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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666318/economics-and-policy-driven-organic-carbon-input-enhancement-dominates-soil-organic-carbon-accumulation-in-chinese-croplands
#1
Yongcun Zhao, Meiyan Wang, Shuijin Hu, Xudong Zhang, Zhu Ouyang, Ganlin Zhang, Biao Huang, Shiwei Zhao, Jinshui Wu, Deti Xie, Bo Zhu, Dongsheng Yu, Xianzhang Pan, Shengxiang Xu, Xuezheng Shi
China's croplands have experienced drastic changes in management practices, such as fertilization, tillage, and residue treatments, since the 1980s. There is an ongoing debate about the impact of these changes on soil organic carbon (SOC) and its implications. Here we report results from an extensive study that provided direct evidence of cropland SOC sequestration in China. Based on the soil sampling locations recorded by the Second National Soil Survey of China in 1980, we collected 4,060 soil samples in 2011 from 58 counties that represent the typical cropping systems across China...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666315/plant-diversity-enhances-productivity-and-soil-carbon-storage
#2
Shiping Chen, Wantong Wang, Wenting Xu, Yang Wang, Hongwei Wan, Dima Chen, Zhiyao Tang, Xuli Tang, Guoyi Zhou, Zongqiang Xie, Daowei Zhou, Zhouping Shangguan, Jianhui Huang, Jin-Sheng He, Yanfen Wang, Jiandong Sheng, Lisong Tang, Xinrong Li, Ming Dong, Yan Wu, Qiufeng Wang, Zhiheng Wang, Jianguo Wu, F Stuart Chapin, Yongfei Bai
Despite evidence from experimental grasslands that plant diversity increases biomass production and soil organic carbon (SOC) storage, it remains unclear whether this is true in natural ecosystems, especially under climatic variations and human disturbances. Based on field observations from 6,098 forest, shrubland, and grassland sites across China and predictions from an integrative model combining multiple theories, we systematically examined the direct effects of climate, soils, and human impacts on SOC storage versus the indirect effects mediated by species richness (SR), aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), and belowground biomass (BB)...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665102/antibiotic-associated-disruption-of-microbiota-composition-and-function-in-cirrhosis-is-restored-by-fecal-transplant
#3
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Genta Kakiyama, Tor Savidge, Hajime Takei, Zain A Kassam, Andrew Fagan, Edith A Gavis, William M Pandak, Hiroshi Nittono, Phillip B Hylemon, Prapaporn Boonma, Anthony Haag, Douglas M Heuman, Michael Fuchs, Binu John, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Patrick M Gillevet
Cirrhotic patients are often exposed to antibiotics that can lead to resistance and fungal overgrowth. The role of fecal microbial transplant (FMT) to restore gut microbial function is unclear in cirrhosis. In an FDA-monitored Phase 1 clinical safety trial, decompensated cirrhotic patients on standard therapies (lactulose and rifaximin) were randomized to standard-of-care (SOC, no antibiotics/FMT) or 5 days of broad-spectrum antibiotics followed by FMT from a donor enriched in Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae...
April 17, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661905/randomized-study-of-adjunctive-belimumab-in-participants-with-generalized-myasthenia-gravis
#4
Karen Hewett, Donald B Sanders, Richard A Grove, Christine L Broderick, Todd J Rudo, Ashlyn Bassiri, Marina Zvartau-Hind, Vera Bril
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of belimumab, a fully human immunoglobulin G1λ monoclonal antibody against B-lymphocyte stimulator, in participants with generalized myasthenia gravis (MG) who remained symptomatic despite standard of care (SoC) therapy. METHODS: Eligible participants with MG were randomized 1:1 to receive IV belimumab 10 mg/kg or placebo in this phase II, placebo-controlled, multicenter, double-blind study (NCT01480596; BEL115123)...
April 17, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660871/quantitative-models-for-predicting-adsorption-of-oxytetracycline-ciprofloxacin-and-sulfamerazine-to-swine-manures-with-contrasting-properties
#5
Dengmiao Cheng, Yao Feng, Yuanwang Liu, Jinpeng Li, Jianming Xue, Zhaojun Li
Understanding antibiotic adsorption in livestock manures is crucial to assess the fate and risk of antibiotics in the environment. In this study, three quantitative models developed with swine manure-water distribution coefficients (LgKd ) for oxytetracycline (OTC), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and sulfamerazine (SM1) in swine manures. Physicochemical parameters (n=12) of the swine manure were used as independent variables using partial least-squares (PLSs) analysis. The cumulative cross-validated regression coefficients (Q2 cum ) values, standard deviations (SDs) and external validation coefficient (Q2 ext ) ranged from 0...
