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Joo-Hung Park, Jeong-Min Lee, Eun-Jin Lee, Won-Bhin Hwang, Da-Jeong Kim
Using an in vitro model of intestinal organoids derived from intestinal crypts, we examined effects of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a phytochemical that has anticancer and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-activating abilities and thus is sold as a dietary supplement, on the development of intestinal organoids and investigated the underlying mechanisms. I3C inhibited the in vitro development of mouse intestinal organoids. Addition of α-naphthoflavone, an AhR antagonist or AhR siRNA transfection, suppressed I3C function, suggesting that I3C-mediated interference with organoid development is AhR-dependent...
March 21, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Pratishtha Gupta, Rupa Rani, Avantika Chandra, Vipin Kumar
Contamination of agricultural soil with heavy metals has become a serious concern worldwide. In the present study, Cr6+ resistant plant growth promoting Pseudomonas sp. (strain CPSB21) was isolated from the tannery effluent contaminated agricultural soils and evaluated for the plant growth promoting activities, oxidative stress tolerance, and Cr6+ bioremediation. Assessment of different plant growth promotion traits, such as phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid production, siderophores, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide production, revealed that the strain CPSB21 served as an efficient plant growth promoter under laboratory conditions...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kateryna Zhalnina, Katherine B Louie, Zhao Hao, Nasim Mansoori, Ulisses Nunes da Rocha, Shengjing Shi, Heejung Cho, Ulas Karaoz, Dominique Loqué, Benjamin P Bowen, Mary K Firestone, Trent R Northen, Eoin L Brodie
Like all higher organisms, plants have evolved in the context of a microbial world, shaping both their evolution and their contemporary ecology. Interactions between plant roots and soil microorganisms are critical for plant fitness in natural environments. Given this co-evolution and the pivotal importance of plant-microbial interactions, it has been hypothesized, and a growing body of literature suggests, that plants may regulate the composition of their rhizosphere to promote the growth of microorganisms that improve plant fitness in a given ecosystem...
March 19, 2018: Nature Microbiology
R N Prasad Tulichala, Mallepalli Shankar, K C Kumara Swamy
Palladium-catalyzed ortho-amidation of indole-3-carboxylic acids with isothiocyanates by using the deciduous directing group nature of carboxyl functionality to afford indole-2-amides is demonstrated. Both C-H functionalization and decarboxylation took place in a one pot and hence this carboxyl group served as a unique, deciduous (or traceless) directing group. This reaction offers a broad substrate scope as demonstrated for several other heterocyclic carboxylic acids like chromene-3-carboxylic acid, imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-2-carboxylic acid, benzofuran-2-carboxylic acid, pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid and thiophene-2-carboxylic acid...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Arun Karnwal, Aradhana Dohroo
Background : It is assumed that plant growth regulators produced by beneficial bacterial species could also influence plant growth. IAA is a major plant growth regulator responsible for stimulation of plant growth. There are several microorganisms which are naturally responsible for L- tryptophan metabolism. Methods : In total, 56 indigenous morphologically distinct isolates from rice roots were selected and subsequently characterized with biochemical tests, 16S rRNA sequencing and plant growth promoting activities...
2018: F1000Research
Penta Ashok, Subhash Chander, Terry K Smith, Murugesan Sankaranarayanan
Molecular hybridization is a ligand based drug design approach is well known recent medicinal chemistry to design anti-parasitic agents. In the present study, we have designed a series of (1-phenyl-9H-pyrido [3,4-b]indol-3-yl) (4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)methanone derivatives using molecular hybridization approach. Designed analogues were evaluated for cytotoxicity and inhibition activity against Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani. Among these reported analogues 7b, 7d, 7e, 7f and 7m displayed potent inhibition of both L...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Pu Liu, Chao Zhang, Jin-Qi Ma, Li-Yuan Zhang, Bo Yang, Xin-Yu Tang, Ling Huang, Xin-Tong Zhou, Kun Lu, Jia-Na Li
Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenases (CKXs) play a critical role in the irreversible degradation of cytokinins, thereby regulating plant growth and development. Brassica napus is one of the most widely cultivated oilseed crops worldwide. With the completion of whole-genome sequencing of B. napus , genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the BnCKX gene family has become technically feasible. In this study, we identified 23 BnCKX genes and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, conserved motifs, protein subcellular localizations, and other properties...
