Herein, modest modifications of the basic protocol for ES cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes were evaluated in order to increase the yield and differentiation status of developed cardiomyocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287848/immunomodulating-and-immunoresistance-properties-of-cancer-initiating-cells-implications-for-the-clinical-success-of-immunotherapy
#8
Cristina Maccalli, Giorgio Parmiani, Soldano Ferrone
Cancer-initiating cells (CICs) represent a relatively rare subpopulation of cells endowed with self-renewal, stemness properties, tumorigenicity in immunodeficient mice, and resistance to standard therapies as well as to immunotherapy. Here, we review the biological and immunological characteristics of CICs with special focus on the immunomodulating mechanisms they utilize to escape from immunosurveillance. The recently developed immunotherapeutic strategies have yielded remarkable clinical results in many types of tumors, indicating that indeed a patient's immune system can mount an immune response, which is effective in controlling tumor growth...
March 13, 2017: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286748/the-importance-of-rest-for-development-and-function-of-beta-cells
#9
REVIEW
David Martin, Anne Grapin-Botton
Beta cells are defined by the genes they express, many of which are specific to this cell type, and ensure a specific set of functions. Beta cells are also defined by a set of genes they should not express (in order to function properly), and these genes have been called forbidden genes. Among these, the transcriptional repressor RE-1 Silencing Transcription factor (REST) is expressed in most cells of the body, excluding most populations of neurons, as well as pancreatic beta and alpha cells. In the cell types where it is expressed, REST represses the expression of hundreds of genes that are crucial for both neuronal and pancreatic endocrine function, through the recruitment of multiple transcriptional and epigenetic co-regulators...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286209/esophageal-adenocarcinoma-cells-and-xenograft-tumors-exposed-to-erb-b2-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-2-and-3-inhibitors-activate-transforming-growth-factor-beta-signaling-which-induces-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#10
Eva A Ebbing, Anne Steins, Evelyn Fessler, Phylicia Stathi, Willem Joost Lesterhuis, Kausilia K Krishnadath, Louis Vermeulen, Jan Paul Medema, Maarten F Bijlsma, Hanneke W M van Laarhoven
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Drugs that inhibit the erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2 or HER2) are the standard treatment of patients with different types of cancer, including HER2-overexpressing gastroesophageal tumors. Unfortunately, cancer cells become resistant to these drugs, so overall these drugs provide little benefit to patients with these tumors. We investigated mechanisms that mediate resistance of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) cells and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumors to ERBB inhibitors...
March 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276713/aberrant-function-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-mdscs-in-experimental-colitis-and-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-ibd-immune-responses
#11
Eleni Kontaki, Dimitrios T Boumpas, Maria Tzardi, Ioannis A Mouzas, Konstantinos A Papadakis, Panayotis Verginis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) encompass a novel population of suppressor cells and a potential candidate for cell-based therapies in inflammatory diseases. Herein, we investigated their immunomodulatory properties in experimental inflammatory colitis and T cell-mediated immune responses in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. METHODS: MDSCs (defined as CD14(-)HLA(-)DR(-/low)CD33(+)CD15(+)) numbers were determined in peripheral blood (PB) from IBD patients...
March 3, 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272778/the-activity-of-the-carbamoyl-phosphate-synthase-1-promoter-in-human-liver-derived-cells-is-dependent-on-hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-3-beta
#12
Zhanfei Chen, Nanhong Tang, Xiaoqian Wang, Yanling Chen
Carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 (CPS1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the first step of the urea cycle and an indispensable enzyme in the metabolism of human liver. However, CPS1 epigenetic regulation involves promoter analysis and the role of liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs), which is not fully elucidated. In this work, the promoter region of hCPS1 gene was cloned, and its activity was investigated. An LETF, hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-beta (HNF3β), was found to promote the transcriptional expression of CPS1 in liver-derived cell lines...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270834/metabolic-stress-and-compromised-identity-of-pancreatic-beta-cells
#13
REVIEW
Avital Swisa, Benjamin Glaser, Yuval Dor
Beta cell failure is a central feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the molecular underpinnings of the process remain only partly understood. It has been suggested that beta cell failure in T2D involves massive cell death. Other studies ascribe beta cell failure to cell exhaustion, due to chronic oxidative or endoplasmic reticulum stress leading to cellular dysfunction. More recently it was proposed that beta cells in T2D may lose their differentiated identity, possibly even gaining features of other islet cell types...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267275/foxos-the-biology-and-pathophysiological-roles-in-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
Kyoichiro Tsuchiya, Yoshihiro Ogawa
Forkhead box class O family member proteins (FoxOs) of transcription factors are essential regulators of cellular homeostasis, including glucose and lipid metabolism, oxidative stress response and redox signaling, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Altered FoxO1 expression and activity have been associated with glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and complications of diabetes. In liver, they direct carbons to glucose or lipid utilization, thus providing a unifying mechanism for the two abnormalities of the diabetic liver: excessive glucose production, and increased lipid synthesis and secretion...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266181/mir-9-is-involved-in-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-lung-cancer-cell-invasion-and-adhesion-by-targeting-sox7
#15
Lichun Han, Wei Wang, Wei Ding, Lijian Zhang
MicroRNA (miR)-9 plays different roles in different cancer types. Here, we investigated the role of miR-9 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell invasion and adhesion in vitro and explored whether miR-9 was involved in transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1)-induced NSCLC cell invasion and adhesion by targeting SOX7. The expression of miR-9 and SOX7 in human NSCLC tissues and cell lines was examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments were performed on A549 and HCC827 cells to investigate the effect of miR-9 and SOX7 on NSCLC cell invasion and adhesion in the presence or absence of TGF-β1...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262634/francisella-noatunensis-ssp-noatunensis-iglc-deletion-mutant-protects-adult-zebrafish-challenged-with-acute-mortality-dose-of-wild-type-strain
#16
Elisabeth O Lampe, Julia I Tandberg, Anne-Lise Rishovd, Hanne C Winther-Larsen
The intracellular fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis remains an unsolved problem for aquaculture worldwide and an efficient vaccine is needed. In Francisella sp., IglC is an important virulence factor necessary for intracellular growth and escape from phagolysosomes. Deletion of the intracellular growth locus C (iglC) in Francisella sp. causes attenuation, but vaccine potential has only been attributed to ΔiglC from Francisella noatunensis ssp. orientalis, a warm-water fish pathogen. A ΔiglC mutant was constructed in the cold-water fish pathogen F...
