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Negligible senescence

Kahkashan Rashid, Isaac K Sundar, Janice Gerloff, Dongmei Li, Irfan Rahman
Cigarette smoke (CS) induces lung cellular senescence that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). How aging influences cellular senescence and other molecular hallmarks, and increases the risk of CS-induced damage remains unknown. We hypothesized that aging-associated changes in lungs worsen the COPD/emphysema by CS exposure. Younger and older groups of C57BL/6J mice were exposed to chronic CS for 6 months with respective age-matched air-exposed controls...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kaitlyn N Lewis, Nimrod D Rubinstein, Rochelle Buffenstein
Mouse-sized naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber), unlike other mammals, do not conform to Gompertzian laws of age-related mortality; adults show no age-related change in mortality risk. Moreover, we observe negligible hallmarks of aging with well-maintained physiological and molecular functions, commonly altered with age in other species. We questioned whether naked mole-rats, living an order of magnitude longer than laboratory mice, exhibit different plasma metabolite profiles, which could then highlight novel mechanisms or targets involved in disease and longevity...
April 2018: GeroScience
Aditi Jain, Saurabh Anand, Neer K Singh, Sandip Das
The impact of polyploidy on functional diversification of cis-regulatory elements is poorly understood. This is primarily on account of lack of well-defined structure of cis-elements and a universal regulatory code. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on characterization of sequence and functional diversification of paralogous and homeologous promoter elements associated with MIR164 from Brassica. The availability of whole genome sequence allowed us to identify and isolate a total of 42 homologous copies of MIR164 from diploid species-Brassica rapa (A-genome), Brassica nigra (B-genome), Brassica oleracea (C-genome), and allopolyploids-Brassica juncea (AB-genome), Brassica carinata (BC-genome) and Brassica napus (AC-genome)...
March 12, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Sean D Madsen, Katie C Russell, H Alan Tucker, Julie Glowacki, Bruce A Bunnell, Kim C O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a mixture of progenitors that are heterogeneous in their regenerative potential. Development of MSC therapies with consistent efficacy is hindered by the absence of an immunophenotype of MSC heterogeneity. This study evaluates decoy TRAIL receptor CD264 as potentially the first surface marker to detect cellular aging in heterogeneous MSC cultures. METHODS: CD264 surface expression, regenerative potential, and metrics of cellular aging were assessed in vitro for marrow MSCs from 12 donors ages 20-60 years old...
September 29, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Eugene Novikov, I Zadubrovskaya, P Zadubrovskiy, T Titova
Social subterranean rodents of the Bathyergidae family are known to have extended longevity and some signs of negligible senescence, although the manifestation of these traits depends on the reproductive status of individuals. Such enormous life history peculiarities are usually explained by the specificity of a subterranean way of life. If so, all subterranean rodents, regardless of their taxonomic position, are expected to have higher maximum lifespans and shorter senescence periods than the related above-ground species...
October 2017: Biogerontology
Sifang Liao, Susan Broughton, Dick R Nässel
The lifespan of Drosophilamelanogaster can be extended substantially by inducing reproductive dormancy (also known as diapause) by lowered temperature and short days. This increase of longevity is accompanied by lowered metabolism and increased stress tolerance. We ask here whether behavioral senescence is ameliorated during adult dormancy. To study this we kept flies for seven or more weeks in normal rearing conditions or in diapause conditions and compared to 1-week-old flies in different behavioral assays of sleep, negative geotaxis and exploratory walking...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Giacinto Libertini, Nicola Ferrara
The programmed aging paradigm interprets aging as a function favored by natural selection at a supra-individual level. This function is implemented, according to the telomere theory, through mechanisms that operate through the subtelomere-telomere-telomerase system. After reviewing some necessary technical and ethical reservations and providing a concise description of aging mechanisms, this work considers interventions that could lead to the control of some highly disabling characteristics of aging, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's syndromes and age-related macular degeneration, and afterwards to a full control of aging up to a condition equivalent to that of the species defined as "with negligible senescence"...
December 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Cristina Ávila, Catiane Pelissari, Pablo H Sezerino, Massimiliano Sgroi, Paolo Roccaro, Joan García
The effect of effluent recirculation on the removal of total nitrogen (TN) and eight pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) was evaluated during 9months in an experimental hybrid constructed wetland (CW) system applied in the treatment of urban wastewater. An Imhoff tank was followed by three stages of CWs (two 1.5-m2 vertical subsurface flow (VF) beds alternating feed-rest cycles, a 2-m2 horizontal (HF) and a 2-m2 free water surface (FWS) wetland in series). A fraction of the final effluent was recycled back to the Imhoff tank with a recirculation rate of 50% (hydraulic loading rate=0...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Elizabeth A Stoll, Nevena Karapavlovic, Hannah Rosa, Michael Woodmass, Karolina Rygiel, Kathryn White, Douglass M Turnbull, Chris G Faulkes
The naked mole-rat (NMR) Heterocephalus glaber is an exceptionally long-lived rodent, living up to 32 years in captivity. This extended lifespan is accompanied by a phenotype of negligible senescence, a phenomenon of very slow changes in the expected physiological characteristics with age. One of the many consequences of normal aging in mammals is the devastating and progressive loss of skeletal muscle, termed sarcopenia, caused in part by respiratory enzyme dysfunction within the mitochondria of skeletal muscle fibers...
December 19, 2016: Aging
Siegfried Zerche, Klaus-Thomas Haensch, Uwe Druege, Mohammad-Reza Hajirezaei
BACKGROUND: Adventitious root (AR) formation in axillary shoot tip cuttings is a crucial physiological process for ornamental propagation that is utilised in global production chains for young plants. In this process, the nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolisms of a cutting are regulated by its total nitrogen content (Nt ), dark exposure during transport and irradiance levels at distinct production sites and phases through a specific plasticity to readjust metabolite pools. Here, we examined how elevated Nt contents with a combined dark exposure of cuttings influence their internal N-pools including free amino acids and considered early anatomic events of AR formation as well as further root development in Petunia hybrida cuttings...