April 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660860/managing-india-s-small-landholder-farms-for-food-security-and-achieving-the-4-per-thousand-target
#6
Arun Jyoti Nath, Rattan Lal, Gudeta Weldesemayat Sileshi, Ashesh Kumar Das
The "4 per Thousand" initiative was launched at the 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) in December 2015 to address global climate change through the aspirational goal of increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) stock of the world to 40-cm depth by an average annual rate of 4%. Small landholders (SLHs), often faced with difficult bio-physical and socio-economic conditions, are the principal managers of soil in India. There are 117 million SLHs representing 85% of the total operational holdings, cultivating over 72 million ha of land, and meeting 50-60% of India's food requirement...
April 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657583/-i-m-black-and-i-m-proud-a-majority-ecological-context-protects-affective-aspects-of-black-identity-under-stereotype-threat
#7
Andre' Oliver, Ghilamichael Andemeskel, Carlise R King, Lyndsey Wallace, Serie McDougal, Kenneth P Monteiro, Avi Ben-Zeev
We provide evidence that stereotype threat, a phenomenon that causes stigmatized individuals to experience group-based evaluative concerns (Steele in Am Psychol 52:613-629, 1997; Whistling Vivaldi and other clues to how stereotypes affect us, W.W. Norton, New York, 2010), impacts affective aspects of Black identity as a function of majority versus minority ecological contexts. Black/African-American students, enrolled in either Africana Studies (Black ecological majority) or Psychology (Black ecological minority), completed private and public regard subscales from the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (Sellers et al...
December 2017: Race and Social Problems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656229/unveiling-the-mechanism-of-the-promising-two-dimensional-photoswitch-hemithioindigo
#8
Donglin Li, Yonggang Yang, Chaozheng Li, Yufang Liu
The control of internal molecular motions by outside stimuli is a decisive task in the construction of functional molecules and molecular machines. Light-induced intramolecular rotations of photoswitches have attracted increasing research interests because of the high stability and high reversibility of photoswitches. Recently, Henry et al. reported an unprecedented two-dimensional controlled photoswitch, the hemithioindigo (HTI) derivative Z1, whose single bond rotation in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) solvent and double bond rotation in cyclohexane solvent can be induced by visible light (J...
April 11, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651419/management-of-glioblastoma-multiforme-in-a-patient-treated-with-ketogenic-metabolic-therapy-and-modified-standard-of-care-a-24-month-follow-up
#9
Ahmed M A Elsakka, Mohamed Abdel Bary, Eman Abdelzaher, Mostafa Elnaggar, Miriam Kalamian, Purna Mukherjee, Thomas N Seyfried
Few advances have been made in overall survival for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in more than 40 years. Here, we report the case of a 38-year-old man who presented with chronic headache, nausea, and vomiting accompanied by left partial motor seizures and upper left limb weakness. Enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solid cystic lesion in the right partial space suggesting GBM. Serum testing revealed vitamin D deficiency and elevated levels of insulin and triglycerides. Prior to subtotal tumor resection and standard of care (SOC), the patient conducted a 72-h water-only fast...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651195/impacts-of-plastic-film-mulching-on-crop-yields-soil-water-nitrate-and-organic-carbon-in-northwestern-china-a-meta-analysis
#10
Dedi Ma, Lei Chen, Hongchao Qu, Yilin Wang, Tom Misselbrook, Rui Jiang
In order to increase crop yield in semi-arid and arid areas, plastic film mulching (PFM) is widely used in Northwestern China. To date, many studies have addressed the effects of PFM on soil physical and biochemical properties in rain-fed agriculture in Northwestern China, but the findings of different studies are often contradictory. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the impacts of PFM on soil water content, soil nutrients and food production is needed. We compiled the results of 1278 observations to evaluate the overall effects of PFM on soil water content, the distribution of nitrate and soil organic carbon, and crop yield in rain-fed agriculture in Northwestern China...
