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Massimo Nabissi, Maria Beatrice Morelli, Massimo Offidani, Consuelo Amantini, Silvia Gentili, Alessandra Soriani, Claudio Cardinali, Pietro Leoni, Giorgio Santoni
Several studies showed a potential anti-tumor role for cannabinoids, by modulating cell signaling pathways involved in cancer cell proliferation, chemo-resistance and migration. Cannabidiol (CBD) was previously noted in multiple myeloma (MM), both alone and in synergy with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, to induce cell death. In other type of human cancers, the combination of CBD with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was found to act synergistically with other chemotherapeutic drugs suggesting their use in combination therapy...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Erik R Nelson, Shenduo Li, Margaret Kennedy, Sturgis Payne, Kelly Kilibarda, Jeffrey Groth, Michelle Bowie, Edgardo Parilla-Castellar, Gustaaf de Ridder, Paul Kelly Marcom, Matthew Lyes, Bercedis L Peterson, Michael Cook, Salvatore V Pizzo, Donald P McDonnell, Robin E Bachelder
BACKGROUND: Although most triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients initially respond to chemotherapy, residual tumor cells frequently persist and drive recurrent tumor growth. Previous studies from our laboratory and others' indicate that TNBC is heterogeneous, being composed of chemo-sensitive and chemo-resistant tumor cell subpopulations. In the current work, we studied the invasive behaviors of chemo-resistant TNBC, and sought to identify markers of invasion in chemo-residual TNBC...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Boris Redko, Helena Tuchinsky, Tamar Segal, Dror Tobi, Galia Luboshits, Osnat Ashur-Fabian, Albert Pinhasov, Gabi Gerlitz, Gary Gellerman
The newly discovered short (9 amino acid) non-RGD S-S bridged cyclic peptide ALOS-4 (H-cycl(Cys-Ser-Ser-Ala-Gly-Ser-Leu-Phe-Cys)-OH), which binds to integrin αvβ3 is investigated as peptide carrier for targeted drug delivery against human metastatic melanoma. ALOS4 binds specifically the αvβ3 overexpressing human metastatic melanoma WM-266-4 cell line both in vitro and in ex vivo assays. Coupling ALOS4 to the topoisomerase I inhibitor Camptothecin (ALOS4-CPT) increases the cytotoxicity of CPT against human metastatic melanoma cells while reduces dramatically the cytotoxicity against non-cancerous cells as measured by the levels of γH2A...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Renzo Colombo, Hans van Valenberg, Marco Moschini, Johannes A Witjes
OBJECTIVE: An updated review of intravesical radiofrequency (RF)-induced thermo-chemotherapy effect (RITE) for NMIBC with regard to efficacy, adverse events (AEs) and perspectives. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: An extensive and sensitive search for RF-induced chemo-hyperthermia in Medline, Embase, Cochrane and databases was performed. A table of published clinical trials up to 2016 was constructed. No meta-analysis could be performed on the basis of new papers...
October 4, 2016: Urologia
Francesco Giganti, Alessandro Ambrosi, Maria Chiara Petrone, Carla Canevari, Damiano Chiari, Annalaura Salerno, Paolo Giorgio Arcidiacono, Roberto Nicoletti, Luca Albarello, Elena Mazza, Francesca Gallivanone, Luigi Gianolli, Elena Orsenigo, Antonio Esposito, Carlo Staudacher, Alessandro Del Maschio, Francesco De Cobelli
OBJECTIVES: To compare the diagnostic performance of Magnetic Resonance (MR) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT), Endoscopic Ultrasonography (EUS) and (18)F-FDG (Fluorodeoxyglucose) Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography (PET-CT) in the preoperative loco-regional staging of oesophageal cancer. METHODS: Eighteen patients with oesophageal or Siewert I tumour (9 directly treated with surgery and 9 addressed to chemo/radiotherapy before) underwent 1...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Liron Frishman-Levy, Shai Izraeli
Central nervous system acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (CNS-ALL) is a major clinical problem. CNS-directed 'prophylactic' chemo- or radio - therapy is associated with significant early and long-term toxicity. Moreover, greater than a third of the relapses occur in the CNS. To design specific, more effective and less toxic therapy and for personalized precise adjustment of prophylactic therapy there is a need for better understanding of the biology of this disease. Specifically, the precise neurotropic mechanisms of ALL are currently unclear, as is the pathogenesis of CNS relapse...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Mikkel Staberg, Signe Regner Michaelsen, Rikke Darling Rasmussen, Mette Villingshøj, Hans Skovgaard Poulsen, Petra Hamerlik
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma (GBM) ranks among the deadliest solid cancers worldwide and its prognosis has remained dismal, despite the use of aggressive chemo-irradiation treatment regimens. Limited drug delivery into the brain parenchyma and frequent resistance to currently available therapies are problems that call for a prompt development of novel therapeutic strategies. While only displaying modest efficacies as mono-therapy in pre-clinical settings, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have shown promising sensitizing effects to a number of cytotoxic agents...
October 20, 2016: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
E B Thorgersen, M A Goscinski, M Spasojevic, A M Solbakken, A B Mariathasan, K Boye, S G Larsen, K Flatmark
BACKGROUND: High morbidity, increased mortality, and impaired long-term oncologic outcome have been reported after deep surgical site infection (SSI) in rectal cancer surgery. The rate, risk factors and consequences of deep SSI after (chemo)radiotherapy [(C)RT], and surgery for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) in a tertiary university hospital single centre cohort of 540 patients are presented. METHODS: Patients with LARC, operated between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2015, were identified in the institutional prospective database...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
L-C Horn, C E Brambs, R Handzel, S Lax, I Sändig, D Schmidt, K Schierle
The World Health Organization (WHO) classification from 2014 differentiates between different subtypes of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. A gastric subtype was recently described that showed no association with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, has a poor prognosis, is mainly diagnosed in women of Asian origin and can occur in patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Although no clear grading system has been recommended in the WHO classification, it is likely that grading of adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix will partly be based on the different patterns of invasion...