March 6, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261610/cervical-cancer-cell-line-secretome-highlights-the-roles-of-transforming-growth-factor-beta-induced-protein-ig-h3-peroxiredoxin-2-and-nrf2-on-cervical-carcinogenesis
#17
Georgia Kontostathi, Jerome Zoidakis, Manousos Makridakis, Vasiliki Lygirou, George Mermelekas, Theofilos Papadopoulos, Konstantinos Vougas, Alexios Vlamis-Gardikas, Peter Drakakis, Dimitrios Loutradis, Antonia Vlahou, Nicholas P Anagnou, Kalliopi I Pappa
Cancer cells acquire unique secretome compositions that contribute to tumor development and metastasis. The aim of our study was to elucidate the biological processes involved in cervical cancer, by performing a proteomic analysis of the secretome from the following informative cervical cell lines: SiHa (HPV16+), HeLa (HPV18+), C33A (HPV-), and HCK1T (normal). Proteins were analyzed by 2D gel electrophoresis coupled to MALDI-TOF-MS. Enrichment of secreted proteins with characteristic profiles for each cell line was followed by the identification of differentially expressed proteins...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261303/stimulation-of-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptors-plays-a-protective-role-via-increased-expression-of-raf-1-and-pdx-1-in-hyperglycemic-rat-pancreatic-islet-rin-m5f-cells
#18
Sher Zaman Safi, Rajes Qvist, Gracie Ong, Hamed Karimian, Muhammad Imran, Ikram Shah
INTRODUCTION: It is a widely held view that a progressive reduction of beta-cell mass occurs in the progression of diabetes. RAF-1 kinase and pancreas duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1) are major factors that promote survival of cells and maintain normal insulin functions. In this study we investigated the effect of a β-adrenergic receptor agonist and antagonist on RAF-1 and PDX-1, and their respective effects on apoptosis and insulin release in RIN-m5F cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: RIN-m5F cells were cultured in normal (5 mM) and high (25 mM) glucose to mimic diabetic conditions, followed by treatment with 5 µM, 10 µM and 20 µM of isoproterenol and isoproterenol + propranolol for 6, 12 and 24 h...
March 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260040/antiproliferation-effect-of-the-uremic-toxin-para%C3%A2-cresol-on-endothelial-progenitor-cells-is-related-to-its-antioxidant-activity
#19
Limin Pan, Xiaoting Ye, Jiguang Ding, Yu Zhou
Endothelial dysfunction and impaired endothelial regenerative capacity are key contributors to the high incidence of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Uremic toxins are associated with this pathogenesis. Previous studies have revealed that a uremic toxin, para‑cresol (p‑cresol), exerts an antiproliferation effect on human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), but the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were confirmed to function as signaling molecules that regulate growth factor‑dependent EPC proliferation...
February 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257042/the-prr11-ska2-bidirectional-transcription-unit-is-negatively-regulated-by-p53-through-nf-y-in-lung-cancer-cells
#20
Yitao Wang, Huali Weng, Ying Zhang, Yinjiang Long, Yi Li, Yulong Niu, Fangzhou Song, Youquan Bu
We previously identified proline-rich protein 11 (PRR11) as a novel cancer-related gene that is implicated in the regulation of cell cycle and tumorigenesis. Our recent study demonstrated that PRR11 and its adjacent gene, kinetochore associated 2 (SKA2), constitute a classic head-to-head gene pair that is coordinately regulated by nuclear factor Y (NF-Y). In the present study, we further show that the PRR11-SKA2 bidirectional transcription unit is an indirect target of the tumor suppressor p53. A luciferase reporter assay revealed that overexpression of wild type p53, but not mutant p53, significantly represses the basal activity and NF-Y mediated transactivation of the PRR11-SKA2 bidirectional promoter...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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