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ACE, ARBs and heart and kidney

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754186/sp-04-1-the-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#1
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754163/sy-11-3-hypertension-in-women-more-dangerous-than-in-men
#2
Suzanne Oparil
Heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure are leading causes of death worldwide, and hypertension is a significant risk factor for each. Hypertension is less common in women, compared to men, in those younger than 45 years of age. This trend is reversed in those 65 years and older. In the US between 2011-2014, the prevalence of hypertension in women and men by age group was 6% vs 8% (18-39 years), 30% vs 35% (40-59 years), and 67% vs 63% (60 years and over). Awareness, treatment, and control rates differ between genders with women being more aware of their diagnosis (85% vs 80%), more likely to take their medications (81% vs 71%) and more frequently having controlled hypertension (55% vs 49%)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643143/sp-04-1-the-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#3
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643118/sy-11-3-hypertension-in-women-more-dangerous-than-in-men
#4
Suzanne Oparil
Heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure are leading causes of death worldwide, and hypertension is a significant risk factor for each. Hypertension is less common in women, compared to men, in those younger than 45 years of age. This trend is reversed in those 65 years and older. In the US between 2011-2014, the prevalence of hypertension in women and men by age group was 6% vs 8% (18-39 years), 30% vs 35% (40-59 years), and 67% vs 63% (60 years and over). Awareness, treatment, and control rates differ between genders with women being more aware of their diagnosis (85% vs 80%), more likely to take their medications (81% vs 71%) and more frequently having controlled hypertension (55% vs 49%)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502849/long-term-changes-of-renal-function-in-relation-to-ace-inhibitor-angiotensin-receptor-blocker-dosing-in-patients-with-heart-failure-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#5
Hanna Fröhlich, Christoph Nelges, Tobias Täger, Vedat Schwenger, Rita Cebola, Johannes Schnorbach, Kevin M Goode, Syed Kazmi, Hugo A Katus, John G F Cleland, Andrew L Clark, Lutz Frankenstein
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have become cornerstones of therapy for chronic heart failure (CHF). Guidelines advise high target doses for ACEIs/ARBs, but fear of worsening renal function may limit dose titration in patients with concomitant chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, we identified 722 consecutive patients with systolic CHF, stable CKD stage III/IV (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 15-60 mL min(-1) 1...
August 2016: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347090/delayed-kidney-injury-following-coronary-angiography
#6
Feng Wang, Cheng Peng, Guangyuan Zhang, Qing Zhao, Changyou Xuan, Meng Wei, Niansong Wang
It is occasionally observed that patients without contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) develop kidney injury within 1-6 months after coronary angiography (CAG), termed delayed CIN or delayed kidney injury (DKI) following CAG. The present study aimed to investigate the associated risk factors of delayed CIN and its possible pathogenesis. Subjects with CAG or coronary stenting from January 2008 to December 2009 were studied. A retrospective survey on DKI after CAG was conducted and the risk factors were analyzed...
July 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27118234/soluble-guanylate-cyclase-stimulators-a-novel-treatment-option-for-heart-failure-associated-with-cardiorenal-syndromes
#7
REVIEW
Ruth F Dubin, Sanjiv J Shah
Heart failure in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasingly common scenario and carries a poor prognosis. Clinicians lack tools for primary or secondary heart failure prevention in patients with cardiorenal syndromes. In patients without CKD, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and statins mitigate cardiovascular risk in large part due to salutary effects on the endothelium. In the setting of CKD, use of these therapies is limited by adverse effects of hyperkalemia in pre-dialysis CKD (ACE-I/ARB), or potential increased risk of stroke in end-stage renal disease (statins)...
