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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550753/catalase-loaded-cisplatin-prodrug-constructed-liposomes-to-overcome-tumor-hypoxia-for-enhanced-chemo-radiotherapy-of-cancer
#1
Rui Zhang, Xuejiao Song, Chao Liang, Xuan Yi, Guosheng Song, Yu Chao, Yu Yang, Kai Yang, Liangzhu Feng, Zhuang Liu
Aiming at improved therapeutic efficacies, the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (chemo-radiotherapy) has been widely studied and applied in clinic. However, the hostile characteristics of tumor microenvironment such as hypoxia often limit the efficacies in both types of cancer therapies. Herein, catalase (CAT), an antioxidant enzyme, is encapsulated inside liposomes constituted by cisplatin (IV)-prodrug-conjugated phospholipid, forming CAT@Pt (IV)-liposome for enhanced chemo-radiotherapy of cancer...
May 18, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550176/mechanical-behavior-and-matrisome-gene-expression-in-aneurysm-prone-thoracic-aorta-of-newborn-lysyl-oxidase-knockout-mice
#2
Marius Catalin Staiculescu, Jungsil Kim, Robert P Mecham, Jessica Wagenseil
Mutations in lysyl oxidase (LOX) are associated with thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD). Mice that do not express Lox (Lox(-/-)) die soon after birth and have 60% and 40% reductions in elastin- and collagen-specific crosslinks, respectively. LOX inactivation could also change the expression of secreted factors, structural matrix, and matrix-associated proteins that constitute the aortic matrisome. We hypothesize that the absence of Lox will change the mechanical behavior of the aortic wall due to reduced elastin and collagen crosslinking and alter the expression levels of matrisome and smooth muscle cell (SMC) genes in a vascular location-specific manner...
May 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550029/pulmonary-function-changes-after-radiotherapy-for-lung-or-esophageal-cancer-a-systematic-review-focusing-on-dose-volume-parameters
#3
Anne G H Niezink, Renske A de Jong, Christina T Muijs, Johannes A Langendijk, Joachim Widder
BACKGROUND: Despite technical developments in treatment delivery, radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) remains a crucial problem in thoracic radiotherapy. Clinically based RILT scores have their limitations, and more objective measures such as pulmonary functions tests (PFTs) might help to improve treatment strategies. PURPOSE: To summarize the available evidence about the effect of dose to the lung in thoracic radiotherapy on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and diffusion capacity (DLCO) in patients with lung and esophageal cancer treated with curative intent...
May 26, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549344/metformin-increases-chemo-sensitivity-via-gene-downregulation-encoding-dna-replication-proteins-in-5-fu-resistant-colorectal-cancer-cells
#4
Sung-Hee Kim, Soon-Chan Kim, Ja-Lok Ku
Metformin is most widely prescribed for type 2 diabetes. Recently, evidences have shown that metformin has anticancer effects on pancreatic-, colorectal-, ovarian-, and other cancers. Because metformin has less adverse effects and is inexpensive, it could be a useful chemo-therapeutic agent with anticancer effects. In this study, we demonstrated metformin inhibited by cell proliferation, cell migration ability, clonogenic ability, and cancer stem cell population. Metformin also induced cell cycle arrest in parental-(SNU-C5), and 5-Fu resistant-colorectal cancer cell line (SNU-C5_5FuR)...
May 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547749/nhc-nih-catalyzed-intermolecular-regio-and-diastereoselective-cross-hydroalkenylations-of-endocyclic-dienes-with-a-olefins
#5
Xiaoyan Lian, Weihao Chen, Liang Dang, Yuchen Li, Chun Yu Ho
Highly selective cross-hydroalkenylation of endocyclic-1,3-dienes at the least substituted site with a-olefins was achieved by set of neutral NHC-Ni(II)H(OTf), and by cationic Ni(II) catalysts with novel NHC structure. Under the heteroatom assistance, skipped dienes were obtained in good yield by using as low as equal molar amount of substrate pairs and 2-5 mol% catalyst. A rare 4,3- product selectivity (i.e., H at C4 and alkenyl group at C3 of diene) was observed, which is different from known dimerizations of a-olefins with both acyclic Co and Fe systems...
