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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332354/inhibition-of-telomerase-potentiates-enzalutamide-efficiency-of-androgen-sensitive-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#1
Karaca Kaan Gecgel, Mustafa Muduroglu, Suat Erdogan
PURPOSE: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is one of the main strategies to treat prostate cancer (PCa) at various stages of its development. Androgen receptor (AR) antagonists such as enzalutamide are mainstay treatments for castration-sensitive prostate cancer. Though, a majority of patients initially respond to ADT, most will eventually progress to castrate-resistant, due to the development of different mutations on the AR. PCa cells express high telomerase activity, and there is a correlation between the total activity of telomerase and the Gleason score...
November 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332343/clinical-relevance-of-telomerase-polymorphism-for-breast-cancer-a-systematic-review
#2
Katherine de Souza Rodrigues, Joao Nunes de Matos Neto, Rodrigo Haddad, Diego Madureira de Oliveira
PURPOSE: To perform a systematic review to explore the clinical relevance of hTERT polymorphisms for breast cancer (BC). METHODS: Twenty-nine polymorphic regions were evaluated after comprehensive searching of 1236 articles, and selection of 9 publications (total of 12986 cases and 16758 controls). RESULTS: About the influence of hTERT variants in BC risk, 3 studies showed that the variant rs2736098 was associated with increasing risk. The variants rs10069690 and rs2853676 were also described as risk factors for BC...
November 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331736/dysfunctional-telomeres-and-hematological-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Elena Fiorini, Andrea Santoni, Simona Colla
Telomere biology disorders, which are characterized by telomerase activity haploinsufficiency and accelerated telomere shortening, most commonly manifest as degenerative diseases. Tissues with high rates of cell turnover, such as those in the hematopoietic system, are particularly vulnerable to defects in telomere maintenance genes that eventually culminate in bone marrow (BM) failure syndromes, in which the BM cannot produce sufficient new blood cells. Here, we review how telomere defects induce degenerative phenotypes across multiple organs, with particular focus on how they impact the hematopoietic stem and progenitor compartment and affect hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and differentiation...
January 4, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331373/establishment-and-characterization-of-five-immortalized-human-scalp-dermal-papilla-cell-lines
#4
Mi Hee Kwack, Jung Min Yang, Gong Hee Won, Moon Kyu Kim, Jung Chul Kim, Young Kwan Sung
Dermal papilla (DP) regulates the growth and cycling of hair follicles. Cultured DP cells are useful for the study of their role in relation to hair growth and regeneration. However, cultivation of human DP cells is tedious and difficult. In addition, cultured DP cells possess a relatively short replicative life span, requiring immortalized human DP cell lines. We previously established an immortalized human DP cell line, SV40T-hTERT-DPC, by introducing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene into the transformed cell line, SV40T-DPC...
January 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329589/enhanced-metastatic-capacity-of-breast-cancer-cells-after-interaction-and-hybrid-formation-with-mesenchymal-stroma-stem-cells-msc
#5
Catharina Melzer, Juliane von der Ohe, Ralf Hass
BACKGROUND: Fusion of breast cancer cells with tumor-associated populations of the microenvironment including mesenchymal stroma/stem-like cells (MSC) represents a rare event in cell communication whereby the metastatic capacity of those hybrid cells remains unclear. METHODS: Functional changes were investigated in vitro and in vivo following spontaneous fusion and hybrid cell formation between primary human MSC and human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Thus, lentiviral eGFP-labeled MSC and breast cancer cells labeled with mcherry resulted in dual-fluorescing hybrid cells after co-culture...
January 5, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329057/chronic-corticosterone-induced-depression-mediates-premature-aging-in-rats
#6
Xiaoxian Xie, Qichen Shen, Lingyan Ma, Yangyang Chen, Binggong Zhao, Zhengwei Fu
BACKGROUND: Stress hormones such as corticosterone (CORT) play an essential role in the development of depression. Chronic CORT administration has been shown to induce dysfunction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis leading to depression, which was in turn associated with accelerated aging. However, the effect of CORT administration on aging remains unclear. METHODS: Rats were acclimatized for 1 week and then injected daily with CORT (40mg/kg) or vehicle (n = 10 each) for 21 consecutive days...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324774/activated-carbon-n-acetylcysteine-microcapsule-protects-against-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-young-rats-via-activating-telomerase-and-inhibiting-apoptosis
#7
Tingting Shi, Xingxin Yang, Hongping Zhou, Jianjun Xi, Jingjing Sun, Yunling Ke, Jiankang Zhang, Yidan Shao, Xiaojie Jiang, Xuwang Pan, Shourong Liu, Rangxiao Zhuang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming one of the world's most common chronic liver diseases in childhood, yet no therapy is available that has been approved by the food and drug administration (FDA). Previous studies have reported that telomere and telomerase are involved the development and progression of NAFLD. This study was designed to investigate the potential beneficial effects of activated carbon N-acetylcysteine (ACNAC) microcapsules on the development of NAFLD in young rats as well as the underlying mechanism(s) involved...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318697/oroxylin-a-inhibits-ethanol-induced-hepatocyte-senescence-via%C3%A2-yap-pathway
#8
Huanhuan Jin, Naqi Lian, Mianli Bian, Chenxi Zhang, Xingran Chen, Jiangjuan Shao, Li Wu, Anping Chen, Qinglong Guo, Feng Zhang, Shizhong Zheng
OBJECTIVES: Oroxylin A, a natural flavonoid isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, has been reported to have anti-hepatic injury effects. However, the effects of oroxylin A on alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of oroxylin A on ALD and the potential mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male ICR mice and human hepatocyte cell line LO2 were used. Yes-associated protein (YAP) overexpression and knockdown were achieved using plasmid and siRNA technique...
