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Telomerases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780160/author-correction-the-predictive-and-prognostic-potential-of-plasma-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-tert-rna-in-rectal-cancer-patients
#1
Enrica Rampazzo, Paola Del Bianco, Roberta Bertorelle, Caterina Boso, Alessandro Perin, Giovanna Spiro, Francesca Bergamo, Claudio Belluco, Angela Buonadonna, Elisa Palazzari, Sara Lonardi, Antonino De Paoli, Salvatore Pucciarelli, Anita De Rossi
The author Sara Lonardi was incorrectly listed as Sara Leonardi. The correct name is listed above.
May 21, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777397/telomeres-and-telomerase-during-human-papillomavirus-induced-carcinogenesis
#2
REVIEW
Anna Pańczyszyn, Ewa Boniewska-Bernacka, Grzegorz Głąb
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) belong to a small spherical virus family and are transmitted through direct contact, most often through sexual behavior. More than 200 types of HPV are known, a dozen or so of which are classified as high-risk viruses (HR HPV) and may contribute to the development of cervical cancer. HPV is a small virus with a capsid composed of L1 and L2 proteins, which are crucial for entry to the cell. The infection begins at the basal cell layer and progresses to involve cells from higher layers of the cervical epithelium...
May 18, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777050/the-yeast-telomerase-recruitment-module-requires-a-specific-rna-architecture
#3
Nancy Laterreur, Bruno Lemieux, Hannah Neumann, Jean-Christophe Berger-Dancause, Daniel Lafontaine, Raymund J Wellinger
Telomerases are ribonucleoprotein (RNP) enzymes that are related to reverse transcriptases. While they maintain genome stability, their composition varies significantly between species. Yeast telomerase RNPs contain an RNA that is comparatively large and its overall folding shows long helical segments with distal functional parts. Here we investigated the essential stem IVc module of the budding yeast telomerase RNA, called Tlc1. The distal part of stem IVc includes a conserved sequence element CS2a and structurally conserved features to which bind the Pop1/Pop6/Pop7 proteins and which together function analogously to the P3 domains of the RNase P/MRP RNPs...
May 18, 2018: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776440/radiological-pleuroparenchymal-fibroelastosis-associated-to-limited-cutaneous-systemic-sclerosis-a-case-report
#4
D Hassoun, S Dirou, P P Arrigoni, C Durant, M Hamidou, A Néel, C Agard
BACKGROUND: Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a very rare interstitial lung disease (ILD) characterized by progressive fibrotic lesions of the visceral pleura and the sub-pleural parenchyma, affecting predominantly the upper lobes. PPFE may occur in different contextes like bone marrow or lung transplantations, but also in the context of telomeropathy with mutations of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), telomerase RNA component (TERC) or regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 (RTEL1) genes...
May 18, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776332/telnet-a-database-for-human-and-yeast-genes-involved-in-telomere-maintenance
#5
Delia M Braun, Inn Chung, Nick Kepper, Katharina I Deeg, Karsten Rippe
BACKGROUND: The ends of linear chromosomes, the telomeres, comprise repetitive DNA sequences in complex with proteins that protects them from being processed by the DNA repair machinery. Cancer cells need to counteract the shortening of telomere repeats during replication for their unlimited proliferation by reactivating the reverse transcriptase telomerase or by using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway. The different telomere maintenance (TM) mechanisms appear to involve hundreds of proteins but their telomere repeat length related activities are only partly understood...
May 18, 2018: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775593/structure-of-telomerase-with-telomeric-dna
#6
Jiansen Jiang, Yaqiang Wang, Lukas Sušac, Henry Chan, Ritwika Basu, Z Hong Zhou, Juli Feigon
Telomerase is an RNA-protein complex (RNP) that extends telomeric DNA at the 3' ends of chromosomes using its telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and integral template-containing telomerase RNA (TER). Its activity is a critical determinant of human health, affecting aging, cancer, and stem cell renewal. Lack of atomic models of telomerase, particularly one with DNA bound, has limited our mechanistic understanding of telomeric DNA repeat synthesis. We report the 4.8 Å resolution cryoelectron microscopy structure of active Tetrahymena telomerase bound to telomeric DNA...
May 17, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774655/ctc1-stn1-coordinates-g-and-c-strand-synthesis-to-regulate-telomere-length
#7
Peili Gu, Shuting Jia, Taylor Takasugi, Eric Smith, Jayakrishnan Nandakumar, Eric Hendrickson, Sandy Chang
Coats plus (CP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in CTC1, a component of the CST (CTC1, STN1, and TEN1) complex important for telomere length maintenance. The molecular basis of how CP mutations impact upon telomere length remains unclear. The CP CTC1L1142H mutation has been previously shown to disrupt telomere maintenance. In this study, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to engineer this mutation into both alleles of HCT116 and RPE cells to demonstrate that CTC1:STN1 interaction is required to repress telomerase activity...
