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Beta cells AND Transcription factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708594/hypoxia-favors-myosin-heavy-chain-beta-gene-expression-in-an-hif-1alpha-dependent-manner
#1
Lucia Binó, Jiřina Procházková, Katarzyna Anna Radaszkiewicz, Jan Kučera, Jana Kudová, Jiří Pacherník, Lukáš Kubala
The potentiation of the naturally limited regenerative capacity of the heart is dependent on an understanding of the mechanisms that are activated in response to pathological conditions such as hypoxia. Under these conditions, the expression of genes suggested to support cardiomyocyte survival and heart adaptation is triggered. Particularly important are changes in the expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. We propose here that alterations in the expression profiles of MHC genes are induced in response to hypoxia and are primarily mediated by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)...
July 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707661/-the-effects-of-interleukin-1-beta-and-gamma-quantum-braking-radiation-on-mesenchymal-progenitor-cells
#2
A E Bigildeev, E A Zezina, N J Drize
In murine bone-marrow stromal microenvironment cells and in human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MMSCs), proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) serves as a growth factor. In murine bone tissue, IL-1β expression increases in vivo after irradiation. Here, we have presented our evaluation of the effects of exogenous IL-1β on the expression of NF-kB transcription factors in human MMSCs and stromal layer cells of murine long-term bone marrow cultures (LTBMCs). The cytokine signaling pathway was also activated in murine LTBMC by braking electron radiation in doses of 3-12 Gy...
May 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701922/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-promotes-functional-improvement-associated-with-cntf-stat3-activation-after-hemi-sectioned-spinal-cord-injury-in-tree-shrews
#3
Liu-Lin Xiong, Fei Liu, Bing-Tuan Lu, Wen-Ling Zhao, Xiu-Juan Dong, Jia Liu, Rong-Ping Zhang, Piao Zhang, Ting-Hua Wang
Hemi-sectioned spinal cord injury (hSCI) can lead to spastic paralysis on the injured side, as well as flaccid paralysis on the contralateral side, which can negatively affect a patient's daily life. Stem-cell therapy may offer an effective treatment option for individuals with hSCI. To examine the role of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation on hSCI and explore related mechanisms in the tree shrews, here, we created a model of hSCI by inducing injury at the tenth thoracic vertebra (T10)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701588/igfbp2-plays-an-important-role-in-heat-shock-protein-27-mediated-cancer-progression-and-metastasis
#4
Chin-Sheng Hung, Chien-Yu Huang, Chia-Hwa Lee, Wei-Yu Chen, Ming-Te Huang, Po-Li Wei, Yu-Jia Chang
Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a key chaperone that interacts with over 200 client proteins. The expression of Hsp27 might be correlated with poor outcome in many types of cancer. Previous study indicated that Hsp27 might be an important biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the detailed mechanism is less well understood. The shRNA-mediated silencing of Hsp27 decreased the proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cells. In a xenograft model, the silencing of Hsp27 reduced tumor progression...
July 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701182/do-we-really-need-to-differentiate-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-insulin-producing-cells-for-attenuation-of-the-autoimmune-responses-in-type-1-diabetes-immunoprophylactic-effects-of-precursors-to-insulin-producing-cells
#5
Anshu Sharma, Rajni Rani
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a multifactorial autoimmune disorder where pancreatic beta cells are lost before the clinical manifestations of the disease. Administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or MSCs differentiated into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) have yielded limited success when used therapeutically. We have evaluated the immunoprophylactic potentials of precursors to insulin-producing cells (pIPCs) and IPCs in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice to ask a basic question: do we need to differentiate MSCs into IPCs or will pIPCs suffice to attenuate autoimmune responses in T1D? METHODS: Bone marrow-derived MSCs from Balb/c mice were characterized following the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) guidelines...
