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Robert W Kentridge
When visual information about an object's distance is obscured, but its retinal size visible, the object's physical size is ambiguous to vision; however, additional proprioceptive distance information permits physical size to be estimated when grasping the object, but perceptual size estimates remain inaccurate, adding to that evidence for distinct visual pathways for perception and action.
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Sarah Thiele, Maximilian Pfau, Petra P Larsen, Monika Fleckenstein, Frank G Holz, Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg
Purpose: To evaluate the development of central atrophy in eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: Six-year longitudinal multimodal retinal imaging data (MODIAMD study) from 98 eyes of 98 subjects with non-late-stage AMD in the study eye at baseline were analyzed for the presence of central atrophy at each annual follow-up visit. Development, manifestation, and further progression of complete retinal pigment epithelium and outer retinal atrophy (cRORA) by multimodal imaging data were compared with atrophy detection based on color fundus photography only...
March 20, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ji Won Kim, JaeSang Ko, Young Jun Woo, Hyoung Won Bae, Jin Sook Yoon
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of ocular hypertension (OHT) and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in patients with GO and to investigate the associations between clinical features of the disease and the prevalence of OHT and OAG. METHODS: A cross-sectional analytic study was conducted among a total of 1128 patients with Graves' orbitopathy (GO). A complete ophthalmic examination was performed, including intraocular pressure, optic disc photography, visual field testing using a Humphrey visual field analyzer, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Eun Jung Lee, Jong Chul Han, Changwon Kee
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between glaucomatous disc hemorrhage (DH) location with respect to the nasal or temporal margin of the retinal nerve fiber layer defect (RNFLD) and the direction of RNFLD widening. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional study. Patients with any documented episode of glaucomatous DH throughout the follow-up period, and definite RNFLD widening on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) photos were analyzed...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Andrew Bastawrous, Wanjiku Mathenge, John Buchan, Fatima Kyari, Tunde Peto, Hillary Rono, Helen A Weiss, David Macleod, Allen Foster, Matthew Burton, Hannah Kuper
PURPOSE: Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in people of African descent. Minimal data is available from African population-based cohort studies. The primary aims of this study were to describe the normative distribution of glaucoma features to enable glaucoma classification and to assess risk factors for those with glaucoma at follow-up among people aged ≥50 years in Kenya. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Random cluster sampling with probability proportionate to size was used to select a representative cross-sectional sample of adults aged ≥50 years in 2007-8 in Nakuru District, Kenya...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Zia S Pradhan, Shivani Dixit, Shruthi Sreenivasaiah, Harsha L Rao, Jayasree P Venugopal, Sathi Devi, Carroll A B Webers
PURPOSE: To study sectoral vessel density (VD) and structural alterations in the peripapillary and parafoveal hemiretina corresponding to perimetrically intact regions of glaucomatous eyes with hemifield defects and to compare these with healthy eyes using optical coherence tomography. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 37 eyes with open-angle glaucoma having visual fields (VF) defects restricted to one hemifield and 45 age-matched controls. Peripapillary VD and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness were measured in 8 sectors...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Ben Mead, Stanislav Tomarev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Monika Lakk, Felix Vazquez-Chona, Oleg Yarishkin, David Križaj
Unesterified cholesterol controls the fluidity, permeability and electrical properties of eukaryotic cell membranes. Consequently, cholesterol levels in the retina and the brain are tightly regulated whereas depletion or oversupply caused by diet or heredity contribute to neurodegenerative diseases and vision loss. Astroglia play a central role in the biosynthesis, uptake and transport of cholesterol and also drive inflammatory signaling under hypercholesterolemic conditions associated with high-fat diet (diabetes) and neurodegenerative disease...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Chuan Tian, Xi Chen, Jin Cao, Lu Yang
The present study was designed to compare the effect of indocyanine green (ICG)-enhanced laser (810 nm) thermocoagulation method and photodynamic therapy (PDT) on circumscribed choroidal hemangioma (CCH). A total of 36 patients (36 pair of eyes) diagnosed with CCH in the Ocular Fundus Disease Center of The Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Ningbo University from June 2010 to January 2016 were selected and randomly divided into two groups. ICG-enhanced thermocoagulation was used to treat 18 patients (18 pair of eyes), and PDT was used to treat the remaining 18 patients (18 pair of eyes)...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Jost B Jonas, Wen Bin Wei, Li Ping Zhu, Liang Xu, Ya Xing Wang
To examine associations between cognitive function and ophthalmological parameters, the population-based Beijing Eye Study examined ophthalmologically and physically 3127 individuals (mean age: 64.2 ± 9.8 years). Using the mini-mental state examination, cognitive function was assessed as cognitive function score (CFS). Mean CFS was 26.3 ± 3.7 (median: 27; range: 2-30). Prevalence of mild (CFS: 23-19), moderate (CFS: 18-10) and severe cognitive dysfunction was 9.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
C Schnedermann, X Yang, M Liebel, K M Spillane, J Lugtenburg, I Fernández, A Valentini, I Schapiro, M Olivucci, P Kukura, R A Mathies
Vibronic coupling is key to efficient energy flow in molecular systems and a critical component of most mechanisms invoking quantum effects in biological processes. Despite increasing evidence for coherent coupling of electronic states being mediated by vibrational motion, it is not clear how and to what degree properties associated with vibrational coherence such as phase and coupling of atomic motion can impact the efficiency of light-induced processes under natural, incoherent illumination. Here, we show that deuteration of the H11 -C11 =C12 -H12 double-bond of the 11-cis retinal chromophore in the visual pigment rhodopsin significantly and unexpectedly alters the photoisomerization yield while inducing smaller changes in the ultrafast isomerization dynamics assignable to known isotope effects...