May 17, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774234/the-fission-yeast-stn1-ten1-complex-limits-telomerase-activity-via-its-sumo-interacting-motif-and-promotes-telomeres-replication
#8
Samah Matmati, Mélina Vaurs, José M Escandell, Laetitia Maestroni, Toru M Nakamura, Miguel G Ferreira, Vincent Géli, Stéphane Coulon
Mammalian CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1) complex fulfills numerous functions including rescue of the stalled replication forks and termination of telomerase action. In fission yeast lacking the CTC1 ortholog, the Stn1-Ten1 complex restricts telomerase action via its sumoylation-mediated interaction with Tpz1TPP1 . We identify a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-interacting motif (SIM) in the carboxyl-terminal part of Stn1 and show that this domain is crucial for SUMO and Tpz1-SUMO interactions. Point mutations in the SIM (Stn1-226) lead to telomere elongation, impair Stn1-Ten1 recruitment to telomeres, and enhance telomerase binding, revealing that Stn1 SIM domain contributes to the inhibition of telomerase activity at chromosome ends...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773993/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-impact-of-biological-sex-on-disease-development-and-molecular-signatures
#9
REVIEW
Ryan Toedebusch, Anthony Belenchia, Lakshmi Pulakat
Diabetic cardiomyopathy refers to a unique set of heart-specific pathological variables induced by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Given that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world, and type 2 diabetes incidence continues to rise, understanding the complex interplay between these two morbidities and developing novel therapeutic strategies is vital. Two hallmark characteristics specific to diabetic cardiomyopathy are diastolic dysfunction and cardiac structural mal-adaptations, arising from cardiac cellular responses to the complex toxicity induced by hyperglycemia with or without hyperinsulinemia...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773556/prdx1-and-mth1-cooperate-to-prevent-ros-mediated-inhibition-of-telomerase
#10
Wareed Ahmed, Joachim Lingner
Telomerase counteracts telomere shortening and cellular senescence in germ, stem, and cancer cells by adding repetitive DNA sequences to the ends of chromosomes. Telomeres are susceptible to damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the consequences of oxidation of telomeres on telomere length and the mechanisms that protect from ROS-mediated telomere damage are not well understood. In particular, 8-oxoguanine nucleotides at 3' ends of telomeric substrates inhibit telomerase in vitro, whereas, at internal positions, they suppress G-quadruplex formation and were therefore proposed to promote telomerase activity...
May 17, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771920/maternal-human-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-variants-are-associated-with-preterm-labor-and-preterm-premature-rupture-of-membranes
#11
Caroline Marrs, Kevin Chesmore, Ramkumar Menon, Scott Williams
OBJECTIVE: Premature aging and short telomere lengths of fetal tissues are associated with spontaneous preterm labor (PTL) and preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM). Maintenance of telomere length is performed by the enzyme telomerase. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is a subunit of telomerase, and its dysfunction affects telomere shortening. This study assessed whether maternal or fetal genetic variations in the hTERT gene are associated with PTL or pPROM. METHODS: A case (PTL or pPROM) control (term birth) genetic association study was conducted in 654 non-Hispanic white mothers (438 term, 162 PTL, 54 pPROM) and 502 non-Hispanic white newborns (346 term, 116 PTB, 40 pPROM)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771410/g-quadruplex-antibody-attenuates-human-gastric-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-promotes-apoptosis-through-htert-telomerase-pathway
#12
Y-Q Zhang, J-H Pei, S-S Shi, J Zheng, J-M Wang, X-S Guo, G-Y Cui, X-Y Wang, H-P Zhang, W-Q Hu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of G-quadruplex antibody BG4 in human gastric cancer AGS cells and assess its functions in attenuating proliferation and promoting apoptosis in gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BG4 high-expression gastric cancer AGS cell line was established by pEGFP-N1-BG4 transient transfection. AGS cells transfected with pEGFP-N1 plasmids were included into the pEGFP-N1 group and those not transfected with plasmids were included into the negative control group...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768261/n-cadherin-attenuates-high-glucose-induced-nucleus-pulposus-cell-senescence-through-regulation-of-the-ros-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#13
Gang Hou, Huiqing Zhao, Haijun Teng, Pei Li, Wenbin Xu, Junbin Zhang, Lulu Lv, Zhiliang Guo, Li Wei, Hui Yao, Yichun Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a potential etiology of disc degeneration. N-cadherin (N-CDH) helps maintain the cell viability, cell phenotype and matrix biosynthesis of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Here, we mainly aimed to investigate whether N-CDH can attenuate high glucose-induced NP cell senescence and its potential mechanism. METHODS: Rat NP cells were cultured in a base culture medium and base culture medium with a 0.2 M glucose concentration. Recombinant lentiviral vectors were used to enhance N-CDH expression in NP cells...