January 10, 2018: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317752/epstein-barr-virus-encoded-rnas-ebers-complement-the-loss-of-herpesvirus-telomerase-rna-vtr-in-virus-induced-tumor-formation
#9
Ahmed Kheimar, Benedikt B Kaufer
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes fatal lymphomas in chickens and is used as a natural virus-host model for herpesvirus-induced tumorigenesis. MDV encodes a telomerase RNA subunit (vTR) that is crucial for efficient MDV-induced lymphoma formation; however, the mechanism is not completely understood. Similarly, Epstein Barr-virus (EBV) encodes two RNAs (EBER-1 and EBER-2) that are highly expressed in EBV-induced tumor cells, however their role in tumorigenesis remains unclear. Intriguingly, vTR and EBER-1 have interaction partners in common that are highly conserved in humans and chickens...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313222/establishment-of-an-embryonic-cell-line-from-the-american-cockroach-periplaneta-americana-blattaria-blattidae-and-a-preliminary-study-of-telomerase-activity-changes-during-the-culturing-process
#10
Xin Zhang, Ying Feng, Wei-Feng Ding, Xian Li, Si-Cong Xie
Despite the pest status and medicinal value of the American cockroach Periplaneta americana, few attempts have been made to establish cell lines from this insect owing to the difficulty of culturing Blattarian cells. Here, we describe the establishment of the RIRI-PA1 line from P. americana embryo tissue following primary culture in modified Grace's medium containing 20% fetal bovine serum. RIRI-PA1 was found to primarily consist of attached spindle-shaped and giant cells, which attach themselves to their container...
January 8, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312603/intratumoral-heterogeneity-and-tert-promoter-mutations-in-progressive-higher-grade-meningiomas
#11
Tareq A Juratli, Christian Thiede, Mara V A Koerner, Shilpa S Tummala, Dirk Daubner, Ganesh M Shankar, Erik A Williams, Maria Martinez-Lage, Silke Soucek, Katja Robel, Tristan Penson, Mechthild Krause, Steffen Appold, Matthias Meinhardt, Thomas Pinzer, Julie J Miller, Dietmar Krex, Heather A Ely, Ian M Silverman, Jason Christiansen, Gabriele Schackert, Hiroaki Wakimoto, Matthias Kirsch, Priscilla K Brastianos, Daniel P Cahill
Background: Recent studies have reported mutations in the telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (TERTp) in meningiomas. We sought to determine the frequency, clonality and clinical significance of telomere gene alterations in a cohort of patients with progressive/higher-grade meningiomas. Methods: We characterized 64 temporally- and regionally-distinct specimens from 26 WHO grade III meningioma patients. On initial diagnoses, the meningiomas spanned all WHO grades (3 grade I, 13 grade II and 10 grade III)...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312581/ultrasound-and-clinicopathological-features-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinomas-with-braf-and-tert-promoter-mutations
#12
Soo Yeon Hahn, Tae Hyuk Kim, Chang Seok Ki, Sun Wook Kim, Soohyun Ahn, Jung Hee Shin, Jae Hoon Chung
This study is to investigate if any relationship exists between the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter or proto-oncogene BRAF mutation and ultrasound (US) and clinicopathological features of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). The study included 150 patients with surgically confirmed PTC from October 1994 to December 2004. According to the existence of TERT promoter or BRAF mutations, we categorized patients into three groups (no mutation, BRAF mutation alone, or TERT+BRAF mutations) and analyzed the relationships between TERT promoter or BRAF mutation and US and clinicopathological features...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311615/hoxc5-and-mir-615-3p-target-newly-evolved-genomic-regions-to-repress-htert-and-inhibit-tumorigenesis
#13
TingDong Yan, Wen Fong Ooi, Aditi Qamra, Alice Cheung, DongLiang Ma, Gopinath Meenakshi Sundaram, Chang Xu, Manjie Xing, LaiFong Poon, Jing Wang, Yan Ping Loh, Jess Hui Jie Ho, Joscelyn Jun Quan Ng, Muhammad Khairul Ramlee, Luay Aswad, Steve G Rozen, Sujoy Ghosh, Frederic A Bard, Prabha Sampath, Vinay Tergaonkar, James O J Davies, Jim R Hughes, Eyleen Goh, Xuezhi Bi, Melissa Jane Fullwood, Patrick Tan, Shang Li
The repression of telomerase activity during cellular differentiation promotes replicative aging and functions as a physiological barrier for tumorigenesis in long-lived mammals, including humans. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here we describe how miR-615-3p represses hTERT expression. mir-615-3p is located in an intron of the HOXC5 gene, a member of the highly conserved homeobox family of transcription factors controlling embryogenesis and development. Unexpectedly, we found that HoxC5 also represses hTERT expression by disrupting the long-range interaction between hTERT promoter and its distal enhancer...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306211/a-comprehensive-review-of-the-pharmacological-potential-of-crocus-sativus-and-its-bioactive-apocarotenoids
#14
REVIEW
Syed Imran Bukhari, Mahreen Manzoor, M K Dhar
Crocus sativus is an herbaceous plant that belongs to family Iridaceae. It is commonly known as saffron and has been used for medicinal purposes since many centuries in India and other parts of the world. Saffron of commercial importance comprises of dried stigmas of the plant and is rich in flavonoids, vitamins, and carotenoids. Carotenoids represent the main components of saffron and their cleavage results in the formation of apocarotenoids such as crocin, picrocrocin, and safranal. Studies conducted during the past two decades have revealed the immense therapeutic potential of saffron...