July 12, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675108/radiation-induced-epstein-barr-virus-reactivation-in-gastric-cancer-cells-with-latent-ebv-infection
#6
Athira Nandakumar, Futoshi Uwatoko, Megumi Yamamoto, Kazuo Tomita, Hideyuki J Majima, Suminori Akiba, Chihaya Koriyama
Epstein-Barr virus, a ubiquitous human herpes virus with oncogenic activity, can be found in 6%-16% of gastric carcinomas worldwide. In Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma, only a few latent genes of the virus are expressed. Ionizing irradiation was shown to induce lytic Epstein-Barr virus infection in lymphoblastoid cell lines with latent Epstein-Barr virus infection. In this study, we examined the effect of ionizing radiation on the Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in a gastric epithelial cancer cell line (SNU-719, an Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma cell line)...
July 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674449/dexamethasone-induced-inhibition-of-dectin-1-activation-of-antigen-presenting-cells-is-mediated-via-stat-3-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#7
Philipp Kotthoff, Annkristin Heine, Stefanie Andrea Erika Held, Peter Brossart
Treatment of patients with glucocorticoids can result in an increased risk of infection with pathogens such as fungi. Dectin-1 is a member of the C-type lectin receptor superfamily and was shown to be one of the major receptors for fungal beta-glucans. Activation of Dectin-1 increases the production of cytokines and chemokines and T-cell stimulatory capacity of DC and mediates resolution of fungal infections. Here we show that antigen-presenting cells generated in the presence of dexamethasone (Dex-DC) have a reduced capacity to stimulate T-cell proliferation and decreased expression of costimulatory molecules, that can not be enhanced upon stimulation with Dectin-1 ligands...
July 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672957/involvement-of-receptor-interacting-protein-140-in-palmitate-stimulated-macrophage-infiltration-of-pancreatic-beta-cells
#8
Runmei Zou, Junli Xue, Qi Huang, Zhe Dai, Yancheng Xu
Receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) in macrophages stimulates the nuclear factor-κB subunit RelA to activate tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 transcription. However, under lipotoxic conditions, the involvement of RIP140 in the infiltration of beta cells by macrophages remains unknown. In the present study, murine RAW264.7 macrophages were transfected with a RIP140 overexpression plasmid or siRNA prior to macrophage activation with 500 µM palmitate. Palmitate-free conditioned media was then collected and added to murine insulinoma MIN6 cells...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671055/silencing-of-long-non-coding-rna-ccat2-depressed-malignancy-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#9
Yuji Ma, Xuanhao Hu, Chao Shang, Ming Zhong, Yan Guo
Oral squamous cell carcinoma is a common and lethal malignancy affecting the head and neck region. CCAT2 (colon cancer-associated transcript 2) gene is affiliated with long non-coding RNAs, which are often found to have important regulatory roles in cancers. This study aims to assess the expression and clinical significance of CCAT2 gene, identify its malignant biological behaviors, and explore the possible mechanisms in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CCAT2 expression was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and its relationship with clinical factors was assayed using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve...
July 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669856/topoisomerase-ii%C3%AE-and-its-role-in-different-biological-contexts
#10
REVIEW
V Satish Bollimpelli, Pankaj S Dholaniya, Anand K Kondapi
Topoisomerase IIβ is a type II DNA topoisomerase that was reported to be expressed in all mammalian cells but abundantly expressed in cells that have undergone terminal differentiation to attain a post mitotic state. Enzymatically it catalyzes ATP-dependent topological changes of double stranded DNA, while as a protein it was reported to be associated with several factors in promoting cell growth, migration, DNA repair and transcription regulation. The cellular roles of topoisomerase IIβ are very less understood compared to its counterpart topoisomerase IIα...
June 29, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668950/histamine-induces-bovine-rumen-epithelial-cell-inflammatory-response-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#11
Xudong Sun, Xue Yuan, Liang Chen, Tingting Wang, Zhe Wang, Guoquan Sun, Xiaobing Li, Xinwei Li, Guowen Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a common disease in high-producing lactating cows. Rumenitis is the initial insult of SARA and is associated with the high concentrations of histamine produced in the rumen of dairy cows during SARA. However, the exact mechanism remains unclear. The objective of the current study is to investigate whether histamine induces inflammation of rumen epithelial cells and the underlying mechanism of this process. METHODS: Bovine rumen epithelial cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations of histamine and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-κB inhibitor) cultured in different pH medium (pH 7...
