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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351053/macular-edema-rationale-for-therapy
#1
Thomas J Wolfensberger
Macular edema represents the end-stage of multiple pathophysiological pathways in a multitude of ocular vascular, inflammatory, and other diseases. The rationale for clinical treatment of macular edema is based on the understanding and the inhibition of these pathophysiological mechanisms. When macular edema is caused by a generalized health problem such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or generalized inflammatory conditions, treatment of these generalized diseases can in many cases cure macular edema directly...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351052/diabetic-macular-edema
#2
Francesco Bandello, Maurizio Battaglia Parodi, Paolo Lanzetta, Anat Loewenstein, Pascale Massin, Francesca Menchini, Daniele Veritti
Diabetic macular edema (DME), defined as a retinal thickening involving or approaching the center of the macula, represents the most common cause of vision loss in patients affected by diabetes mellitus. In the last few years, many diagnostic tools have proven to be useful in the detection and the monitoring of the features characterizing DME. On the other hand, several therapeutic approaches can now be proposed on the basis of the DME-specific characteristics. The aim of the present chapter is to thoroughly delineate the clinical and morphofunctional characteristics of DME and its current treatment perspectives...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351050/miscellaneous
#3
Catherine Creuzot-Garcher
This chapter provides the reader with practical information to be applied to the various remaining causes of macular edema. Some clinical cases of macular edema linked to ocular diseases like postradiotherapy for ocular melanomas remained of poor functional prognosis due to the primary disease. On the contrary, macular edema occurring after retinal detachment or after diverse systemic or local treatment use is often temporary. Macular edema associated with epiretinal membranes or vitreomacular traction is the main cause of poor functional recovery...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351048/retinitis-pigmentosa-and-other-dystrophies
#4
Sarah Mrejen, Isabelle Audo, Sébastien Bonnel, José-Alain Sahel
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of inherited retinal degenerations characterized by progressive degeneration of rod and cone cells that affects predominantly peripheral visual fields. Macular edema may cause additional central visual acuity decrease. Cystoid macular edema (CME) is one of the few treatable causes of visual loss in RP. The prevalence of CME in RP has been found to be between 10 and 20% on fluorescein angiography-based studies, and as high as 49% on reports based on optical coherence tomography...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351046/retinal-vein-occlusions
#5
Jost B Jonas, Jordi Monés, Agnès Glacet-Bernard, Gabriel Coscas
Retinal vein occlusions (RVOs) have been defined as retinal vascular disorders characterized by dilatation of retinal veins with retinal and subretinal hemorrhages, macular edema, and a varying degree of retinal ischemia. Retinal angiography, either as fluorescein and indocyanine green (ICG) angiography or in the form of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based angiography, is essential for the diagnosis and assessment of the prognosis of RVOs. It allows the differentiation of diverse types of RVOs, such as perfused or nonperfused, as well as the detection of different modalities in the natural history of RVOs...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351045/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-macular-edema
#6
Marco Lupidi, Florence Coscas, Carlo Cagini, Gabriel Coscas
OCT angiography is a promising new method to visualize the retinal vasculature and choroidal vascular layers in the macular area and provides depth resolved functional information of the blood flow in the vessels. Given that the main moving elements in the eye fundus are contained in vessels, determining a vascular decorrelation signal enables visualization of 3-dimensional retinal and choroidal vascular network without the administration of intravenous dye and thus reducing the risk of potential adverse events...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351044/diagnosis-and-detection
#7
Giovanni Staurenghi, Marco Pellegrini, Alessandro Invernizzi, Chiara Preziosa
The aim of the chapter is to provide a practical but exhaustive guide in detecting macular edema and to describe its features according to the retinal condition that causes it. The most useful imaging techniques (biomicroscopy, retinography, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein/indocyanine-green angiography will be analyzed in order to identify the best diagnostic algorithm in each pathology. There is a table at the end of the chapter which summarizes the important points of the chapter.
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351043/central-serous-chorioretinopathy
#8
Alejandra Daruich, Alexandre Matet, Francine Behar-Cohen
Central serous is an atypical form of macular edema with mostly accumulation of fluid under the retina. It contitutes a pure phenotype of retinal pigment epithelium barrier breakdown. Another particularity is the good visual preservation despite important fluid volume increase in the macula.