April 1, 2018: Agricultural Water Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650756/igf-1-induces-socs-2-but-not-socs-1-and-socs-3-transcription-in-juvenile-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#11
Cai-Zhi Liu, Yuan Luo, Samwel Mchele Limbu, Li-Qiao Chen, Zhen-Yu Du
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays a crucial role in regulating growth in vertebrates while suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) act as feedback inhibitors of the GH/IGF-1 axis. Although SOCS-2 binds IGF-1 receptor and inhibits IGF-1-induced STAT3 activation, presently there is no clear evidence whether IGF-1 could induce SOCS genes expression. The current study aimed to determine whether IGF-1 could induce the transcription of SOCS in juvenile Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ). We show that there is a common positive relationship between the mRNA expression of IGF-I and SOCS-2 under different nutritional statuses and stimulants, but not the expression of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 mRNA...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650058/roles-of-instrumented-farm-scale-trials-in-trade-off-assessments-of-pasture-based-ruminant-production-systems
#12
T Takahashi, P Harris, M S A Blackwell, L M Cardenas, A L Collins, J A J Dungait, J M B Hawkins, T H Misselbrook, G A McAuliffe, J N McFadzean, P J Murray, R J Orr, M J Rivero, L Wu, M R F Lee
For livestock production systems to play a positive role in global food security, the balance between their benefits and disbenefits to society must be appropriately managed. Based on the evidence provided by field-scale randomised controlled trials around the world, this debate has traditionally centred on the concept of economic-environmental trade-offs, of which existence is theoretically assured when resource allocation is perfect on the farm. Recent research conducted on commercial farms indicates, however, that the economic-environmental nexus is not nearly as straightforward in the real world, with environmental performances of enterprises often positively correlated with their economic profitability...
April 13, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644931/an-evaluation-of-a-diabetes-self-management-education-dsme-intervention-delivered-using-avatar-based-technology-certified-diabetes-educators-ratings-and-perceptions
#13
Joanne Duncan-Carnesciali, Barbara C Wallace, Michelle Odlum
Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceptions that certified diabetes educators (CDEs), of diverse health professions, have of a culturally appropriate e-health intervention that used avatar-based technology. Methods Cross-sectional, survey-based design using quantitative and qualitative paradigms. A logic model framed the study, which centered on the broad and general concepts leading to study outcomes. In total, 198 CDEs participated in the evaluation. Participants were mostly female and represented an age range of 26 to 76 years...
April 1, 2018: Diabetes Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643700/evaluation-of-the-accuracy-of-ecg-captured-by-cardiochip-through-comparison-of-lead-i-recording-to-a-standard-12-lead-ecg-recording-device
#14
Chi-In Lo, Sheng-Shiung Chang, Jui-Peng Tsai, Jen-Yuan Kuo, Ying-Ju Chen, Ming-Yuan Huang, Chao-Hsiung Lee, Kuo-Tzu Sung, Chung-Lieh Hung, Charles Jia-Yin Hou, Edward Lai, Hung-I Yeh, Wen-Ling Chang, Wen-Han Chang
Background: Remote cardiac rhythm monitoring and recording, using hand-carried electrocardiogram (ECG) device had been widely used in telemedicine. The feasibility and accuracy analysis on the data recorded by a new miniature ECG system-on-chip (SoC) system has not been explored before. Methods: This study evaluated the accuracy of the ECG recordings captured by CardioChip - a single-channeled, low-powered, miniature ECG SoC designed for mobile applications; comparing against Philips Pagewriter Trim III - a Food and Drug Administration certified, widely-used standard 12-lead ECG recording device, within Mackay Memorial Hospital in Taiwan...
March 2018: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642640/predicting-key-agronomic-soil-properties-with-uv-vis-fluorescence-measurements-combined-with-vis-nir-swir-reflectance-spectroscopy-a-farm-scale-study-in-a-mediterranean-viticultural-agroecosystem
#15
Emmanuelle Vaudour, Zoran G Cerovic, Dav M Ebengo, Gwendal Latouche
For adequate crop and soil management, rapid and accurate techniques for monitoring soil properties are particularly important when a farmer starts up his activities and needs a diagnosis of his cultivated fields. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of fluorescence measured directly on 146 whole soil solid samples, for predicting key soil properties at the scale of a 6 ha Mediterranean wine estate with contrasting soils. UV-Vis fluorescence measurements were carried out in conjunction with reflectance measurements in the Vis-NIR-SWIR range...