May 26, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546540/a-bioactive-chemical-markers-based-strategy-for-quality-assessment-of-botanical-drugs-xuesaitong-injection-as-a-case-study
#6
Zhenzhong Yang, Qing Shao, Zhiwei Ge, Ni Ai, Xiaoping Zhao, Xiaohui Fan
Current chemical markers based quality assessment methods largely fail to reflect intrinsic chemical complexity and multiple mechanisms of action of botanical drugs (BD). The development of novel quality markers is greatly needed. Here we propose bioactive chemical markers (BCM), defined as a group of chemo-markers that exhibit similar pharmacological activities comparable to the whole BD, which can therefore be used to effectively assess the quality of BD. As a proof-of-concept, a BCM-based strategy was developed and applied to Xuesaitong Injection (XST) for assessing the efficacy and consistency of different batches...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545688/quinacrine-in-endometrial-cancer-repurposing-an-old-antimalarial-drug
#7
Eleftheria Kalogera, Debarshi Roy, Ashwani Khurana, Susmita Mondal, Amy L Weaver, Xiaoping He, Sean C Dowdy, Viji Shridhar
OBJECTIVE: Generate preclinical data on the effect of quinacrine (QC) in inhibiting tumorigenesis in endometrial cancer (EC) in vitro and explore its role as an adjunct to standard chemotherapy in an EC mouse model. METHODS: Five different EC cell lines (Ishikawa, Hec-1B, KLE, ARK-2, and SPEC-2) representing different histologies, grades of EC, sensitivity to cisplatin and p53 status were used for the in vitro studies. MTT and colony formation assays were used to examine QC's ability to inhibit cell viability in vitro...
May 22, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545687/synergistic-effect-of-mek-inhibitor-and-metformin-combination-in-low-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer
#8
Ismail Mert, Jasdeep Chhina, Ghassan Allo, Jing Dai, Shelly Seward, Mark S Carey, Marta Llaurado, Shailendra Giri, Ramandeep Rattan, Adnan R Munkarah
OBJECTIVE: Low-grade serous ovarian cancer (LGSOC) constitutes 5-8% of epithelial ovarian cancers and is refractory to chemotherapy. We and others have shown metformin to cause significant growth inhibition in high-grade ovarian cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we aimed to analyze if metformin was effective in inhibiting proliferation of LGSOC alone and in combination with MEK inhibitor. METHODS: Three LGSOC lines (VOA1056, VOA1312 and VOA5646) were treated with metformin, trametinib or 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) alone or in combination with metformin...
May 22, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545664/a-phenolic-glycoside-from-flacourtia-indica-induces-heme-mediated-oxidative-stress-in-plasmodium-falciparum-and-attenuates-malaria-pathogenesis-in-mice
#9
Shiv Vardan Singh, Ashan Manhas, Suriya P Singh, Sonali Mishra, Nimisha Tiwari, Parmanand Kumar, Karuna Shanker, Kumkum Srivastava, Koneni V Sashidhara, Anirban Pal
BACKGROUND: Flacourtia indica is especially popular among the various communities of many African countries where it is being used traditionally for the treatment of malaria. In our previous report, we have identified some phenolic glycosides from the aerial parts of F. indica as promising antiplasmodial agents under in vitro conditions. PURPOSE: Antimalarial bioprospection of F. indica derived phenolic glycoside in Swiss mice (in vivo) with special emphasis on its mode of action...
July 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545375/natural-product-gossypol-and-its-derivatives-in-precision-cancer-medicine
#10
Yun Zeng, Jingwen Ma, Liang Xu, Daocheng Wu
Gossypol, a natural product extracted from the seed, roots, and stem of cotton, was initially used as a male contraceptive but was subsequently investigated as a novel antitumor agent. This review depicts the current status of gossypol and its derivatives as novel antitumor agents as well as presents their preparation and characteristics, especially of some gossypol Schiff bases, through quantitative and structural analyses. The main attractive target sites of gossypol and its derivatives are Bcl-2 family proteins containing the anti-apoptosis proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL...