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351042/intracellular-edema
#9
Raja Narayanan, Baruch D Kuppermann
The macula is predisposed to edema in various retinal conditions, even when the insult is remote from the macula. The various factors that may predispose the macula to edema include high metabolic activity, radial arrangement of the Henle's layer, lack of inner layers at the fovea, and lack of blood supply at the fovea. The edema is most pronounced in the outer plexiform layer (Henle's layer). Alteration in the blood-retinal barrier and ischemia cause disturbances in vascular permeability as well as with the function of Müller cells...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351041/mechanisms-of-retinal-fluid-accumulation-and-blood-retinal-barrier-breakdown
#10
José Cunha-Vaz
Macular edema is the swelling of the central portion of the human retina and it is associated with increased retinal thickness. It can be simply defined as an excess of fluid within the retinal tissue. It must be realized that the normal retina possesses a functional extracellular space. With regard to the extracellular volume of the retina, there have been few physiologic studies, but there are reported values of 24.8% for the cerebrum and 23.6% for the cerebellum. It is accepted that the retinal extracellular space is similar to the brain...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351040/macular-edema-definition-and-basic-concepts
#11
Gabriel Coscas, José Cunha-Vaz, Gisèle Soubrane
Macular edema is the result of an accumulation of fluid in the retinal layers around the fovea. It contributes to vision loss by altering the functional cell relationship in the retina and promoting an inflammatory reparative response. Macular edema may be intracellular or extracellular. Intracellular accumulation of fluid, also called cytotoxic edema, is an alteration of the cellular ionic distribution. Extracellular accumulation of fluid, which is more frequent and clinically more relevant, is directly associated with an alteration of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB)...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350445/structural-changes-in-an-anion-channelrhodopsin-formation-of-the-k-and-l-intermediates-at-80-k
#12
Adrian Yi, Hai Li, Natalia V Mamaeva, Roberto F de Cordoba, Johan Lugtenburg, Willem J DeGrip, John L Spudich, Kenneth J Rothschild
A recently discovered natural family of light-gated anion channelrhodopsins (ACRs) from cryptophyte algae provides an effective means of optogenetically silencing neurons. The most extensively studied ACR is from Guillardia theta (GtACR1). Earlier studies of GtACR1 have established a correlation between formation of a blue-shifted L-like intermediate and the anion channel "open" state. To study structural changes of GtACR1 in the K and L intermediates of the photocycle, a combination of low-temperature FTIR and UV-visible absorption difference spectroscopy was used along with stable-isotope retinal labeling and site-directed mutagenesis...
March 28, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346613/protective-effect-of-met12-a-small-peptide-inhibitor-of-fas-on-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium-and-photoreceptor-after-sodium-iodate-injury
#13
Jianhui Xiao, Jingyu Yao, Lin Jia, Chengmao Lin, David N Zacks
Purpose: A major problem in macular degeneration is the inability to reduce RPE and photoreceptor death. These cells die by necroptosis and apoptosis, respectively, but the upstream activator(s) of these death pathways is unknown. In this study, we use the sodium iodate (NaIO3) model of oxidative stress to test the hypothesis that activation of the Fas receptor contributes to the death of the RPE and photoreceptors. Methods: Sodium iodate was injected in Brown-Norway rats via femoral vein injection...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346545/aqueous-cytokine-levels-are-associated-with-reduced-macular-thickness-after-intravitreal-ranibizumab-for-diabetic-macular-edema
#14
Tomoyasu Shiraya, Satoshi Kato, Fumiyuki Araki, Takashi Ueta, Tempei Miyaji, Takuhiro Yamaguchi
PURPOSE: It is controversial whether the administration of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs for diabetic macular edema (DME) affects intraocular inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we measured cytokine concentration in aqueous humor before and after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR). The aim was to determine changes in cytokine concentration and their effects on DME reduction. METHODS: Twelve patients (13 eyes) with DME received two IVR (0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346429/deletion-of-endothelial-cell-specific-liver-kinase-b1-increases-angiogenesis-and-tumor-growth-via-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor
#15
W Zhang, Y Ding, C Zhang, Q Lu, Z Liu, K Coughlan, I Okon, M-H Zou
Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is a serine/threonine protein kinase ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells. It was first identified in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome as a tumor suppressor gene. Whether endothelial LKB1 regulates angiogenesis and tumor growth is unknown. In this study, we generated endothelial cell-specific LKB1-knockout (LKB1(endo-/-)) mice by crossbreeding vascular endothelial-cadherin-Cre mice with LKB1(flox/flox) mice. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level was highly co-stained in endothelial cells but not in macrophages in LKB1(endo-/-) mice...
