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Beta cells AND Transcription factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050300/tfcp2-activates-beta-catenin-tcf-signaling-in-the-progression-of-pancreatic-cancer
#1
Dai Yuedi, Cai Yuankun, Zhao Jiaying, Liu Han, Wang Yueqi, Liu Houbao, Zhang Dexiang
Aberrant activation of beta-catenin/TCF (T-cell factor) signaling is frequently observed in the pancreatic cancer. However, the regulation of nuclear beta-catenin/TCF transcription machinery remains largely unknown. In this study, TFCP2 (transcriptional factor CP2) expression in pancreatic cancer was detected by qPCR, immunohistochemistry and western blot. Western blot, colony formation assay, migration and invasion experiment were performed to investigate the effects of TFCP2 on the growth and migration of pancreatic cancer cells...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047177/selected-hepatoprotective-herbal-medicines-evidence-from-ethnomedicinal-applications-animal-models-and-possible-mechanism-of-actions
#2
REVIEW
Muhammad Ali, Tariq Khan, Kaneez Fatima, Qurat Ul Ain Ali, Muhammad Ovais, Ali Talha Khalil, Ikram Ullah, Abida Raza, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Muhammad Idrees
Insight into the hepatoprotective effects of medicinally important plants is important, both for physicians and researchers. Main reasons for the use of herbal medicine include their lesser cost compared with conventional drugs, lesser undesirable drug reactions and thus high safety, and reduced side effects. The present review focuses on the composition, pharmacology, and results of experimental trials of selected medicinal plants: Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Glycyrrhiza glabra, Phyllanthus amarus Schumach...
October 19, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036979/-role-of-ash2-absent-small-or-homeotic-like-and-jumonji-domain-containing-protein-3-on-histone-methylation-of-interferon-gamma-gene-and-their-associations-with-vascular-damage-of-kawasaki-disease
#3
J H Mei, G Tang, Q Wang, P Q Wen, M G Xu, D Cui, D L Ma, C Liu, G B Wang
Objective: To investigate the impacts of ash2 (absent, small, or homeotic)-like (Ash2L) and Jumonji domain-containing protein 3 (Jmjd3) on histone methylation of interferon-gamma(IFN-γ) gene and association with vascular damage of Kawasaki disease (KD) in acute phase. Methods: This study was performed among 36 children with KD in acute phase (KD group) and 28 age-matched health children (control group), who were treated or underwent physical examination in our hospital between February 2015 and June 2016. Patients were further divided into KD groups with or without coronary artery lesions (KD-CAL(+) , 16 cases; KD-CAL(-), 20 cases)...
September 24, 2017: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032405/agaricus-blazei-murill-polysaccharides-protect-against-cadmium-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-damage-in-chicken-spleens
#4
Wanqiu Xie, Ai Lv, Ruyue Li, Zequn Tang, Dexing Ma, Xiaodan Huang, Ruili Zhang, Ming Ge
Agaricus blazei Murill polysaccharide (ABP) has exhibited antioxidant and immunoregulatory activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ABP on cadmium (Cd)-induced antioxidant functions and inflammatory damage in chicken spleens. In this study, groups of 7-day-old chickens were fed with normal saline (0.2 mL single/day), CdCl2 (140 mg/kg/day), ABP (30 mg/mL, 0.2 mL single/day), and Cd + ABP (140 mg/kg/day + 0.2 mL ABP). Spleens were separated on the 20th, 40th, and 60th day for each group...
October 14, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024711/fluoride-potentiates-tubulointerstitial-nephropathy-caused-by-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction
#5
Takamasa Kido, Masashi Tsunoda, Chiemi Sugaya, Hiroshi Hano, Hiroyuki Yanagisawa
The contamination of ground water by fluoride has been reported worldwide. Most fluoride (approximately 70%) is filtered by the kidneys; humans or experimental animals with renal damage therefore may be more affected by fluoride exposure than those with normal kidney function. Tubulointerstitial fibrosis, which involves macrophage-promoted extracellular matrix production and myofibroblast migration, can be induced in rats by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). We examined the effects of fluoride exposure on tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the obstructed kidney of UUO rats...