May 23, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545020/microtubule-inhibitor-sp-6-27-inhibits-angiogenesis-and-induces-apoptosis-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#11
Arpita Kulshrestha, Gajendra K Katara, Safaa A Ibrahim, Renukadevi Patil, Shivaputra A Patil, Kenneth D Beaman
In ovarian cancer (OVCA), treatment failure due to chemo-resistance is a serious challenge. It is therefore critical to identify new therapies that are effective against resistant tumors and have reduced side effects. We recently identified 4-H-chromenes as tubulin depolymerizing agents that bind to colchicine site of beta-tubulin. Here, we screened a chemical library of substituted 4-H-chromenes and identified SP-6-27 to exhibit most potent anti-proliferative activity towards a panel of human cisplatin sensitive and resistant OVCA cell lines with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50; mean ± SD) ranging from 0...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544673/biocatalytic-friedel-crafts-acylation-and-fries-reaction
#12
Nina G Schmidt, Tea Pavkov-Keller, Nina Richter, Birgit Wiltschi, Karl Gruber, Wolfgang Kroutil
The Friedel-Crafts acylation is commonly used for the synthesis of aryl ketones, and a biocatalytic version, which may benefit from the chemo- and regioselectivity of enzymes, has not yet been introduced. Described here is a bacterial acyltransferase which can catalyze Friedel-Crafts C-acylation of phenolic substrates in buffer without the need of CoA-activated reagents. Conversions reach up to >99 %, and various C- or O-acyl donors, such as DAPG or isopropenyl acetate, are accepted by this enzyme. Furthermore the enzyme enables a Fries-like rearrangement reaction of resorcinol derivatives...
May 23, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544287/fast-clearable-nanocarriers-conducting-chemo-photothermal-combination-therapy-to-inhibit-recurrence-of-malignant-tumors
#13
Lingzhi Zhao, Wei Yuan, Huijun Phoebe Tham, Hongzhong Chen, Pengyao Xing, Huijing Xiang, Xin Yao, Xiaochen Qiu, Yu Dai, Liangliang Zhu, Fuyou Li, Yanli Zhao
Inhomogeneous heating by photothermal therapy (PTT) during cancer treatment often results in the recurrence of tumors. Thus, integrating PTT with chemotherapy (CHT) may provide a complementary treatment for enhanced therapeutic efficiency. Herein, this study develops a hollow structured polymer-silica nanohybrid (HPSN) as a nanocarrier to simultaneously deliver the anticancer drug paclitaxel and photothermal agent palladium phthalocyanine to tumors through enhanced permeation and the retention effect. A combinational CHT/PTT therapy on mice bearing aggressive tumor grafts is conducted...
May 24, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543768/an-efficient-pd-catalyzed-regio-and-stereoselective-carboxylation-of-allylic-alcohols-with-formic-acid
#14
Yao Fu, Rui Shang, Ming-Chen Fu, Wan-Min Cheng
Formic acid is efficiently used as a C1 source to directly carboxylate allylic alcohols in the presence of a low loading of palladium catalyst and acetic anhydride as additive to afford β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acids with excellent chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivity. The reaction proceeds through a carbonylation process with in situ-generated carbon monoxide (CO) under mild conditions, avoiding the use of high-pressure gaseous CO. A bisphosphine ligand that has a large bite angle (4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)-9,9-dimethylxanthene) was found to be uniquely effective for this transformation...
