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Anilena Mejia, Richard Emsley, Eleonora Fichera, Wadih Maalouf, Jeremy Segrott, Rachel Calam
BACKGROUND: Interpersonal violence can significantly reduce adolescents' opportunities for becoming happy and healthy adults. Central America is the most violent region in the world and it is estimated that adolescents are involved in 82% of all homicides in this region. Family skills training programmes have been designed to prevent interpersonal violence in adolescents. Several studies in high-income countries suggest they are effective. However, there are no published trials assessing effectiveness of these programmes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC)...
June 15, 2018: Trials
Yohali Burrola-Mendez, Mary Goldberg, Rachel Gartz, Jon Pearlman
INTRODUCTION: Wheelchair users worldwide are at high risk of developing secondary health conditions and premature death due to inappropriate wheelchair provision by untrained providers. The International Society of Wheelchair Professionals (ISWP) has developed a Hybrid Course based on the World Health Organization's Wheelchair Service Training Package-Basic Level. The Hybrid Course leverages online modules designed for low-bandwidth internet access that reduces the in-person training exposure from five to three and a half days, making it less expensive and more convenient for both trainees and trainers...
2018: PloS One
Ruta Vaicekauskaite, Jennifer N Schneide, Fabienne Delfour
Harbor seals in the wild live in a stimulating environment; therefore, nonhuman-animal caretakers have increasingly been using environmental enrichment to improve the well being of seals under human care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an object-based environmental enrichment program during a four-month period on stimulating exploration and play and improving conspecific social interactions and human-animal relationships (HAR). Zoo staff conducted the environmental enrichment program as part of the animal care program...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Kristen L Kucera, Hester J Lipscomb, Karen G Roos, John M Dement, Jennifer M Hootman
CONTEXT:   Health care workers have high rates of musculoskeletal injuries, but many of these injuries go unreported to workers' compensation and national surveillance systems. Little is known regarding the work-related injuries of certified athletic trainers (ATs). OBJECTIVE:   To determine the 12-month incidence and prevalence of work-related injuries and describe injury-reporting and -management strategies. DESIGN:   Cross-sectional study...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
André Strahl, Christian Gerlich, Georg W Alpers, Katja Ehrmann, Jörg Gehrke, Annette Müller-Garnn, Heiner Vogel
BACKGROUND: The German quality assurance programme for evaluating work capacity is based on peer review that evaluates the quality of medical experts' reports. Low reliability is thought to be due to systematic differences among peers. For this purpose, we developed a curriculum for a standardized peer-training (SPT). This study investigates, whether the SPT increases the inter-rater reliability of social medical physicians participating in a cross-institutional peer review. METHODS: Forty physicians from 16 regional German Pension Insurances were subjected to SPT...
June 13, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Jeffrey Bortman, Yanick Baribeau, Jelliffe Jeganathan, Yannis Amador, Faraz Mahmood, Marc Shnider, Muneeb Ahmed, Philip Hess, Robina Matyal
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Advanced haptic simulators for neuraxial training are expensive, have a finite life, and are not patient specific. We sought to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a custom-made, low-cost, 3-dimensionally printed thoracic spine simulator model from patient computed tomographic scan data. This study assessed the model's practicality, efficiency as a teaching tool, and the transfer of skill set into patient care. METHODS: A high-fidelity, patient-specific thoracic spine model was used for the study...