March 27, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345876/engineering-cellular-microenvironments-with-photo-and-enzymatically-responsive-hydrogels-toward-biomimetic-3d-cell-culture-models
#16
Roger Y Tam, Laura J Smith, Molly S Shoichet
Conventional cell culture techniques using 2D polystyrene or glass have provided great insight into key biochemical mechanisms responsible for cellular events such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and cell-cell interactions. However, the physical and chemical properties of 2D culture in vitro are dramatically different than those found in the native cellular microenvironment in vivo. Cells grown on 2D substrates differ significantly from those grown in vivo, and this explains, in part, why many promising drug candidates discovered through in vitro drug screening assays fail when they are translated to in vivo animal or human models...
March 27, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345586/new-insights-into-mononuclear-phagocyte-biology-from-the-visual-system
#17
REVIEW
Nancy J Reyes, Emily G O'Koren, Daniel R Saban
Major advances in mononuclear phagocyte biology have been made but key questions pertinent to their roles in health and disease remain, including in the visual system. One problem concerns how dendritic cells can trigger immune responses from certain tightly regulated immune- privileged sites of the eye. Another, albeit separate, problem involves whether there are functional specializations for microglia versus monocytes in retinal neurodegeneration. In this Review, we examine novel insights in eye immune privilege and, separately, we discuss recent inroads concerning retinal degeneration...
March 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345567/retina-and-the-tubercle-bacillus-four-decades-of-our-journey-and-current-understanding
#18
Pradeep Venkatesh
Tuberculosis continues to be a major pandemic with enormous public health implication. Involvement of ocular tissues in the form of tubercles, tuberculomas, panophthalmitis, and iris granulomas are well recognized as definitive manifestations of tuberculosis. For these lesions, confirmatory evidence is available in the form of demonstration of acid-fast Bacillus on Ziehl-Neelsen staining. For other retinochoroidal disorders such as central serous chorioretinopathy, retinal vasculitis, and presumed ocular tuberculosis, hard evidence about the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is lacking...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345544/retinal-vascular-morphological-changes-in-patients-with-extremely-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome
#19
Xiao-Yi Wang, Shuang Wang, Xue Liu, Xiu Ding, Meng Li, De-Min Han
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been shown to generate hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Retinal vessel is the only vessel that can be observed directly and noninvasively; retinal vascular abnormalities can serve as a predictive marker for the occurrence, clinical course, and prognosis of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to identify the effect of OSAS severity on the morphological changes of retinal vessels. METHODS: Adult patients complained of snoring were included in this study...
April 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345241/the-new-swedish-report-on-shaken-baby-syndrome-is-misleading
#20
Kerstin Hellgren, Ann Hellström, Anna-Lena Hård, Lena Jacobson, Ulrika Lidén, Stefan Löfgren, Kristina Teär Fahnehjelm, Jan Ygge
In this issue of Acta Paediatrica, Professor Alex Levin, Director of the Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Service at Wills Eye Hospital, (PA, USA), expresses relevant concerns (1) about a report produced by the Swedish Agency for Technology Assessment of Health and Social Services (SBU) (2) and summarized in a paper by Lynøe et al (3). He also provides necessary input on the importance of the morphology and distribution of retinal hemorrhages in diagnosing different causes of retinal bleedings. SBU undertakes independent assessments of methods used in health, medical, dental and social services and services provided to persons with certain functional disabilities...
March 27, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
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