June 30, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664403/rage-specific-inhibitor-fps-zm1-attenuates-ages-induced-neuroinflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-rat-primary-microglia
#12
Chao Shen, Yingjuan Ma, Ziling Zeng, Qingqing Yin, Yan Hong, Xunyao Hou, Xueping Liu
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) enhance microglial activation and intensify the inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the brain. This process may occur due to direct cytotoxicity or interacting with AGEs receptors (RAGE), which are expressed on the surface of microglia. FPS-ZM1 is a high-affinity but nontoxic RAGE-specific inhibitor that has been recently shown to attenuate the Aβ-induced inflammatory response by blocking the ligation of Aβ to RAGE. In this study, we further investigated the effect of FPS-ZM1 on the AGEs/RAGE interaction and downstream elevation of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in primary microglia cells...
June 29, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659883/transcriptional-alterations-of-virulence-associated-genes-in-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-esbl-producing-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-during-morphologic-transitions-induced-by-ineffective-antibiotics
#13
Isak Demirel, Ignacio Rangel, Ulrika Petersson, Katarina Persson, Robert Kruse
It is known that an ineffective antibiotic treatment can induce morphological shifts in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) but the virulence properties during these shifts remain to be studied. The present study examines changes in global gene expression patterns and in virulence factor-associated genes in an extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing UPEC (ESBL019) during the morphologic transitions induced by an ineffective antibiotic and in the presence of human primary bladder epithelial cells...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642153/characterization-of-the-differential-coregulator-binding-signatures-of-the-retinoic-acid-receptor-subtypes-upon-ant-agonist-action
#14
Ignacio Miro Estruch, Diana Melchers, René Houtman, Laura H J de Haan, John P Groten, Jochem Louisse, Ivonne M C M Rietjens
Retinoic Acid Receptor alpha (RARα/NR1B1), Retinoic Acid Receptor beta (RARβ/NR1B2) and Retinoic Acid Receptor gamma (RARγ/NR1B3) are transcription factors regulating gene expression in response to retinoids. Within the RAR genomic pathways, binding of RARs to coregulators is a key intermediate regulatory phase. However, ligand-dependent interactions between the wide variety of coregulators that may be present in a cell and the different RAR subtypes are largely unknown. The aim of this study is to characterize the coregulator binding profiles of RARs in the presence of the pan-agonist all-trans-Retinoic Acid (AtRA); the subtype-selective agonists Am80 (RARα), CD2314 (RARβ) and BMS961 (RARγ); and the antagonist Ro415253...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642128/immunomodulation-of-parkinson-s-disease-using-mucuna-pruriens-mp
#15
REVIEW
Sachchida Nand Rai, Hareram Birla, Walia Zahra, Saumitra Sen Singh, Surya Pratap Singh
Immune control is associated with nigrostriatal neuroprotection for Parkinson's disease (PD); though its direct cause and effect relationships have not yet been realized and modulating the immune system for therapeutic gain has been openly discussed. While the pathobiology of PD remains in study, neuroinflammation is thought to speed nigrostriatal degeneration. The neuroinflammatory cascade associated with PD begins with aggregation of misfolded or post-translationally modified α-synuclein (α-syn). Such aggregation results in neuronal cell death and the presence of chronically activated glia (microglia and astroglia), leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and enzymes such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641522/advances-on-ppar%C3%AE-research-in-the-emerging-era-of-precision-medicine
#16
Pinyi Lu, Zhongming Zhao
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that functions as a ligand-inducible transcription factor. It regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, immunity, and cellular growth and differentiation. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are potent insulin sensitizers that function by activating PPARs, with a high specificity for PPARγ. Due to their ability to preserve pancreatic beta cell function and reduce insulin resistance, TZDs have become one of the most prescribed classes of medications for type 2 diabetes (T2D) since their approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and initial use in 1997...