May 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767480/n-heterocyclic-carbene-catalyzed-annulation-of-ylides-with-ynals-direct-access-to-%C3%AE-pyrones
#14
Jian Wang, Ming Lang, Qianfa Jia
-Pyones are frequently observed as the core in numerous natural products and biologically important molecules. They have exhibited promising biological activities, such as anti-HIV, antimicrobial, antifungal, telomerase inhibition, pheromonal, androgen, cardiotonic, neurotoxic and phytotoxic effects. In medicinal chemistry, α-pyones often serve as convenient precursors for the assembly of other medicinal important structures. Therefore, the development of an efficient synthetic protocol for the construction of diversified -pyrone derivatives tends to be interesting and highly demanded...
May 16, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765418/isolation-and-characterisation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-rat-bone-marrow-and-the-endosteal-niche-a-comparative-study
#15
Norhayati Yusop, Paul Battersby, Amr Alraies, Alastair J Sloan, Ryan Moseley, Rachel J Waddington
Within bone, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) exist within the bone marrow stroma (BM-MSC) and the endosteal niche, as cells lining compact bone (CB-MSCs). This study isolated and characterised heterogeneous MSC populations from each niche and subsequently investigated the effects of extensive cell expansion, analysing population doublings (PDs)/cellular senescence, colony-forming efficiencies (CFEs), MSC cell marker expression, and osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation. CB-MSCs and BM-MSCs demonstrated similar morphologies and PDs, reaching 100 PDs...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762894/what-is-a-stem-cell
#16
REVIEW
Jonathan M W Slack
The historical roots of the stem cell concept are traced with respect to its usage in embryology and in hematology. The modern consensus definition of stem cells, comprising both pluripotent stem cells in culture and tissue-specific stem cells in vivo, is explained and explored. Methods for identifying stem cells are discussed with respect to cell surface markers, telomerase, label retention and transplantability, and properties of the stem cell niche are explored. The CreER method for identifying stem cells in vivo is explained, as is evidence in favor of a stochastic rather than an obligate asymmetric form of cell division...
May 15, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761210/biochemical-properties-of-bacterial-reverse-transcriptase-related-rvt-gene-products-multimerization-protein-priming-and-nucleotide-preference
#17
Irina A Yushenova, Irina R Arkhipova
Cellular reverse transcriptase-related (rvt) genes represent a novel class of reverse transcriptases (RTs), which are only distantly related to RTs of retrotransposons and retroviruses, but, similarly to telomerase RTs, are immobilized in the genome as single-copy genes. They have been preserved by natural selection throughout the evolutionary history of large taxonomic groups, including most fungi, a few plants and invertebrates, and even certain bacteria, being the only RTs present across different domains of life...
May 14, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760142/-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-of-peptidomimetic-compounds-that-target-the-periodontal-pathogen-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#18
Jinlian Tan, Pravin C Patil, Frederick A Luzzio, Donald R Demuth
The interaction of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis with oral streptococci is important for initial colonization of the oral cavity by P. gingivalis and is mediated by a discrete motif of the streptococcal antigen I/II protein. A synthetic peptide encompassing this motif functions as a potent inhibitor of P. gingivalis adherence but the use of peptides as topically applied therapeutic agents in the oral cavity has limitations arising from the relatively high cost of peptide synthesis and their susceptibility to degradation by proteases expressed by oral organisms...
May 14, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759988/transient-telomerase-inhibition-with-imetelstat-impacts-dna-damage-signals-and-cell-cycle-kinetics
#19
Connor Ah Thompson, Alice Gu, Sunny Yang, Veena Mathew, Helen B Fleisig, Judy My Wong
Telomerase is the ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that catalyzes the synthesis of telomeres at the ends of linear chromosomes and contributes to proper telomere-loop (T-loop) formation. Formation of the T-loop, an obligate step before cell division can proceed, requires the generation of a 3'-overhang on the G-rich strand of telomeric DNA via telomerase or C-strand specific nucleases. Here, it is discovered that telomerase activity is critical for efficient cell cycle progression using transient chemical inhibition by the telomerase inhibitor, imetelstat...
May 14, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755982/clinical-genetics-in-interstitial-lung-disease
#20
REVIEW
Chad A Newton, Philip L Molyneaux, Justin M Oldham
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) comprises a heterogeneous group of diffuse parenchymal lung processes with overlapping clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features. Among the most common and deadly ILDs are idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP). As the name implies, the cause of IPF remains elusive, but a variety of genetic and infectious risk factors have been identified. CHP results from chronic inhalation of an organic antigen, usually of avian or mold origin, and may occur in patients with a genetic predisposition...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
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