March 19, 2018: Nature Chemistry
Ahmed Al-Janabi, Sue Lightman, Oren Tomkins-Netzer
Statins are known for their blood cholesterol-lowering effect and are widely used in patients with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Research over the past three decades shows that statins have diverse effects on different pathophysiological pathways involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, apoptosis, and anti-oxidation, leading to new therapeutic options. Recently, statins have attracted considerable attention for their immunomodulatory effect. Since immune reactivity has been implicated in a number of retinal diseases, such as uveitis, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy, there is now a growing body of evidence supporting the beneficial effects of statins in these retinopathies...
March 20, 2018: Eye
Katherine Shirley, Marie O'Neill, Rachel Gamble, Anne Ramsey, Eibhlin McLoone
PURPOSE: Torpedo maculopathy is a rare lesion of the retinal pigment epithelium. This study set out to look at these lesions in the paediatric population and determine the spectrum and features of the disease. METHODS: The paediatric ophthalmology database was used to identify eight children with torpedo maculopathy between 2012 and 2017. Fundal images and optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to analyse the cases. RESULTS: Eight patients with torpedo maculopathy were identified, making the prevalence approximately 2 per 100,000 population under 16 years old...
March 20, 2018: Eye
Johannes Birtel, Tobias Eisenberger, Martin Gliem, Philipp L Müller, Philipp Herrmann, Christian Betz, Diana Zahnleiter, Christine Neuhaus, Steffen Lenzner, Frank G Holz, Elisabeth Mangold, Hanno J Bolz, Peter Charbel Issa
Macular and cone/cone-rod dystrophies (MD/CCRD) demonstrate a broad genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, with retinal alterations solely or predominantly involving the central retina. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) is an efficient diagnostic tool for identifying mutations in patient with retinitis pigmentosa, which shows similar genetic heterogeneity. To detect the genetic causes of disease in patients with MD/CCRD, we implemented a two-tier procedure consisting of Sanger sequencing and targeted NGS including genes associated with clinically overlapping conditions...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rowena Schultz, Melanie Krug, Michel Precht, Stefanie G Wohl, Otto W Witte, Christian Schmeer
Müller cells are critical for retinal function and neuronal survival but can become detrimental in response to retinal ischemia and increased oxidative stress. Elevated oxidative stress increases expression of the mitochondrial enzyme frataxin in the retina, and its overexpression is neuroprotective after ischemia. Whether frataxin expression in Müller cells might improve their function and protect neurons after ischemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of frataxin overexpression in Müller cells on neuronal survival after retinal ischemia/reperfusion in the mouse in vivo...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniel Mattle, Bernd Kuhn, Johannes Aebi, Marc Bedoucha, Demet Kekilli, Nathalie Grozinger, Andre Alker, Markus G Rudolph, Georg Schmid, Gebhard F X Schertler, Michael Hennig, Jörg Standfuss, Roger J P Dawson
In the degenerative eye disease retinitis pigmentosa (RP), protein misfolding leads to fatal consequences for cell metabolism and rod and cone cell survival. To stop disease progression, a therapeutic approach focuses on stabilizing inherited protein mutants of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) rhodopsin using pharmacological chaperones (PC) that improve receptor folding and trafficking. In this study, we discovered stabilizing nonretinal small molecules by virtual and thermofluor screening and determined the crystal structure of pharmacologically stabilized opsin at 2...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Albert Ardevol, Gerhard Hummer
Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is a light-sensitive ion channel widely used in optogenetics. Photoactivation triggers a trans -to- cis isomerization of a covalently bound retinal. Ensuing conformational changes open a cation-selective channel. We explore the structural dynamics in the early photocycle leading to channel opening by classical (MM) and quantum mechanical (QM) molecular simulations. With QM/MM simulations, we generated a protein-adapted force field for the retinal chromophore, which we validated against absorption spectra...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Timothy J Peiris, Maanasa Indaram, Euna Koo, Janet S Soul, David G Hunter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2018: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Jennifer I Lim, Dingcai Cao
PURPOSE: To determine whether the retina is thinner in sickle cell patients than in race- and age-matched controls, and if it is thinner, whether there is any association with systemic diseases. METHODS: Sickle cell and control (age- and race-matched) patients were prospectively enrolled from a university retina clinic into this observational study. Participants underwent visual acuity testing, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, dilated ophthalmoscopy, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Joan M O'Brien, Rebecca J Salowe, Raymond Fertig, Julia Salinas, Maxwell Pistilli, Prithvi S Sankar, Eydie Miller-Ellis, Amanda Lehman, Windell Murphy, Melissa Homsher, Katelyn Gordon, Gui-Shuang Ying
PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between positive family history (FH) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) diagnosis and clinical presentation in the Primary Open-Angle African American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) cohort. METHODS: FH of POAG in first-degree relatives was assessed in 2365 subjects in the POAAGG cohort. A standardized interview was used to assess FH of glaucoma, demographic characteristics, lifestyle choices, and medical and ocular comorbidities...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
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