January 3, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305654/spontaneous-regression-of-neuroblastoma
#15
REVIEW
Garrett M Brodeur
Neuroblastomas are characterized by heterogeneous clinical behavior, from spontaneous regression or differentiation into a benign ganglioneuroma, to relentless progression despite aggressive, multimodality therapy. Indeed, neuroblastoma is unique among human cancers in terms of its propensity to undergo spontaneous regression. The strongest evidence for this comes from the mass screening studies conducted in Japan, North America and Europe and it is most evident in infants with stage 4S disease. This propensity is associated with a pattern of genomic change characterized by whole chromosome gains rather than segmental chromosome changes but the mechanism(s) underlying spontaneous regression are currently a matter of speculation...
January 5, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305433/pinx1-and-tert-are-required-for-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-airway-smooth-muscle-chemokine-gene-expression
#16
Karl Deacon, Alan J Knox
Airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells contribute to asthmatic lung pathology with chemokine hypersecretion and increased ASM cell mass. With little recent progress in the development of asthma therapies, a greater understanding of lung inflammation mechanisms has become a priority. Chemokine gene expression in ASM cells is dependent upon NF-κB transcription factor activity. The telomerase/shelterin complex maintains chromosomal telomere ends during cell division. Telomerase is a possible cofactor for NF-κB activity, but its role in NF-κB activity in airway tissue inflammation is not known...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303157/erratum-valproic-acid-induces-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-expression-during-cortical-development
#17
Ki Chan Kim, Chang Soon Choi, Edson Luck T Gonzales, Darine Froy N Mabunga, Sung Hoon Lee, Se Jin Jeon, Ram Hwangbo, Minha Hong, Jong Hoon Ryu, Seol-Heui Han, Geon Ho Bahn, Chan Young Shin
[This corrects the article on p. 252 in vol. 26, PMID: 29093634.].
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301210/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-new-substituted-diquinolinyl-pyridine-ligands-as-anticancer-agents-by-targeting-g-quadruplex
#18
Rabindra Nath Das, Edith Chevret, Vanessa Desplat, Sandra Rubio, Jean-Louis Mergny, Jean Guillon
G-quadruplexes (G4) are stacked non-canonical nucleic acid structures found in specific G-rich DNA or RNA sequences in the human genome. G4 structures are liable for various biological functions; transcription, translation, cell aging as well as diseases such as cancer. These structures are therefore considered as important targets for the development of anticancer agents. Small organic heterocyclic molecules are well known to target and stabilize G4 structures. In this article, we have designed and synthesized 2,6-di-(4-carbamoyl-2-quinolyl)pyridine derivatives and their ability to stabilize G4-structures have been determined through the FRET melting assay...
December 30, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298360/chromosome-passenger-complex-is-required-for-the-survival-of-cells-with-ring-chromosomes-in-fission-yeast
#19
Ahmed G K Habib, Kanako Sugiura, Masaru Ueno
Ring chromosomes are circular chromosomal abnormalities that have been reported in association with some genetic disorders and cancers. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, lack of function of protection of telomere 1 (Pot1) or telomerase catalytic subunit (Trt1) results in survivors with circular chromosomes. Hitherto, it is poorly understood how cells with circular chromosomes survive and how circular chromosomes are maintained. Fission yeast Cut17/Bir1, Ark1, Pic1, and Nbl1 is a conserved chromosome passenger complex (CPC) functioning mainly throughout mitosis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296896/maintenance-of-telomere-length-in-aml
#20
REVIEW
Peter M Lansdorp
The importance of telomere length to human health, aging, and cancer continues to be underappreciated. This review examines some basics of telomere biology and relates how telomere function, telomerase activity, and mutations in TERC or TERT are involved in bone marrow failure, leukemias, and other cancers. Given the challenge to obtain accurate data on telomerase activity and telomere length in specific cell types, the situation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains puzzling. In most cancers, telomerase levels are increased after cells have encountered a "telomere crisis," which is typically associated with poor prognosis...
November 28, 2017: Blood Advances
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