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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107827/telomeres-and-telomerase
#1
EDITORIAL
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106046/obp-401-gfp-telomerase-dependent-adenovirus-illuminates-and-kills-high-metastatic-more-effectively-than-low-metastatic-triple-negative-breast-cancer-in-vitro
#2
S Yano, K Takehara, H Kishimoto, H Tazawa, Y Urata, S Kagawa, M Bouvet, T Fujiwara, R M Hoffman
We previously described the development of a highly-invasive, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) variant using serial orthotopic implantation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer in nude mice. The isolated variant is highly invasive in the mammary gland and metastasized to lymph nodes in 10 of 12 mice compared with 2 of 12 of the parental cell line. OBP-401 is a telomerase-dependent cancer-specific, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing adenovirus. OBP-401 was used to infect parental MDA-MB-231P cells and high-metastatic MDA-MB-231H and MDA-MB-231HLN isolated from a lymph node metastasis and MDA-MB-231HLM isolated from a lung metastasis...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105179/change-in-number-and-size-of-circulating-tumor-cells-with-high-telomerase-activity-during-treatment-of-patients-with-gastric-cancer
#3
Hiroaki Ito, Noriko Yamaguchi, Manabu Onimaru, Satoshi Kimura, Tohru Ohmori, Fumihiro Ishikawa, Jun Sato, Shun Ito, Haruhiro Inoue
Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood is useful for estimating the prognosis of patients with cancer. We previously reported the detection of CTCs by OBP-401, a telomerase-specific, replication-selective, oncolytic adenoviral agent carrying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. We demonstrated that the number of large (L)-GFP+ cells (≥7.735 µm in diameter) in peripheral blood samples correlated significantly with the prognosis of treatment-naïve gastric cancer patients, whereas the number of small (S)-GFP+ cells (<7...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099140/telomerase-antagonist-imetelstat-increases-radiation-sensitivity-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#4
Xuping Wu, Jing Zhang, Sijun Yang, Zhihui Kuang, Guolei Tan, Gang Yang, Qichun Wei, Zhigang Guo
The morbidity and mortality of esophageal cancer is one of the highest around the world and the principal therapeutic method is radiation. Thus, searching for sensitizers with lower toxicity and higher efficiency to improve the efficacy of radiation therapy is critical essential. Our research group has previously reported that imetelstat, the thio-phosphoramidate oligonucleotide inhibitor of telomerase, can decrease cell proliferation and colony formation ability as well as increase DNA breaks induced by radiation in esophageal cancer cells...
January 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098222/dose-dependency-and-reversibility-of-radiation-induced-injury-in-cardiac-explant-derived-cells-of-mice
#5
Lan Luo, Chen Yan, Yoshishige Urata, Al Shaimaa Hasan, Shinji Goto, Chang-Ying Guo, Shouhua Zhang, Tao-Sheng Li
We evaluated the dose-dependency and reversibility of radiation-induced injury in cardiac explant-derived cells (CDCs), a mixed cell population grown from heart tissues. Adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 0, 10, 50 and 250 mGy γ-rays for 7 days and atrial tissues were collected for experiments 24 hours after last exposure. The number of CDCs was significantly decreased by daily exposure to over 250 mGy. Interestingly, daily exposure to over 50 mGy significantly decreased the c-kit expression and telomerase activity, increased 53BP1 foci in the nuclei of CDCs...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096444/single-molecule-fret-rosetta-reveals-rna-structural-rearrangements-during-human-telomerase-catalysis
#6
Joseph W Parks, Kalli Kappel, Rhiju Das, Michael D Stone
Maintenance of telomeres by telomerase permits continuous proliferation of rapidly dividing cells, including the majority of human cancers. Despite its direct biomedical significance, the architecture of the human telomerase complex remains unknown. Generating homogeneous telomerase samples has presented a significant barrier to developing improved structural models. Here we pair single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) measurements with Rosetta modeling to map the conformations of the essential telomerase RNA core domain within the active ribonucleoprotein...
February 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095296/diverse-role-of-survival-motor-neuron-protein
#7
REVIEW
Ravindra N Singh, Matthew D Howell, Eric W Ottesen, Natalia N Singh
The multifunctional Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein is required for the survival of all organisms of the animal kingdom. SMN impacts various aspects of RNA metabolism through the formation and/or interaction with ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. SMN regulates biogenesis of small nuclear RNPs, small nucleolar RNPs, small Cajal body-associated RNPs, signal recognition particles and telomerase. SMN also plays an important role in DNA repair, transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, histone mRNA processing, translation, selenoprotein synthesis, macromolecular trafficking, stress granule formation, cell signaling and cytoskeleton maintenance...