April 10, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629154/models-for-aerobic-carbon-monoxide-dehydrogenase-synthesis-characterization-and-reactivity-of-paramagnetic-mo-v-o-%C3%AE-s-cu-i-complexes
#16
Craig Gourlay, David J Nielsen, David J Evans, Jonathan M White, Charles G Young
Reaction of [CoCp2 ][TpiPr MoOS(OAr)] [Cp = η5 -cyclopentadienyl; TpiPr = hydrotris(3-isopropylpyrazol-1-yl)borate; OAr = phenolate or derivative thereof] with [Cu(NCMe)(Me3 tcn)]BF4 (Me3 tcn = 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane) in MeCN at -30 °C results in the formation of red-brown/black, paramagnetic, μ-sulfido-Mo(v)/Cu(i) complexes, TpiPr MoO(OAr)(μ-S)Cu(Me3 tcn). The complexes possess the MoO(μ-S)Cu core found in aerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CODHs) and exhibit X-band EPR spectra closely related to those of semi-reduced CODH, with g iso ∼ 1...
January 28, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628272/altered-grey-matter-volume-and-cortical-thickness-in-patients-with-schizo-obsessive-comorbidity
#17
Yong-Ming Wang, Lai-Quan Zou, Wen-Lan Xie, Zhuo-Ya Yang, Xiong-Zhao Zhu, Eric F C Cheung, Thomas Alrik Sørensen, Arne Møller, Raymond C K Chan
Recent findings suggest that schizo-obsessive comorbidity (SOC) may be a unique diagnostic entity. We examined grey matter (GM) volume and cortical thickness in 22 patients with SOC, and compared them with 21 schizophrenia (SCZ) patients, 22 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients and 22 healthy controls (HCs). We found that patients with SOC exhibited reduced GM volume in the left thalamus, the left inferior semi-lunar lobule of the cerebellum, the bilateral medial orbitofrontal cortex (medial oFC), the medial superior frontal gyrus (medial sFG), the rectus gyrus and the anterior cingulate cortex (aCC) compared with HCs...
March 28, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627972/semi-volatile-organic-compounds-socs-in-fine-particulate-matter-pm2-5-during-clear-fog-and-haze-episodes-in-beijing-winter
#18
Ting Wang, Mi Tian, Nan Ding, Xiao Yan, She-Jun Chen, Yangzhi Mo, Weiqiang Yang, Xinhui Bi, Xinming Wang, Bi-Xian Xian Mai
Few efforts have been made to elucidate the influence of weather conditions on the fate of semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs). Here, daily fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during clear, haze, and fog episodes collected in winter in Beijing, China was analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs). The total concentrations of PAHs, OPFRs, and BFRs had medians of 45.1 ng/m3, 1347 pg/m3, and 46.7 pg/m3, respectively. The temporal pattern for PAH concentrations was largely dependent on coal combustion for residential heating...
April 9, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627959/increased-associated-effects-of-topography-and-litter-and-soil-nutrients-on-soil-enzyme-activities-and-microbial-biomass-along-vegetation-successions-in-karst-ecosystem-southwestern-china
#19
Fujing Pan, Wei Zhang, Yueming Liang, Shujuan Liu, Kelin Wang
Studying the influence of topography and litter and soil nutrients on soil enzymes and microbial biomass is important to the understanding of soil nutrient transformation and cycling, but these relationships in heterogeneous soils of karst ecosystem remains poorly understood. We determined environment factors influencing the urease (URS) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) with advancing vegetation succession. The results showed that ALP increased but URS decreased with the advancing vegetation succession...
April 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627550/speciation-of-organic-fractions-does-matter-for-aerosol-source-apportionment-part-2-intensive-short-term-campaign-in-the-paris-area-france
#20
D Srivastava, O Favez, N Bonnaire, F Lucarelli, M Haeffelin, E Perraudin, V Gros, E Villenave, A Albinet
The present study aimed at performing PM10 source apportionment, using positive matrix factorization (PMF), based on filter samples collected every 4h at a sub-urban station in the Paris region (France) during a PM pollution event in March 2015 (PM10 >50μgm-3 for several consecutive days). The PMF model allowed to deconvolve 11 source factors. The use of specific primary and secondary organic molecular markers favoured the determination of common sources such as biomass burning and primary traffic emissions, as well as 2 specific biogenic SOA (marine+isoprene) and 3 anthropogenic SOA (nitro-PAHs+oxy-PAHs+phenolic compounds oxidation) factors...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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