May 25, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542590/the-mth1-inhibitor-th588-demonstrates-anti-tumoral-effects-alone-and-in-combination-with-everolimus-5-fu-and-gamma-irradiation-in-neuroendocrine-tumor-cells
#15
Elke Tatjana Aristizabal Prada, Michael Orth, Svenja Nölting, Gerald Spöttl, Julian Maurer, Christoph Auernhammer
Modulation of the redox system in cancer cells has been considered a promising target for anti-cancer therapy. The novel MTH1 inhibitor TH588 proved tremendous potential in terms of cancer cell eradication, yet its specificity has been questioned by recent reports, indicating that TH588 may also induce cancer cell death by alternative mechanisms than MTH1 inhibition. Here we used a panel of heterogeneous neuroendocrine tumor cells in order to assess cellular mechanisms and molecular signaling pathways implicated in the effects of TH588 alone as well as dual-targeting approaches combining TH588 with everolimus, cytotoxic 5-fluorouracil or γ-irradiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541182/chemotactic-network-responses-to-live-bacteria-show-independence-of-phagocytosis-from-chemo-receptor-sensing
#16
Netra Pal Meena, Alan R Kimmel
Aspects of innate immunity derive from characteristics inherent to phagocytes, including chemotaxis toward and engulfment of unicellular organisms or cell debris. Ligand chemotaxis has been biochemically investigated using mammalian and model systems, but precision of chemotaxis towards ligands being actively secreted by live bacteria is not well studied, nor has there been systematic analyses of interrelationships between chemotaxis and phagocytosis. The genetic/molecular model Dictyostelium and mammalian phagocytes share mechanistic pathways for chemotaxis and phagocytosis; Dictyostelium chemotax toward bacteria and phagocytose them as food sources...
May 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540598/parp-inhibitors-in-prostate-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Praveen Ramakrishnan Geethakumari, Matthew J Schiewer, Karen E Knudsen, Wm Kevin Kelly
The genomic landscape of metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) reveals that up to 90% of patients harbor actionable mutations and >20% have somatic DNA repair gene defects (DRD). This provides the therapeutic rationale of PARP inhibition (PARPi) to achieve "synthetic lethality" in treating this fatal disease. Clinical trials with PARP inhibitors have shown significant response rates up to 88% for PCa patients having DRD like BRCA1/2 or ATM mutations. The FDA has awarded "breakthrough designation" to develop the PARPi olaparib in treating this subset of metastatic PCa patients...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540535/prognostic-value-of-maximum-standardized-uptake-value-measured-by-pretreatment-18f-fdg-pet-ct-in-locally-advanced-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#18
J Cacicedo, I Fernandez, O Del Hoyo, A Navarro, A Gomez-Iturriaga, J Ignacio Pijoan, L Martinez-Indart, J Escudero, J Gomez-Suarez, R Ortiz de Zarate, J Fernando Perez, P Bilbao, D Rades
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prognostic impact of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) undergoing pretreatment [F-18] fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) imaging. MATERIALS/METHODS: Fifty-eight patients undergoing FDG PET/CT before radical treatment with definitive radiotherapy (±concomitant chemotherapy) or surgery + postoperative (chemo)radiation were analyzed...
May 24, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539553/identification-of-cancer-stem-cell-antigens-and-development-of-ctl-mediated-cancer-immunotherapy
#19
Sho Miyamoto, Takayuki Kanaseki, Yoshihiko Hirohashi, Tomohide Tsukahara, Yasuhiro Kikuchi, Noriyuki Sato, Toshihiko Torigoe
  Cancer-stem cells (or cancer-stem like cells, CSC) play an indispensable role in tumor initiation or tumor development in vivo. However, CSCs are resistant to conventional therapies including chemo/radiotherapy and a certain molecularly-targeted therapy, thereby are responsible for tumor relapse or metastasis in clinical settings. In this review, we focus on cytotoxic T-cell mediated immune responses against CSCs and discuss a challenge of targeting CSCs as well as the development of CSC-based cancer immunotherapy, which is an emerging and promising strategy toward a complete cure of quite a few types of cancers...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539202/detection-of-residual-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-after-chemo-radiotherapy-a-pilot-study-assessing-the-value-of-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-as-an-adjunct-to-pet-ct-using-18-f-fdg
#20
Daniel P Noij, Viresh A Jagesar, Pim de Graaf, Marcus C de Jong, Otto S Hoekstra, Remco de Bree, Jonas A Castelijns
OBJECTIVE: Diagnosing residual malignancy after (chemo)radiotherapy presents a diagnostic challenge because of overlapping symptoms and imaging characteristics. We assessed the added diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET-CT) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with residual fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake at the primary tumor site 3 months after (chemo)radiotherapy. STUDY DESIGN: For this retrospective study from January 2010 to June 2012, 22 cases (median patient age of 61 years; range 41-77 years) were included for analysis...
May 3, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
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