January 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093175/re-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus-induced-erectile-dysfunction-using-endothelial-progenitor-cells-genetically-modified-with-human-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase
#8
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092835/effects-of-the-central-potassium-ions-on-the-g-quadruplex-and-stabilizer-binding
#9
Zhiguo Wang, Jun-Ping Liu
Human telomeres undertake the structure of intra-molecular parallel G-quadruplex in the presence of K(+) in eukaryotic cell. Stabilization of the telomere G-quadruplex represents a potential strategy to prevent telomere lengthening by telomerase in cancer therapy. Current work demonstrates that the binding of central K(+) with the parallel G-quadruplex is a coordinated water directed step-wise process. The K(+) above the top G-tetrad is prone to leak into environment and the 5'-adenine quickly flips over the top G-tetrad, leading to the bottom gate of G-tetrads as the only viable pathway of K(+) binding...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076340/telomere-length-assessment-for-prediction-of-organ-transplantation-outcome-future-or-failure-a-review-of-the-literature
#10
Karolina Kłoda, Leszek Domański, Artur Mierzecki
Telomeres are located at each end of eukaryotic chromosomes. Their functional role is genomic stability maintenance. The protective role of telomeres depends on various factors, including number of nucleotides repeats, telomere-binding proteins, and telomerase activity. Organ transplantation is the preferred replacement therapy in the case of chronic kidney disease and the only possibility of sustaining recipients' life in the case of advanced liver failure. While the prevalence of acute rejection is constantly decreasing, prevention of transplanted organ long-term function loss is still challenging...
January 11, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075429/telomerase-specific-oncolytic-adenovirus-expressing-trail-suppresses-peritoneal-dissemination-of-gastric-cancer
#11
W Zhou, S Dai, H Zhu, Z Song, Z Han, Y Cai, J B Lee, Z Li, X Hu, B Fang, C He, X Huang
Peritoneal dissemination is the most common condition of metastasis in gastric cancer. The survival duration of a patient with advanced stage gastric cancer, may be improved by gene therapy. In this study, we used an oncolytic adenovirus vector (Ad/TRAIL-E1) that expresses both the TRAIL and E1A genes under the control of a tumor-specific promoter. We evaluated the anti-tumor effect of Ad/TRAIL-E1 on gastric cancer cells in vitro, as well as in vivo in a xenograft peritoneal carcinomatosis mouse model. Our data showed that Ad/TRAIL-E1 induced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in gastric cancer cell lines, but not in the normal cell lines...
January 11, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070015/inhaled-resveratrol-treatments-slow-ageing-related-degenerative-changes-in-mouse-lung
#12
Barbara Driscoll, Sonia Navarro, Raghava Reddy, Jooeun Lee, David Warburton
BACKGROUND: Lung ageing, a significant risk factor for chronic human lung diseases such as COPD and emphysema, is characterised by airspace enlargement and decreasing lung function. Likewise, in prematurely ageing telomerase null (terc-/-) mice, p53 stabilisation within diminishing numbers of alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AEC2) accompanies reduced lung function. Resveratrol (RSL) is a plant phytoalexin that has previously showed efficacy in enhancing invertebrate longevity and supporting mammalian muscle metabolism when delivered orally...
January 9, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064387/the-role-of-histone-modifications-and-telomere-alterations-in-the-pathogenesis-of-diffuse-gliomas-in-adults-and-children
#13
REVIEW
Julieann Lee, D A Solomon, Tarik Tihan
Genetic profiling is an increasingly useful tool for sub-classification of gliomas in adults and children. Specific gene mutations, structural rearrangements, DNA methylation patterns, and gene expression profiles are now recognized to define molecular subgroups of gliomas that arise in distinct anatomic locations and patient age groups, and also provide a better prediction of clinical outcomes for glioma patients compared to histologic assessment alone. Understanding the role of these distinctive genetic alterations in gliomagenesis is also important for the development of potential targeted therapeutic interventions...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063233/establishment-of-a-new-conditionally-immortalized-human-skeletal-muscle-microvascular-endothelial-cell-line
#14
Hironori Sano, Yasuteru Sano, Eri Ishiguchi, Fumitaka Shimizu, Masatoshi Omoto, Toshihiko Maeda, Hideaki Nishihara, Yukio Takeshita, Shiori Takahashi, Mariko Oishi, Takashi Kanda
In skeletal muscle, the capillaries have tight junctions (TJs) that are structurally similar to those in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-nerve barrier (BNB). Although many findings have been clarified in the territory of BBB and BNB, few have so far examined the TJs of capillaries in the skeletal muscle. In addition, no in vitro human skeletal muscle microvasculature models have been reported thus far. We newly established a new human skeletal muscle microvascular endothelial cell (HSMMEC) line. HSMMECs were isolated from human skeletal muscle and were infected with retroviruses harboring temperature-sensitive SV40 T antigen and telomerase genes...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057768/tert-biology-and-function-in-cancer-beyond-immortalization
#15
Ana Pestana, João Vinagre, M Sobrinho-Simões, P Soares