June 11, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Tetsuya Ishimaru, Kyoichi Deie, Tomoya Sakai, Hideyuki Satoh, Atsushi Nakazawa, Kanako Harada, Shinya Takazawa, Jun Fujishiro, Naohiko Sugita, Mamoru Mitsuishi, Tadashi Iwanaka
AIMS: Our aims were to develop a training system for camera assistants (CA), and evaluate participants' performance as CA. METHODS: A questionnaire on essential requirements to be a good CA was administered to experts in pediatric endoscopic surgery. An infant-sized box trainer with several markers and lines inside was developed. Participants performed marker capturing and line-tracing tasks using a 5-mm 30° scope. A postexperimental questionnaire on the developed system was administered...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Cailee E Welch Bacon, Tricia M Kasamatsu, Kenneth C Lam, Sara L Nottingham
CONTEXT:   High-quality patient care documentation is an essential component of any health care professional's daily practice. Whereas athletic trainers (ATs) recognize the importance of patient care documentation, several barriers may prevent them from producing high-quality patient care documentation. OBJECTIVE:   To explore beneficial strategies and techniques that ATs perceived would enhance the quality of patient care documentation in the secondary school setting...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Luka Šlosar, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Uros Marusic
The purpose of this study was to create a valid and reliable assessment scale for the evaluation of three basic tennis strokes (forehand, backhand, serve) for 6-12-year-old tennis players, named the Tennis Rating Score for Children (TRSC). Altogether 60 players (21: forehand, 22: backhand, 17: serve) were video recorded (30 frames per second) while performing three main tennis strokes and later evaluated using the TRSC by five tennis trainers at Day 1 and Day 7. Agreement between days and raters was examined using the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC)...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Bart Jelijs, Joost Heutink, Dick de Waard, Karel A Brookhuis, Bart J M Melis-Dankers
PURPOSE: This study aims to identify the most important factors that influence the independent bicycle use of visually impaired people in the Netherlands. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Both visually impaired people and professionals participated in a two-round online Delphi study (n = 42). In Round 1 the participants identified the factors which they ranked by relevance in Round 2. RESULTS: The participants prioritised environmental factors related to the traffic situation, the characteristics of the infrastructure, and weather and light conditions (Kendall's W = 0...
June 12, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Wei Jia, Basil Al-Omari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 11, 2018: Clinical Teacher
Jean L Paul, Hanna Leslie, Alison H Trainer, Clara Gaff
This systematic literature review investigates factors impacting on clinicians' decisions to offer genetic tests in their practice, and maps them to a theoretical behaviour change framework. Better understanding of these factors will inform the design of effective interventions to integrate genomics tests into clinical care. We conducted a narrative synthesis of empirical research of medical specialists' perspectives on and experiences of offering genetic tests to their patients. This review was based upon the PRISMA statement and guidelines for reviewing qualitative research...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
J A March, M J Kiemeney, J De Guzman, J D Ferguson
INTRODUCTION: Cricothyrotomy may be necessary for airway management when a patient's airway cannot be maintained through standard techniques such as oral airway placement, blind insertion airway device, or endotracheal intubation. Wire-guided cricothyrotomy is one of many techniques used to perform a cricothyrotomy. Although there is some controversy over which cricothyrotomy technique is superior, there is no published data regarding long term retention rates. The purpose of this study is to determine whether ground based paramedics can be taught and are able to retain the skills necessary to successfully perform a wire-guided cricothyrotomy...
May 31, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Corinne Sommi, Frances Gill, Jeffrey D Trojan, Mary K Mulcahey
OBJECTIVES: Despite evidence that strength and conditioning (S&C) programs decrease injury risk and increase sport performance, young females are rarely offered S&C programs comparable to those of their male counterparts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current body of available literature regarding S&C in adolescent female athletes, describe potential benefits, and generate recommendations for S&C programs for female adolescent athletes. METHODS: The systematic review was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
June 9, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Islam Elbieh, Covadonga Bascaran, Karl Blanchet, Allen Foster
PURPOSE: To describe cataract services in Egypt and explore resources and practices in public and private sectors. METHODS: The study was conducted between June and August 2015. All facilities in the country providing cataract services were contacted to obtain information on surgeries performed in 2014. Hospitals performing eye surgery in Quena, Sharkia, and Fayoum regions were visited and a questionnaire on resources for cataract surgery was completed. RESULTS: Cataract surgery was offered in the public sector by 64 government and 16 university teaching hospitals and in the private sector by 101 hospitals...