June 2016: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26705234/fixed-dose-combinations-of-renin-angiotensin-system-inhibitors-and-calcium-channel-blockers-in-the-treatment-of-hypertension-a-comparison-of-angiotensin-receptor-blockers-and-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Fu-Chih Hsiao, Ying-Chang Tung, Shing-Hsien Chou, Lung-Sheng Wu, Chia-Pin Lin, Chun-Li Wang, Yu-Sheng Lin, Chee-Jen Chang, Pao-Hsien Chu
Fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of different regimens are recommended in guidelines for the treatment of hypertension. However, clinical studies comparing FDCs of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB)/calcium channel blocker (CCB) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor)/CCB in hypertensive patients are lacking.Using a propensity score matching of 4:1 ratio, this retrospective claims database study compared 2 FDC regimens, ARB/CCB and ACE inhibitor/CCB, in treating hypertensive patients with no known atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease...
December 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26027023/blood-pressure-drugs-with-bonus-benefits-both-ace-inhibitors-and-arbs-also-help-stave-off-complications-from-heart-failure-and-kidney-disease
#9
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2014: Harvard Heart Letter: From Harvard Medical School
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25656759/the-association-between-abnormal-heart-rate-variability-and-new-onset-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-ten-year-follow-up-study
#10
Jae-Seung Yun, Yu-Bae Ahn, Ki-Ho Song, Ki-Dong Yoo, Hyung-Wook Kim, Yong-Moon Park, Seung-Hyun Ko
AIMS: We investigated the association between cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and the future development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: From Jan 2003 to Dec 2004, 1117 patients with type 2 diabetes without CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), aged 25-75 years, were consecutively enrolled. A cardiovascular autonomic function test (AFT) was performed using heart rate variability parameters...
April 2015: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24938277/long-term-medication-adherence-in-patients-with-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-and-primary-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Hannes Reuter, Anne Markhof, Steffen Scholz, Christian Wegmann, Catherine Seck, Christoph Adler, Guido Michels, Hans-Wilhelm Hoepp, Stephan Baldus, Roman Pfister
AIMS: Besides early percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) long-term medical treatment is crucial for outcomes after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The present study aimed to identify predictors of adherence to evidence-based medication in this high risk population. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1025 consecutive patients with adjudicated STEMI treated by primary PCI in a single centre as part of the Cologne Infarction Model (KIM) were prospectively analysed...
July 2015: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24599018/role-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-angiotensin-1-7-mas-axis-in-the-hypotensive-effect-of-azilsartan
#12
Jun Iwanami, Masaki Mogi, Kana Tsukuda, Xiao-Li Wang, Hirotomo Nakaoka, Kousei Ohshima, Toshiyuki Chisaka, Hui-Yu Bai, Harumi Kanno, Li-Juan Min, Masatsugu Horiuchi
The possible counteracting effect of angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme (ACE)2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis against the ACE/Ang II/Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor axis in blood pressure control has been previously described. We examined the possibility that this pathway might be involved in the anti-hypertensive effect of a newly developed AT1 receptor blocker (ARB), azilsartan, and compared azilsartan's effects with those of another ARB, olmesartan. Transgenic mice carrying the human renin and angiotensinogen genes (hRN/hANG-Tg) were given azilsartan or olmesartan...
July 2014: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24299435/addressing-chronic-kidney-disease-in-far-north-queensland-gains-and-opportunities
#13
Luke Vos, Richard Baer, Malcolm McDonald
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether people seen by the Far North Queensland Specialist Medical Outreach Service (SMOS) with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and proteinuria were treated according to established guidelines. DESIGN: Audit of SMOS clinical reports from 18th May to 27th July 2012. Clinical markers were compared with the Caring for Australians with Renal Impairment and National Heart Foundation management guidelines. SETTING: Reports covering primary health care centres located in remote communities of Cape York Peninsula and Torres Strait, Far North Queensland...
December 2013: Australian Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23866091/dual-renin-angiotensin-system-inhibition-for-prevention-of-renal-and-cardiovascular-events-do-the-latest-trials-challenge-existing-evidence
#14
REVIEW
Samir G Mallat
Circulatory and tissue renin-angiotensin systems (RAS) play a central role in cardiovascular (CV) and renal pathophysiology, making RAS inhibition a logical therapeutic approach in the prevention of CV and renal disease in patients with hypertension. The cardio- and renoprotective effects observed with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) monotherapy, together with the availability of a direct renin inhibitor (DRI), led to the investigation of the potential benefits of dual RAS inhibition...