March 16, 2018: Genes
Antonio J Fernández-González, Ana V Lasa, Manuel Fernández-López
We report here the draft genome sequences of two Arthrobacter strains isolated from a holm oak forest affected by wildfire. Both strains were shown to act as plant growth promoters, with AFG20 being a member of the most abundant group found in this soil and AFG7.2 being the strain with the highest indole-3-acetic acid production level.
March 15, 2018: Genome Announcements
Fanxing Zeng, Jonathon A Nye, Ronald J Voll, Leonard Howell, Mark M Goodman
Nine pyridyloxypyridyl indole carboxamides were synthesized and displayed high affinities for 5-HT2C receptors and high selectivity over 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B . Among them, 6-methyl- N -[6-[(2-methyl-3-pyridinyl)oxy]-3-pyridinyl]1 H -indole-3-carboxamide ( 8 ) exhibits the highest 5-HT2C binding affinity ( K i = 1.3 nM) and high selectivity over 5-HT2A (∼1000 times) and 5-HT2B (∼140 times). [11 C] 8 was synthesized by palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction between pinacolboranate 16 and [11 C]CH3 I with an average radiochemical yield of 27 ± 4% ( n = 8, decay-corrected from end of [11 C]CH3 I synthesis)...
March 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Alessio Cimmino, Paola Nocera, Benedetto Teodoro Linaldeddu, Marco Masi, Marcin Gorecki, Gennaro Pescitelli, Lucio Montecchio, Lucia Maddau, Antonio Evidente
From the culture filtrates of Diaporthella cryptica, an emerging hazelnut pathogen, 2-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoate methyl ester and its 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) and 3-(1H-indol-3-yl) analogues, named crypticins A-C, were isolated together with the well-known tyrosol. Crypticins A-C were identified by spectroscopic (essentially NMR and HRESI MS) methods. The R absolute configuration (AC) of crypticin A was determined comparing its optical rotation power and ECD spectrum with those of papuline, the methyl ester of (-)(S)-phenyllactic acid isolated as the main phytotoxin of Pseudomonas syringae pv papulans, responsible for apple blister spot...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Zhi Ran, Cheng Chen, Fabo Chen, Ming'an Liao, Lijin Lin, Xiulan Lv, Qunxian Deng, Xun Wang, Jin Wang, Yi Tang, Huaxiong Li
Plant hormones can improve the phytoremediation capabilities of heavy metal hyperaccumulator plants. In this study, different doses of indole-3-butytric acid (IBA) were sprayed on the leaves of the lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) accumulator plant Pseudostellaria maximowicziana, which was planted in Pb-Zn contaminated soil, and the effects of IBA on Pb and Zn accumulation levels in P. maximowicziana were studied. Spraying 25- and 50-mg/L IBA doses increased the stem, leaf and shoot biomasses of P. maximowicziana compared with the control, while 75- and 100-mg/L IBA doses decreased them...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Jia Fang, Peng Nan, Zongying Gu, Xiaochun Ge, Yu-Qi Feng, Bao-Rong Lu
Transgenic glyphosate-tolerant plants overproducing EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) may exhibit enhanced fitness in glyphosate-free environments. If so, introgression of transgenes overexpressing EPSPS into wild relative species may lead to increased competitiveness of crop-wild hybrids, resulting in unpredicted environmental impact. Assessing fitness effects of transgenes overexpressing EPSPS in a model plant species can help address this question, while elucidating how overproducing EPSPS affects the fitness-related traits of plants...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Esam A Orabi, Ann M English
S-aromatic motifs are important noncovalent forces for protein stability and function but remain poorly understood. Hence, we performed quantum calculations at the MP2(full)/6-311++G(d,p) level on complexes between Cys (H2 S, MeSH) and Met (Me2 S) models with models of Phe (benzene, toluene), Trp (indole, 3-methylindole), Tyr (phenol, 4-methylphenol) and His (imidazole, 4-methylimidazole). The most stable gas-phase conformers exhibit binding energies of -2 to -6 kcal/mol and the S atom lies perpendicular to the ring plane...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Emmanuel Ampofo, Beate M Schmitt, Michael M Menger, Matthias W Laschke
The pharmacological targeting of microcirculatory dysregulations is a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of numerous pathological conditions, such as cancer, thrombosis and inflammation. A promising candidate for this purpose is indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a phytochemical compound of cruciferous vegetables. As summarized in this review, I3C affects multiple molecular and cellular processes within the microcirculation due to its pleiotropic action profile. These include angiogenesis, leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction, cytokine and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, thrombus formation and microvascular leakage...