June 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640877/identification-of-c-ebp%C3%AE-as-a-novel-target-of-the-hpv8-e6-protein-regulating-mir-203-in-human-keratinocytes
#17
Anna M Marthaler, Marta Podgorska, Pascal Feld, Alina Fingerle, Katrin Knerr-Rupp, Friedrich Grässer, Hans Smola, Klaus Roemer, Elke Ebert, Yoo-Jin Kim, Rainer M Bohle, Cornelia S L Müller, Jörg Reichrath, Thomas Vogt, Magdalena Malejczyk, Sławomir Majewski, Sigrun Smola
Patients suffering from Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), a rare inherited skin disease, display a particular susceptibility to persistent infection with cutaneous genus beta-human papillomavirus (beta-HPV), such as HPV type 8. They have a high risk to develop non-melanoma skin cancer at sun-exposed sites. In various models evidence is emerging that cutaneous HPV E6 proteins disturb epidermal homeostasis and support carcinogenesis, however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood as yet. In this study we demonstrate that microRNA-203 (miR-203), a key regulator of epidermal proliferation and differentiation, is strongly down-regulated in HPV8-positive EV-lesions...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628637/survival-bacterial-clearance-and-thrombocytopenia-are-improved-in-polymicrobial-sepsis-by-targeting-nuclear-transport-shuttles
#18
Ruth Ann Veach, Yan Liu, Jozef Zienkiewicz, Lukasz S Wylezinski, Kelli L Boyd, James L Wynn, Jacek Hawiger
The rising tide of sepsis, a leading cause of death in the US and globally, is not adequately controlled by current antimicrobial therapies and supportive measures, thereby requiring new adjunctive treatments. Severe microvascular injury and multiple organ failure in sepsis are attributed to a "genomic storm" resulting from changes in microbial and host genomes encoding virulence factors and endogenous inflammatory mediators, respectively. This storm is mediated by stress-responsive transcription factors that are ferried to the nucleus by nuclear transport shuttles importins/karyopherins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612959/early-life-decline-in-neurogenesis-markers-and-age-related-changes-of-trkb-splice-variant-expression-in-the-human-subependymal-zone
#19
Christin Weissleder, Mari A Kondo, Chunhui Yang, Samantha J Fung, Debora A Rothmond, Matthew W Wong, Glenda M Halliday, Mary M Herman, Joel E Kleinman, Maree J Webster, Cynthia Shannon Weickert
Neurogenesis in the subependymal zone (SEZ) declines across the human lifespan, and reduced local neurotrophic support is speculated to be a contributing factor. While tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) signalling is critical for neuronal differentiation, maturation and survival, little is known about subependymal TrkB expression changes during postnatal human life. In this study, we used quantitative PCR and in situ hybridisation to determine expression of the cell proliferation marker Ki67, the immature neuron marker doublecortin (DCX) and both full-length (TrkB-TK+) and truncated TrkB receptors (TrkB-TK-) in the human SEZ from infancy to middle age (n = 26-35, 41 days to 43 years)...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606512/heme-oxygenase-1-mediates-anti-adipogenesis-effect-of-raspberry-ketone-in-3t3-l1-cells
#20
Yung-Chieh Tsai, Bo-Cheng Yang, Wen-Huang Peng, Yen-Mei Lee, Mao-Hsiung Yen, Pao-Yun Cheng
BACKGROUND: Obesity is caused by excessive accumulation of body fat and is closely related to complex metabolic diseases. Raspberry ketone (RK), a major aromatic compound in red raspberry, was recently reported to possess anti-obesity effects. However, its mechanisms are unclear. AIM: Adipogenesis plays a critical role in obesity and, therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanisms of action of RK on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated in medium containing insulin, dexamethasone, and 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine...
July 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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