June 8, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Sophia E van der Wiel, Arjun D Koch, Marco J Bruno
Background and study aims:  Simulation-based training has become an important pillar in competence-based medicine. However, limited data are available on use of simulators in training for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We aimed to determine the face and construct validity of the Boškoski-Costamagna mechanical ERCP Trainer, and to assess its didactic value, as judged by experts. Methods:  Participants were divided into four groups based on ERCP lifetime experience: novices, intermediate, experienced, and experts...
June 2018: Endoscopy International Open
Christopher R Webster, Paul R Mahaffy, Sushil K Atreya, John E Moores, Gregory J Flesch, Charles Malespin, Christopher P McKay, German Martinez, Christina L Smith, Javier Martin-Torres, Javier Gomez-Elvira, Maria-Paz Zorzano, Michael H Wong, Melissa G Trainer, Andrew Steele, Doug Archer, Brad Sutter, Patrice J Coll, Caroline Freissinet, Pierre-Yves Meslin, Raina V Gough, Christopher H House, Alexander Pavlov, Jennifer L Eigenbrode, Daniel P Glavin, John C Pearson, Didier Keymeulen, Lance E Christensen, Susanne P Schwenzer, Rafael Navarro-Gonzalez, Jorge Pla-García, Scot C R Rafkin, Álvaro Vicente-Retortillo, Henrik Kahanpää, Daniel Viudez-Moreiras, Michael D Smith, Ari-Matti Harri, Maria Genzer, Donald M Hassler, Mark Lemmon, Joy Crisp, Stanley P Sander, Richard W Zurek, Ashwin R Vasavada
Variable levels of methane in the martian atmosphere have eluded explanation partly because the measurements are not repeatable in time or location. We report in situ measurements at Gale crater made over a 5-year period by the Tunable Laser Spectrometer on the Curiosity rover. The background levels of methane have a mean value 0.41 ± 0.16 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) (95% confidence interval) and exhibit a strong, repeatable seasonal variation (0.24 to 0.65 ppbv). This variation is greater than that predicted from either ultraviolet degradation of impact-delivered organics on the surface or from the annual surface pressure cycle...
June 8, 2018: Science
Abigail C Bretzin, Tracey Covassin, Meghan E Fox, Kyle M Petit, Jennifer L Savage, Lauren F Walker, Daniel Gould
BACKGROUND: Sports-related concussion (SRC) injury rates are well established in collegiate athletics through epidemiological studies using the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System. However, few studies have examined sex differences, time loss, and missed school days in high school athletes, especially at the state level. PURPOSE: To identify sex differences in the clinical incidence of SRCs, missed school days, and time loss in high school student-athletes...
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Marianne Eliassen, Nils O Henriksen, Siri Moe
BACKGROUND: Reablement aims to improve the self-dependence of people with or at risk of functional decline. Physiotherapists (PTs) are responsible for assessments, developing interventions and supervising home trainers (HTs), who mostly conduct the reablement training. The content of reablement practice is not clearly described. This study explores how physiotherapy practice is performed in reablement settings and the content of the service provided to reablement users. METHODS: Fieldwork was performed in seven Norwegian reablement teams...
June 6, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Brian McDonald, Stuart McKeen, Yu Yan Cui, Ravan Ahmadov, Si-Wan Kim, Gregory J Frost, Ilana Pollack, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B Ryerson, John Holloway, Martin Graus, Carsten Warneke, Jessica B Gilman, Joost A de Gouw, Jennifer Kaiser, Frank N Keutsch, Thomas F Hanisco, Glenn Wolfe, Michael Trainer
Recent studies suggest overestimates in current U.S. emission inventories of nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2). Here, we expand a previously developed Fuel-based Inventory of motor-Vehicle Emissions (FIVE) to the continental U.S. for the year 2013, and evaluate our estimates of mobile source emissions with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emissions Inventory (NEI) interpolated to 2013. We find that mobile source emissions of NOx and carbon monoxide (CO) in the NEI are higher than FIVE by 28% and 90%, respectively...
June 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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