October 10, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Jácint Tökölyi, Zsófia Ősz, Flóra Sebestyén, Zoltán Barta
Freshwater hydra are among the few animal groups that show negligible senescence and can maintain high survival and reproduction rates when kept under stable conditions in the laboratory. Yet, one species of Hydra (H. oligactis) undergoes a senescence-like process in which polyps degenerate and die after sexual reproduction. The ultimate factors responsible for this phenomenon are unclear. High mortality in reproducing animals could be the consequence of increased allocation of resources to reproduction at the expense of somatic maintenance...
February 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Junpei Yamanashi, Hideko Takayanagi, Ayaka Isaji, Ryuji Asami, Yasufumi Iryu
We report the carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope records of three modern Tridacna derasa shells from Ishigaki-jima, southwestern Japan. The high-resolution δ13C profiles of samples from the inner shell layer on cross-sections fall within similar narrow ranges and display no regular variations or trends, such as an ontogenetic trend or abrupt short-term drops likely to be related to reproductive activity. This suggests that the calcification site of this species is not likely affected by photosynthetic CO2 uptake or CO2 incorporation during respiration...
2016: PloS One
Daniel A Warner, David A W Miller, Anne M Bronikowski, Fredric J Janzen
Lifespan and aging rates vary considerably across taxa; thus, understanding the factors that lead to this variation is a primary goal in biology and has ramifications for understanding constraints and flexibility in human aging. Theory predicts that senescence-declining reproduction and increasing mortality with advancing age-evolves when selection against harmful mutations is weaker at old ages relative to young ages or when selection favors pleiotropic alleles with beneficial effects early in life despite late-life costs...
June 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Andrea G Bodnar, James A Coffman
Aging in many animals is characterized by a failure to maintain tissue homeostasis and the loss of regenerative capacity. In this study, the ability to maintain tissue homeostasis and regenerative potential was investigated in sea urchins, a novel model to study longevity and negligible senescence. Sea urchins grow indeterminately, regenerate damaged appendages and reproduce throughout their lifespan and yet different species are reported to have very different life expectancies (ranging from 4 to more than 100 years)...
August 2016: Aging Cell
Kaori Oka, Kyoko Miura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Seikagaku. the Journal of Japanese Biochemical Society
Alessandra Lucioli, Carlo Perla, Alessandra Berardi, Francesca Gatti, Laura Spanò, Mario Tavazza
To establish a successful infection viruses need to overcome plant innate immune responses and redirect host gene expression for their multiplication and diffusion. Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) is a geminivirus, which causes significant economic losses in tomato. The multifunctional replication associated geminivirus protein (Rep) has an important role during viral infection. In particular, the Rep central domain spanning from aa 120 to 180 is known to interact with viral and host factors...
June 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Judy C Triplett, Aaron M Swomley, Jessime Kirk, Kelly M Grimes, Kaitilyn N Lewis, Miranda E Orr, Karl A Rodriguez, Jian Cai, Jon B Klein, Rochelle Buffenstein, D Allan Butterfield
Aging is the greatest risk factor for developing neurodegenerative diseases, which are associated with diminished neurotransmission as well as neuronal structure and function. However, several traits seemingly evolved to avert or delay age-related deterioration in the brain of the longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (NMR). The NMR remarkably also exhibits negligible senescence, maintaining an extended healthspan for ~75 % of its life span. Using a proteomic approach, statistically significant changes with age in expression and/or phosphorylation levels of proteins associated with neurite outgrowth and neurotransmission were identified in the brain of the NMR and include: cofilin-1; collapsin response mediator protein 2; actin depolymerizing factor; spectrin alpha chain; septin-7; syntaxin-binding protein 1; synapsin-2 isoform IIB; and dynamin 1...
July 2016: Neurochemical Research
Lucie Kučerová, Olga I Kubrak, Jonas M Bengtsson, Hynek Strnad, Sören Nylin, Ulrich Theopold, Dick R Nässel
BACKGROUND: In models extensively used in studies of aging and extended lifespan, such as C. elegans and Drosophila, adult senescence is regulated by gene networks that are likely to be similar to ones that underlie lifespan extension during dormancy. These include the evolutionarily conserved insulin/IGF, TOR and germ line-signaling pathways. Dormancy, also known as dauer stage in the larval worm or adult diapause in the fly, is triggered by adverse environmental conditions, and results in drastically extended lifespan with negligible senescence...
2016: BMC Genomics
Malene Brohus, Vera Gorbunova, Chris G Faulkes, Michael T Overgaard, Cheryl A Conover
Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) (NMRs) are the longest living rodents known. They show negligible senescence, and are resistant to cancers and certain damaging effects associated with aging. The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) have pluripotent actions, influencing growth processes in virtually every system of the body. They are established contributors to the aging process, confirmed by the demonstration that decreased IGF signaling results in life-extending effects in a variety of species. The IGFs are likewise involved in progression of cancers by mediating survival signals in malignant cells...
2015: PloS One
Sergi Munné-Bosch
Both demographic and physiological senescence have been demonstrated to occur in various organisms. However, indeterminate growers, such as some animals and most perennial plants, seem to escape the wear and tear of aging. Indeed, most angiosperms show no signs of senescence, and both negligible and negative senescence (improved physiological performance with aging) have been reported in perennial plants growing in their natural habitat. In this opinion article, I review recent developments in the study of senescence in perennial plants and propose that continuous growth prevents senescence...
November 2015: Trends in Plant Science
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