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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923094/high-magnitude-compression-accelerates-the-premature-senescence-of-nucleus-pulposus-cells-via-the-p38-mapk-ros-pathway
#1
Pei Li, Gang Hou, Ruijie Zhang, Yibo Gan, Yuan Xu, Lei Song, Qiang Zhou
BACKGROUND: Mechanical overloading can lead to disc degeneration. Nucleus pulposus (NP) cell senescence is aggravated within the degenerated disc. This study was designed to investigate the effects of high compression on NP cell senescence and the underlying molecular mechanism of this process. METHODS: Rat NP cells seeded in decalcified bone matrix were subjected to non-compression (control) or compression (2% or 20% deformation, 1.0 Hz, 6 hours/day). The reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 were used to investigate the roles of the ROS and p38 MAPK pathway under high-magnitude compression...
September 18, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922619/identification-of-angiogenesis-inhibitors-using-a-co-culture-cell-model-in-a-high-content-and-high-throughput-screening-platform
#2
Shuaizhang Li, Chia-Wen Hsu, Srilatha Sakamuru, Chaozhong Zou, Ruili Huang, Menghang Xia
Angiogenesis is an important hallmark of cancer, contributing to tumor formation and metastasis. In vitro angiogenesis models for analyzing tube formation serve as useful tools to study these processes. However, current in vitro co-culture models using primary cells have limitations in usefulness and consistency. Therefore, in the present study, an in vitro co-culture assay system was optimized in a 1536-well format for high-throughput screening using human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-immortalized mesenchymal stem cells and aortic endothelial cells...
September 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918563/development-and-validation-of-immortalized-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cell-line-as-an-in-vitro-model-for-the-study-of-mammary-gland-functions
#3
Ji-Xia Li, Abdelrahman Said, Xiu-Guo Ge, Wenxiu Wang, Yong Zhang, Tianming Jin
This study aimed to develop a bovine mammary epithelial (BME) cell line model, which provides a possibility to determine functional properties of the bovine mammary gland. The primary cell culture was derived from bovine mammary gland tissues and processed enzymatically to obtain cell colonies with epithelial-like morphology. The cultures of BME cells were purified and optimally cultured at 37 °C in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. The BME cells were identified as epithelial cell line by the evaluating the expression of keratin-18 using immunofluorescence staining...
September 16, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916982/chemical-shift-assignments-and-the-secondary-structure-of-the-est3-telomerase-subunit-in-the-yeast-hansenula-polymorpha
#4
Sofia S Mariasina, Sergey V Efimov, Olga A Petrova, Elena V Rodina, Alexander N Malyavko, Maria I Zvereva, Vladimir V Klochkov, Olga A Dontsova, Vladimir I Polshakov
Telomerase is a multisubunit ribonucleoprotein enzyme that is essential for continuous cellular proliferation. A key role of telomerase in cancer and ageing makes it a promising target for the development of cancer therapies and treatments of other age-associated diseases, since telomerase allows unlimited proliferation potential of cells in the majority of cancer types. However, the structure and molecular mechanism of telomerase action are still poorly understood. In budding yeast, telomerase consists of the catalytic subunit, the telomerase reverse transcriptase or Est2 protein, telomerase RNA (TLC1) and two regulatory subunits, Est1 and Est3...
September 15, 2017: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913973/bone-marrow-stem-cells-do-not-contribute-to-endometrial-cell-lineages-in-chimeric-mouse-models
#5
Yih Rue Ong, Fiona L Cousins, Xiaoqing Yang, Ahmed Aedh A Al Mushafi, David T Breault, Caroline E Gargett, James A Deane
Studies from five independent laboratories conclude that bone marrow stem cells transdifferentiate into endometrial stroma, epithelium and endothelium. We investigated the nature of bone marrow-derived cells in the mouse endometrium by reconstituting irradiated wild type recipients with bone marrow containing transgenic mTert-GFP or chicken β-actin-GFP reporters. mTert-GFP is a telomerase marker identifying hematopoietic stem cells and subpopulations of epithelial, endothelial and immune cells in the endometrium...