October 9, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022897/cooperation-of-rel-family-members-in-regulating-a%C3%AE-1-40-mediated-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-secretion-by-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#6
Junran Sun, Peirong Huang, Jian Liang, Jie Li, Mengxi Shen, Xiangjun She, Yiji Feng, Xueting Luo, Te Liu, Xiaodong Sun
Amyloid-beta (Aβ) is a hallmark component of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which induces secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Previous studies have shown that p50/RelA (p65), a member of NF-κB family, is an essential pro-inflammatory transcription factor responding to Aβ1-40 stimulation, but few focused on the other two Rel transcription factor members - RelB and c-Rel - and their role in Aβ1-40-mediated inflammation. It was reported that RelA, RelB and c-Rel are also implicated in various NF-κB-mediated inflammatory diseases...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017520/the-nuclear-receptor-er%C3%AE-engages-ago2-in-regulation-of-gene-transcription-rna-splicing-and-risc-loading
#7
Roberta Tarallo, Giorgio Giurato, Giuseppina Bruno, Maria Ravo, Francesca Rizzo, Annamaria Salvati, Luca Ricciardi, Giovanna Marchese, Angela Cordella, Teresa Rocco, Valerio Gigantino, Biancamaria Pierri, Giovanni Cimmino, Luciano Milanesi, Concetta Ambrosino, Tuula A Nyman, Giovanni Nassa, Alessandro Weisz
BACKGROUND: The RNA-binding protein Argonaute 2 (AGO2) is a key effector of RNA-silencing pathways It exerts a pivotal role in microRNA maturation and activity and can modulate chromatin remodeling, transcriptional gene regulation and RNA splicing. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is endowed with oncosuppressive activities, antagonizing hormone-induced carcinogenesis and inhibiting growth and oncogenic functions in luminal-like breast cancers (BCs), where its expression correlates with a better prognosis of the disease...
October 6, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993399/myc-cooperates-with-beta-catenin-to-drive-gene-expression-in-the-nephron-progenitor-cells
#8
Xinchao Pan, Courtney M Karner, Thomas J Carroll
For organs to achieve their proper size, the processes of stem cell renewal and differentiation must be tightly regulated. We previously showed that in the developing kidney, Wnt9b regulates distinct beta-catenin-dependent transcriptional programs in the renewing and differentiating populations of the nephron progenitor cells. How beta-catenin stimulated these two distinct programs was unclear. Here, we show that beta-catenin cooperates with the transcription factor Myc to activate the progenitor renewal program...
October 9, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992339/stat3-inhibition-attenuates-the-progressive-phenotypes-of-alport-syndrome-mouse-model
#9
Tsubasa Yokota, Kohei Omachi, Mary Ann Suico, Misato Kamura, Haruka Kojima, Ryosuke Fukuda, Keishi Motomura, Keisuke Teramoto, Shota Kaseda, Jun Kuwazuru, Toru Takeo, Naomi Nakagata, Tsuyoshi Shuto, Hirofumi Kai
Background: Alport syndrome (AS) is a hereditary, progressive nephritis caused by mutation of type IV collagen. Previous studies have shown that activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) exacerbates other renal diseases, but whether STAT3 activation exacerbates AS pathology is still unknown. Here we aim to investigate the involvement of STAT3 in the progression of AS. Method: Phosphorylated STAT3 expression was assessed by immunoblotting analysis of kidneys and glomeruli of an AS mouse model ( Col4a5 G5X mutant)...