2013: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23737209/the-kallikrein-kinin-system-as-a-regulator-of-cardiovascular-and-renal-function
#15
REVIEW
Nour-Eddine Rhaleb, Xiao-Ping Yang, Oscar A Carretero
Autocrine, paracrine, endocrine, and neuroendocrine hormonal systems help regulate cardio-vascular and renal function. Any change in the balance among these systems may result in hypertension and target organ damage, whether the cause is genetic, environmental or a combination of the two. Endocrine and neuroendocrine vasopressor hormones such as the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), aldosterone, and catecholamines are important for regulation of blood pressure and pathogenesis of hypertension and target organ damage...
April 2011: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23671265/renin-angiotensin-system-blockade-in-heart-failure-patients-on-long-term-haemodialysis-in-taiwan
#16
Chao-Hsiun Tang, Tso-Hsiao Chen, Chia-Chen Wang, Chuang-Ye Hong, Kuan-Chih Huang, Yuh-Mou Sue
AIMS: Heart failure is among the most frequent complications of patients on long-term haemodialysis. The benefits of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade on the outcomes of these patients have yet to be determined. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a nationwide observational study using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database, between 1999 and 2010. We enrolled patients aged ≥35 years with new-onset heart failure [diagnosed by International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, clinical modification (ICD-9-CM) codes] under treatment with medications...
October 2013: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23355127/angiotensin-ii-blockade-and-total-cardiovascular-risk-beyond-blood-pressure-reduction
#17
Francesco Cipollone, Sara Di Fabio, Marco Bucci, Giancarlo Cicolini, Andrea Mezzetti
Hypertension is one of the world's largest public health problems and it is both a disease and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The heart, the endothelium and the kidneys are the target organs of hypertension. Recently, several antihypertensive drugs have been introduced to the market; therefore, the choice is mainly determined by the patients' features. In particular, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]) demonstrate a larger reduction in cardiovascular risk than other antihypertensive treatments because of the existence of blood pressure-independent effects...
October 2008: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23211336/aldosterone-blockade-as-an-alternative-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-blocking-agent-in-cases-of-treatment-associated-anemia
#18
Rupali S Avasare, Gerald B Appel, Andrew S Bomback
Blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a mainstay of therapy for proteinuric kidney disease due to effects on blood pressure, proteinuria, and overall cardiovascular risk. In this case series, we highlight one of the rare but serious side effects of the most commonly used RAAS blocking drugs, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs): a severe anemia due to impaired erythropoiesis. The four patients presented here were switched to a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker (MRB) that targets aldosterone without any inhibition of angiotensin II, and resulting in significant rebounds back to baseline hemoglobin levels...
May 2014: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23176538/pharmacologic-treatment-in-dialysis-patients-hospitalized-for-cardiovascular-reasons-do-we-follow-the-guidelines
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Anna Tomaszuk-Kazberuk, Marcin Kozuch, Jolanta Malyszko, Hanna Bachorzewska-Gajewska, Slawomir Dobrzycki, Wlodzimierz J Musial
AIM: The aim was to assess if the pharmacological treatment due to cardiovascular causes in dialysis patients is compliant with the European Guidelines. METHODS: In total, 110 consecutive end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on regular dialysis were enrolled into the study. We divided the population into subgroups with coronary artery disease (CAD), chronic heart failure (CHF) and diabetes mellitus (DM). RESULTS: We gathered information about drugs from 99 patients...
2013: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22786934/risk-of-pneumonia-associated-with-use-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-and-angiotensin-receptor-blockers-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Daniel Caldeira, Joana Alarcão, António Vaz-Carneiro, João Costa
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review longitudinal studies evaluating use of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and risk of pneumonia. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline through PubMed, Web of Science with conference proceedings (inception to June 2011), and US Food and Drug Administration website (June 2011). Systematic reviews and references of retrieved articles were also searched...
2012: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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