September 15, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912878/triterpenoids-from-ganoderma-lucidum-inhibit-the-activation-of-ebv-antigens-as-telomerase-inhibitors
#6
Dong-Shu Zheng, Liang-Shu Chen
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant disease that threatens the health of humans. To find effective agents for the inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, which is associated with NPC, a phytochemical investigation of Ganoderma lucidum was carried out in the present study. Five triterpenoids were identified, including ganoderic acid A (compound 1), ganoderic acid B (compound 2), ganoderol B (compound 3), ganodermanontriol (compound 4), and ganodermanondiol (compound 5), on the basis of spectroscopic analysis...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904819/prdx6-retards-senescence-and-restores-trabecular-meshwork-cell-health-by-regulating-reactive-oxygen-species
#7
Bhavana Chhunchha, Prerna Singh, W Daniel Stamer, Dhirendra P Singh
A progressive decline in antioxidant potential and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are major causes of pathogenesis of several diseases, including glaucoma. Trabecular meshwork (TM) dysfunction resulting in higher intraocular pressure (IOP) is a hallmark of glaucoma, but its causes are unclear. Using human (h) TM cells derived from glaucomatous and normal subjects of different ages and cells facing oxidative-stress, we showed that specific loss of moonlighting antioxidant protein Peroxiredoxin (Prdx) 6 in aging or in glaucomatous TM cells caused ROS accumulation and pathobiological changes in TM cells...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901965/anaplastic-gliomas-in-adults-an-update
#8
Cristina Izquierdo, Bastien Joubert, François Ducray
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review summarizes recent advances on the oncogenesis, classification and treatment of adult anaplastic gliomas. RECENT FINDINGS: According to the 2016 WHO classification, three main molecular subgroups of adult diffuse anaplastic gliomas can be distinguished based on the 1p/19q codeletion and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status. In the future, this classification may be further refined based on the telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter and alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked mutation status, gene expression, DNA methylation and genomic profiling...
September 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900814/sub-fertile-sperm-cells-exemplify-telomere-dysfunction
#9
Tal Biron-Shental, Amir Wiser, Anat Hershko-Klement, Ofer Markovitch, Aliza Amiel, Arie Berkovitch
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate telomere homeostasis in sub-fertile compared to fertile human sperm. METHODS: This observational, comparative study included 16 sub-fertile men who required intracytoplasmic sperm injection and 10 fertile men. At least 100 sperm cells from each participant were assessed. Main outcome measures were telomere length and telomere aggregates. Telomerase RNA component (TERC) copy number and telomere capture were assessed using fluorescence in situ hybridization technique and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) using immunohistochemistry...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900015/structure-and-function-of-pif1-helicase
#10
REVIEW
Alicia K Byrd, Kevin D Raney
Pif1 family helicases have multiple roles in the maintenance of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in eukaryotes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pif1 is involved in replication through barriers to replication, such as G-quadruplexes and protein blocks, and reduces genetic instability at these sites. Another Pif1 family helicase in S. cerevisiae, Rrm3, assists in fork progression through replication fork barriers at the rDNA locus and tRNA genes. ScPif1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pif1) also negatively regulates telomerase, facilitates Okazaki fragment processing, and acts with polymerase δ in break-induced repair...
September 12, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899658/knockdown-of-lrp-lr-induces-apoptosis-in-pancreatic-cancer-and-neuroblastoma-cells-through-activation-of-caspases
#11
Carryn J Chetty, Eloise Ferreira, Katarina Jovanovic, Stefan F T Weiss
The 37kDa/67kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) serves various physiological and pathological roles such as enhancing tumour-related processes including metastasis, angiogenesis, cellular viability and telomerase activation in cancerous cell lines. The present study investigates the effect of siRNA mediated downregulation of LRP/LR on pancreatic cancer (AsPC-1) and neuroblastoma (IMR-32) cells. MTT and BrdU assays revealed that siRNA mediated downregulation of LRP resulted in a significant reduction in cell viability and cell proliferation...
September 9, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895292/pathology-and-genomics-of-pediatric-melanoma-a-critical-reexamination-and-new-insights
#12
REVIEW
Armita Bahrami, Raymond L Barnhill
The clinicopathologic features of pediatric melanoma are distinct from those of the adult counterpart. For example, most childhood melanomas exhibit a uniquely favorable biologic behavior, save for those arising in large/giant congenital nevi. Recent studies suggest that the characteristically favorable biologic behavior of childhood melanoma may be related to extreme telomere shortening and dysfunction in the cancer cells. Herein, we review the genomic profiles that have been defined for the different subtypes of pediatric melanoma and particularly emphasize the potential prognostic value of telomerase reverse transcriptase alterations for these tumors...
September 12, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894890/new-prognostic-factor-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-promotor-mutation-presents-without-mr-imaging-biomarkers-in-primary-glioblastoma
#13
Tunc F Ersoy, Vera C Keil, Dariusch R Hadizadeh, Gerrit H Gielen, Rolf Fimmers, Andreas Waha, Barbara Heidenreich, Rajiv Kumar, Hans H Schild, Matthias Simon
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging biomarkers can assist in the non-invasive assessment of the genetic status in glioblastomas (GBMs). Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations are associated with a negative prognosis. This study was performed to identify MR imaging biomarkers to forecast the TERT mutation status. METHODS: Pre-operative MRIs of 64/67 genetically confirmed primary GBM patients (51/67 TERT-mutated with rs2853669 polymorphism) were analyzed according to Visually AcceSAble Rembrandt Images (VASARI) ( https://wiki...