March 12, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Caixia Zhang, Guangyan Li, Tingting Chen, Baohua Feng, Weimeng Fu, Jinxiang Yan, Mohammad Rezaul Islam, Qianyu Jin, Longxing Tao, Guanfu Fu
BACKGROUND: Pollen tube elongation in the pistil is a key step for pollination success in plants, and auxins play an important role in this process. However, the function of auxins in pollen tube elongation in the pistil of rice under heat stress has seldom been previously reported. RESULTS: Two rice genotypes differing in heat tolerance were subjected to heat stress of 40 °C for 2 h after flowering. A sharp decrease in spikelet fertility was found in the Nipponbare (NPB) and its mutant High temperature susceptible (HTS) under heat stress, but the stress-induced spikelet sterility was reversed by 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), especially the HTS...
March 12, 2018: Rice
Sherry LeClere, Chenxi Wu, Philip Westra, R Douglas Sammons
The understanding and mitigation of the appearance of herbicide-resistant weeds have come to the forefront of study in the past decade, as the number of weed species that are resistant to one or more herbicide modes of action is on the increase. Historically, weed resistance to auxin herbicides has been rare, but examples, such as Kochia scoparia L. Schrad (kochia), have appeared, posing a challenge to conventional agricultural practices. Reports of dicamba-resistant kochia populations began in the early 1990s in areas where auxin herbicides were heavily utilized for weed control in corn and wheat cropping systems, and some biotypes are resistant to other auxin herbicides as well...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Branka D Živanović, Kristian K Ullrich, Bianka Steffens, Sladjana Z Spasić, Paul Galland
The roles of fungal auxins in the regulation of elongation growth, photo-, and gravitropism are completely unknown. We analyzed the effects of exogenous IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), various synthetic auxins including 1-NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid) and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and the auxin transport inhibitor NPA (N-1-naphtylphtalamic acid) on the growth rate and bending of the unicellular sporangiophore of the zygomycete fungus, Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Sporangiophores that were submerged in an aqueous buffer responded to IAA with a sustained enhancement of the growth rate, while 1-NAA, 2,4-D, and NPA elicited an inhibition...
March 9, 2018: Protoplasma
Shimpei Watanabe, Unnikrishnan Kuzhiumparambil, Shanlin Fu
The number of new psychoactive substances keeps on rising despite the controlling efforts by law enforcement. Although metabolism of the newly emerging drugs is continuously studied to keep up with the new additions, the exact structures of the metabolites are often not identified due to the insufficient sample quantities for techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The aim of the study was to characterise several metabolites of the synthetic cannabinoid (1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl) (2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl) methanone (UR-144) by NMR spectroscopy after the incubation with the fungus Cunninghamella elegans...
March 8, 2018: AAPS Journal
Javid A Parray, Azra N Kamili, Sumira Jan, Mohammad Yaseen Mir, Nowsheen Shameem, Bashir A Ganai, Elsayed Fathi Abd Allah, Abeer Hashem, Abdulaziz A Alqarawi
Arnebia benthamii of the family Boraginaceae is a critically endangered nonendemic plant of the Kashmir Himalayas and is used to treat a number of human diseases. The current study was based on developing an in vitro micropropagation protocol vis-à-vis induction of various secondary metabolites under in vitro conditions for the possible biological activity. A tissue culture protocol was developed for A. benthamii for the first time in the Himalayan region using varied combinations and proper media formulations, including various adjuvants: Murashige and Skoog (MS) media, growth hormones, sugars, agar, and so forth...
2018: BioMed Research International
Aleš Pencík, Rubén Casanova-Sáez, Veronika Pilarová, Asta Žukauskaite, Rui Pinto, José Luis Micol, Karin Ljung, Ondrej Novák
Auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) plays fundamental roles as a signalling molecule during numerous plant growth and development processes. The formation of local auxin gradients and auxin maxima/minima, which is very important for these processes, is regulated by auxin metabolism (biosynthesis, degradation and conjugation) as well as transport. When studying auxin metabolism pathways it is crucial to combine data obtained from genetic investigations with the identification and quantification of individual metabolites...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
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