August 17, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989083/resveratrol-activation-of-ampk-dependent-pathways-is-neuroprotective-in-human-neural-stem-cells-against-amyloid-beta-induced-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#10
Ming-Chang Chiang, Christopher J Nicol, Yi-Chuan Cheng
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with progressive memory loss resulting in dementia. Amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides play a critical role in the pathogenesis of this disease, and are thought to promote inflammation and oxidative stress leading to neurodegeneration in the neocortex and hippocampus of the AD brains. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, and cell survival in response to inflammation and oxidative stress. However, the neuroprotective mechanisms by which AMPK achieves these beneficial effects in human neural stem cells (hNSCs) exposed to Aβ is still not well understood...
October 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988892/the-il-1%C3%AE-signalling-pathway-and-its-role-in-regulating-pro-inflammatory-and-pro-labour-mediators-in-human-primary-myometrial-cells
#11
Martha Lappas
Interleukin (IL)-1β plays a central role in the processes of human labour and delivery. The adaptor proteins involved in the IL-1β signalling pathway in human myometrium are not known. This study sought to determine the role of the adaptor proteins myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) and transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in IL-1β-induced formation of pro-inflammatory and pro-labour mediators in human myometrium...
October 6, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980322/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-attenuates-calcification-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro
#12
Fangying Cao, Shaoping Wang, Xiangrong Cao, Xiaoxiao Liu, Kun Fu, Peng Hao, Jinghua Liu
OBJECTIVES: Vascular calcification is a dysfunction of the vasculature. Recent findings indicate that fibroblast growth factor21 (FGF21), a protector of the cardiovascular system, is related to the mineral deposition of bone and enhances the osteogenic activity of bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2. In this study, we explored whether FGF21 suppresses vascular calcification. METHODS: A calcifying model was established by culturing primary rat vascular aortic smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in a beta-glycerophosphate (BGP)-containing calcifying medium for 14 days...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977592/cftr-influences-beta-cell-function-and-insulin-secretion-through-non-cell-autonomous-exocrine-derived-factors
#13
Xingshen Sun, Yaling Yi, Weiliang Xie, Bo Liang, Michael C Winter, Nan He, Xiaoming Liu, Meihui Luo, Yu Yang, Katie Larson Ode, Aliye Uc, Andrew W Norris, John F Engelhardt
Although β-cell dysfunction in cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to diabetes, the mechanism by which the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel influences islet insulin secretion remains debated. We investigated the CFTR-dependent islet-autonomous mechanisms affecting insulin secretion by using islets isolated from CFTR knockout ferrets. Total insulin content was lower in CF as compared with wild-type (WT) islets. Furthermore, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was impaired in perifused neonatal CF islets, with reduced first, second, and amplifying phase secretion...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977001/microrna-30b-controls-endothelial-cell-capillary-morphogenesis-through-regulation-of-transforming-growth-factor-beta-2
#14
Grant A Howe, Kayla Kazda, Christina L Addison
The importance of microRNA (miRNA) to vascular biology is becoming increasingly evident; however, the function of a significant number of miRNA remains to be determined. In particular, the effect of growth factor regulation of miRNAs on endothelial cell morphogenesis is incomplete. Thus, we aimed to identify miRNAs regulated by pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and determine the effects of VEGF-regulated miRNAs and their targets on processes important for angiogenesis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were thus stimulated with VEGF and miRNA levels assessed using microarrays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973351/ah-receptor-activation-potentiates-neutrophil-chemoattractant-c-x-c-motif-ligand-5-expression-in-keratinocytes-and-skin
#15
Kayla J Smith, Jacob A Boyer, Gulsum E Muku, Iain A Murray, Krishne Gowda, Dhimant Desai, Shantu G Amin, Adam B Glick, Gary H Perdew
Chemokines are components of the skin microenvironment, which enable immune cell chemotaxis. Traditionally, transcription factors involved in inflammatory signaling (e.g. NFκB) are important mediators of chemokine expression. To what extent xenobiotics and their associated receptors control chemokine expression is poorly understood. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor known to mediate physiological responses in the skin through the regulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, epidermal differentiation, and immunity...