Evasion of replicative senescence and proliferation without restriction, sometimes designated as immortalization, is one of cancer hallmarks that may be attained through reactivation of telomerase in somatic cells. In contrast to most normal cells in which there is lack of telomerase activity, upregulation of TERT transcription/activity is detected in 80 to 90% of malignant tumours. In several types of cancer there is a relationship between the presence of TERTp mutations, TERT mRNA expression and clinico-pathological features but the biological bridge between the occurrence of TERTp mutations and the aggressive/invasive features displayed by the tumours remains unidentified...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056029/hcv-induces-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-increases-its-catalytic-activity-and-promotes-caspase-degradation-in-infected-human-hepatocytes
#16
Zhaowen Zhu, Huy Tran, M Meleah Mathahs, Thomas O Moninger, Warren N Schmidt
INTRODUCTION: Telomerase repairs the telomeric ends of chromosomes and is active in nearly all malignant cells. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is known to be oncogenic and potential interactions with the telomerase system require further study. We determined the effects of HCV infection on human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression and enzyme activity in primary human hepatocytes and continuous cell lines. RESULTS: Primary human hepatocytes and Huh-7.5 hepatoma cells showed early de novo TERT protein expression 2-4 days after infection and these events coincided with increased TERT promoter activation, TERT mRNA, and telomerase activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055296/eradication-of-melanoma-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-via-targeting-with-a-killer-red-containing-telomerase-dependent-adenovirus
#17
Kiyoto Takehara, Shuya Yano, Hiroshi Tazawa, Hiroyuki Kishimoto, Nobuhiro Narii, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi, Yasuo Urata, Shunsuke Kagawa, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara, Robert M Hoffman
Melanoma is a highly recalcitrant cancer and transformative therapy is necessary for the cure of this disease. We recently developed a telomerase-dependent adenovirus containing the fluorescent protein Killer-Red. In the present report, we first determined the efficacy of Killer-Red adenovirus combined with laser irradiation on human melanoma cell lines in vitro. Cell viability of human melanoma cells was reduced in a dose-dependent and irradiation time-dependent manner. We used an intradermal xenografted melanoma model in nude mice to determine efficacy of the Killer-Red adenovirus...
January 5, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054503/inhibition-of-telomerase-using-bibr1532-enhances-doxorubicin-induced-apoptosis-in-pre-b-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-cells
#18
Davood Bashash, Mohadeseh Zareii, Ava Safaroghli-Azar, Mir Davood Omrani, Seyed H Ghaffari
OBJECTIVES: Interest into targeting telomerase in cancer has increased by the recent disclosure that elevated telomerase activity is associated with disease recurrence and poor outcome in cancers. In addition, cellular acquisition of unlimited replicative potential, which is closely related to the maintenance of telomeres mostly via the reactivation of telomerase, has been shown to confer loss of sensitivity to a wide range of anti-neoplastic agents. METHODS: To evaluate whether telomerase inhibition using non-nucleosidic inhibitor of telomerase BIBR1532 could enhance cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Nalm-6 pre-B ALL cells were subjected to combination treatment and subsequent cell viability, growth kinetics, caspase-3 activity, and transcriptional alteration of p73, p21, FOXO3a, c-Myc, hTERT, and other apoptosis-related target genes were investigated...
January 5, 2017: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050263/peculiarities-of-yeasts-and-human-telomerase-rnas-processing
#19
M P Rubtsova, D P Vasilkova, Yu V Naraykina, O A Dontsova
Telomerase is one of the major components of the telomeres -- linear eukaryotic chromosome ends - maintenance system. Linear chromosomes are shortened during each cell division due to the removal of the primer used for DNA replication. Special repeated telomere sequences at the very ends of linear chromosomes prevent the deletion of genome information caused by primer removal. Telomeres are shortened at each replication round until it becomes critically short and is no longer able to protect the chromosome in somatic cells...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043814/autophagy-induction-reduces-telomerase-activity-in-hela-cells
#20
Fatemeh Taji, Homa Mohseni Kouchesfahani, Farzaneh Sheikholeslami, Bizhan Romani, Kazem Baesi, Rouhollah Vahabpour, Mahdi Edalati, Ladan Teimoori-Toolabi, Ehsan Ollah Jazaeri, Asghar Abdoli
Autophagy is a cellular homeostatic process whereby damaged proteins and organelles are encapsulated into double membrane vesicles, called autophagosomes, for lysosomal digestion. Beclin1 plays a key role in the initial steps of autophagosome formation. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Beclin 1 overexpression in induction of autophagy and the relationship between autophagy induction and telomerase activity in HeLa cells. We found that overexpression of Beclin 1 in HeLa cells leads to autophagosome formation as shown by intracellular autophagosomal marker LC3-II staining...
December 30, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
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