September 11, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893481/telomerase-based-anticancer-immunotherapy-and-vaccines-approaches
#14
REVIEW
Chahal Kailashiya, Hanjabam Barun Sharma, Jyotsna Kailashiya
Telomerase is a Reverse Transcriptase that maintains the telomere length. It is absent in most somatic cells but is found in stem cells, germ cells and around 90% of cancers. It plays a crucial role in developing and maintaining cancer cells. Telomerase, a HLA class-I antigen, is able to stimulate cell mediated immune response by inducing cytotoxic T-cells. This property of telomerase is being exploited in targeting cancers by host's own immune responses; stimulated by various Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) derived vaccines...
September 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892653/saliva-derived-commensal-and-pathogenic-biofilms-in-a-human-gingiva-model
#15
J K Buskermolen, M M Janus, S Roffel, B P Krom, S Gibbs
In vitro models that closely mimic human host-microbiome interactions can be a powerful screening tool for antimicrobials and will hold great potential for drug validation and discovery. The aim of this study was to develop an organotypic oral mucosa model that could be exposed to in vitro cultured commensal and pathogenic biofilms in a standardized and scalable manner. The oral mucosa model consisted of a tissue-engineered human gingiva equivalent containing a multilayered differentiated gingiva epithelium (keratinocytes) grown on a collagen hydrogel, containing gingiva fibroblasts, which represented the lamina propria...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889732/effects-of-water-extract-of-curcuma-longa-l-roots-on-immunity-and-telomerase-function
#16
Min-Hsiung Pan, Jia-Ching Wu, Chi-Tang Ho, Vladimir Badmaev
Background Immunity and Longevity Methods A water extract of Curcuma longa (L.) [vern. Turmeric] roots (TurmericImmune™) standardized for a minimum 20 % of turmeric polysaccharides ukonan A, B, C and D was evaluated for its biological properties in in vitro tissue culture studies. Results The water extract of turmeric (TurP) exhibited induced-nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages. These results suggested the immunomodulatory effects of TurP. In addition, the polysaccharides up-regulated function of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) equally to the phenolic compound from turmeric, curcumin...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888820/design-and-synthesis-of-2-phenylpyrimidine-coumarin-derivatives-as-anticancer-agents
#17
Na Lv, Ming Sun, Chen Liu, Jiabin Li
A series of 2-phenylpyrimidine coumarin derivatives with potential telomerase-inhibiting activity was designed and synthesized. All of the compounds were screened for antiproliferative activity against CNE2, KB, and Cal27 cell lines in vitro. The results showed that most of the derivatives had a favorable effect on resisting tumor cell proliferation; compound 13, 3-(4-amino-5-oxo-5H-chromeno[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-yl)phenyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzenesulfonate, exhibited the best activity. Flow cytometry revealed that compound 13 can inhibit CNE2 proliferation...
August 24, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888037/myc-drives-overexpression-of-telomerase-rna-htr-terc-in-prostate-cancer
#18
Javier A Baena-Del Valle, Qizhi Zheng, David M Esopi, Michael Rubenstein, Gretchen K Hubbard, Maria C Moncaliano, Andrew Hruszkewycz, Ajay Vaghasia, Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian, Sarah J Wheelan, Alan K Meeker, Christopher M Heaphy, Mindy K Graham, Angelo M De Marzo
Telomerase consists of at least two essential elements, an RNA component hTR or TERC that contains the template for telomere DNA addition, and a catalytic reverse transcriptase (TERT). While expression of TERT has been considered the key rate limiting component for telomerase activity, increasing evidence suggests an important role for the regulation of TERC in telomere maintenance and perhaps other functions in human cancer. By using three orthogonal methods including RNAseq, RT-qPCR, and an analytically validated chromogenic RNA in situ hybridization assay, we report consistent overexpression of TERC in prostate cancer...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887594/do-long-telomeres-affect-cellular-fitness
#19
REVIEW
Yaniv Harari, Martin Kupiec
Telomeres protect the chromosome ends and maintain the genome stability; they, therefore, play important roles in aging and cancer. Despite the wide variability in telomere length among eukaryotes, in all telomerase-expressing cells telomere length is strictly controlled within a very narrow range. In humans, telomeres shorten with age, and it has been proposed that telomere shortening may play a causal role in aging. Using yeast strains with genetically or physiologically generated differences in telomere length, we have explored the question of whether having long telomeres affects telomere function and fitness or cellular lifespan...
September 8, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886883/alternative-splicing-of-telomerase-catalytic-subunit-htert-generated-by-apoptotic-endonuclease-endog-induces-human-cd4-t-cell-death
#20
Dmitry D Zhdanov, Daria A Vasina, Vladimir A Grachev, Elena V Orlova, Valentina S Orlova, Marina V Pokrovskaya, Svetlana S Alexandrova, Nikolai N Sokolov
Telomerase activity is regulated by alternative splicing of its catalytic subunit human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA. Induction of a non-active spliced hTERT leads to inhibition of telomerase activity. However, very little is known about the mechanism of hTERT mRNA alternative splicing. The aim of this study was to determine the role of the apoptotic endonuclease EndoG in alternative splicing of hTERT and telomerase activity. A strong correlation was identified between EndoG expression levels and hTERT splice variants in human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes...
September 1, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
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