August 14, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973302/pseudoexfoliation-and-alzheimer-s-associated-clu-risk-variant-rs2279590-lies-within-an-enhancer-element-and-regulates-clu-ephx2-and-ptk2b-gene-expression
#16
Biswajit Padhy, Bushra Hayat, Gargi Gouranga Nanda, Pranjya Paramita Mohanty, Debasmita Pankaj Alone
Genetic variants at PTK2B-CLU locus pose as high risk factors for many age-related disorders. However, the role of these variants in disease progression is less characterized. In this study, we aimed to investigate the functional significance of a clusterin intronic SNP, rs2279590 that has been associated with pseudoexfoliation (PEX), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and diabetes. We have previously shown that the alleles at rs2279590 differentially regulate clusterin (CLU) gene expression in lens capsule tissues...
August 26, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970821/hpv8-e6-interferes-with-syntenin-2-expression-through-deregulation-of-differentiation-methylation-and-phosphatidylinositide-kinase-dependent-mechanisms
#17
Benjamin Marx, Daliborka Miller-Lazic, John Doorbar, Slawomir Majewski, Kay Hofmann, Martin Hufbauer, Baki Akgül
The E6 oncoproteins of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) of genus alpha contain a short peptide sequence at the carboxy-terminus, the PDZ binding domain, with which they interact with the corresponding PDZ domain of cellular proteins. Interestingly, E6 proteins from papillomaviruses of genus beta (betaPV) do not encode a comparable PDZ binding domain. Irrespective of this fact, we previously showed that the E6 protein of HPV8 (betaPV type) could circumvent this deficit by targeting the PDZ protein Syntenin-2 through transcriptional repression (Lazic et al...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967702/a-snp-uncoupling-mina-expression-from-the-tgf%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#18
Shang L Lian, Belgacem Mihi, Madoka Koyanagi, Toshinori Nakayama, Mark Bix
INTRODUCTION: Mina is a JmjC family 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase with pleiotropic roles in cell proliferation, cancer, T cell differentiation, pulmonary inflammation, and intestinal parasite expulsion. Although Mina expression varies according to cell-type, developmental stage and activation state, its transcriptional regulation is poorly understood. Across inbred mouse strains, Mina protein level exhibits a bimodal distribution, correlating with inheritance of a biallelic haplotype block comprising 21 promoter/intron 1-region SNPs...
October 2, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946872/suppression-of-adipocyte-differentiation-and-lipid-accumulation-by-stearidonic-acid-sda-in-3t3-l1-cells
#19
Yueru Li, Yinghui Rong, Lisui Bao, Ben Nie, Guang Ren, Chen Zheng, Rajesh Amin, Robert D Arnold, Ramesh B Jeganathan, Kevin W Huggins
BACKGROUND: Increased consumption of omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids found in cold-water fish and fish oil has been reported to protect against obesity. A potential mechanism may be through reduction in adipocyte differentiation. Stearidonic acid (SDA), a plant-based ω-3 fatty acid, has been targeted as a potential surrogate for fish-based fatty acids; however, its role in adipocyte differentiation is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of SDA on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells...
September 25, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943409/interleukin-1-%C3%AE-induced-smad2-3-linker-modifications-are-tak1-dependent-and-delay-tgf%C3%AE-signaling-in-primary-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#20
Guus G van den Akker, Henk M van Beuningen, Elly L Vitters, Marije I Koenders, Fons A van de Loo, Peter L van Lent, Esmeralda N Blaney Davidson, Peter M van der Kraan
BACKGROUND: Chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) requires transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling. TGFβ binds to the type I receptor activin-like kinase (ALK)5 and results in C-terminal SMAD2/3 phosphorylation (pSMAD2/3C). In turn pSMAD2/3C translocates to the nucleus and regulates target gene expression. Inflammatory mediators are known to exert an inhibitory effect on MSC differentiation. In this study we investigated the effect of interleukin 1 β (IL1β) on SMAD2/3 signaling dynamics and post-translational modifications...
September 21, 2017: Cellular Signalling
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