October 20, 2016: Der Pathologe
Xiaoyun Dai, Kwang Seok Ahn, Ling Zhi Wang, Chulwon Kim, Amudha Deivasigamni, Frank Arfuso, Jae-Young Um, Alan Prem Kumar, Young-Chae Chang, Dhiraj Kumar, Gopal C Kundu, Junji Magae, Boon Cher Goh, Kam Man Hui, Gautam Sethi
Increasing evidence(s) have indicated that epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) at the advanced stage of liver cancer, not only has the ability to self-renew and progress cancer, but also enables greater resistance to conventional chemo- and radio-therapies. Here, we report that ascochlorin (ASC), an isoprenoid antibiotic could potentiate the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin (DOX) on HCCLM3, SNU387, SNU49, and SK-Hep-1 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, which had a predominantly mesenchymal signature with low expression of E-cadherin but high expression of N-cadherin...
October 7, 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Jing Chen, Sudhirkumar Shinde, Prabal Subedi, Celina Wierzbicka, Börje Sellergren, Stefan Helling, Katrin Marcus
Selective enrichment techniques are essential for mapping of protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Phosphorylation is one of the PTMs which continues to be associated with significant analytical challenges. Particularly problematic are tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides (pY-peptides) resulting from tryptic digestion which commonly escape current chemo- or immuno- affinity enrichments and hence remain undetected. We here report on significant improvements in this regard using pY selective molecularly imprinted polymers (pY-MIPs)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Uday B Maachani, Uma Shankavaram, Tamalee Kramp, Philip J Tofilon, Kevin Camphausen, Anita T Tandle
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) continues to be the most frequently diagnosed and lethal primary brain tumor. Adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy remains the standard of care following surgical resection. In this study, using reverse phase protein arrays (RPPAs), we assessed the biological effects of radiation on signaling pathways to identify potential radiosensitizing molecular targets. We identified subsets of proteins with clearly concordant/discordant behavior between irradiated and non-irradiated GBM cells in vitro and in vivo...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
Viviane B L Torres, Juliana Vassalo, Ulysses V A Silva, Pedro Caruso, André P Torelly, Eliezer Silva, José M M Teles, Marcos Knibel, Ederlon Rezende, José J S Netto, Claudio Piras, Luciano C P Azevedo, Fernando A Bozza, Nelson Spector, Jorge I F Salluh, Marcio Soares
INTRODUCTION: Cancer patients are at risk for severe complications related to the underlying malignancy or its treatment and, therefore, usually require admission to intensive care units (ICU). Here, we evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes in this subgroup of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Secondary analysis of two prospective cohorts of cancer patients admitted to ICUs. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify variables associated with hospital mortality...
2016: PloS One
Xiuli Tao, Lvhua Wang, Zhouguang Hui, Li Liu, Feng Ye, Ying Song, Yu Tang, Yu Men, Tryphon Lambrou, Zihua Su, Xiao Xu, Han Ouyang, Ning Wu
In this prospective study, 36 patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), who underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) before concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) were enrolled. Pharmacokinetic analysis was carried out after non-rigid motion registration. The perfusion parameters [including Blood Flow (BF), Blood Volume (BV), Mean Transit Time (MTT)] and permeability parameters [including endothelial transfer constant (K(trans)), reflux rate (Kep), fractional extravascular extracellular space volume (Ve), fractional plasma volume (Vp)] were calculated, and their relationship with tumor regression was evaluated...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Qingqi Yan, Yumei Wang, Wawat Rodiahwati, Antje Spiess, Michael Modigell
Screw press processing of biomass can be considered as a suitable mechanically based pretreatment for biofuel production since it disrupts the structure of lignocellulosic biomass with high shear and pressure forces. The combination with chemical treatment has been suggested to increase the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars. Within the study, the synergetic effect of alkaline (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) soaking and screw press pretreatment on wheat straw was evaluated based on, e.g., sugar recovery and energy efficiency...
October 19, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Farideh Mohammadian, Alireza Abhari, Hassan Dariushnejad, Alireza Nikanfar, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Nosratollah Zarghami
BACKGROUND: Recently, Chrysin, as a flavone, has revealed cancer chemo-preventive activity. The present experiment utilized the PLGA-PEG-chrysin complex, and free chrysin, to evaluation of the expression of miR-22, miR-34a and miR-126 in human gastric cell line. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine whether nano encapsulating chrysin improves the anti-cancer effect of free chrysin on AGS human gastric cell line. METHODS: Properties of the chrysin encapsulated in PLGA-PEG nanoparticles were investigated by SEM, H NMR, and FTIR...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention
Uhi Toh, Shuko Saku, Mina Okabe, Nobutaka Iwakuma, Yuko Kimitsuki, Momoko Akashi, Etsuyo Ogo, Akira Yamada, Shigeki Shichijo, Kyogo Itoh, Yoshito Akagi
Our previous phase II clinical trial showed that therapeutically selected personalized peptide vaccines(PPVs)were effective at boosting anticancer immunity; the immune response after PPV was associated with a clinical outcome as a prognostic factor for metastatic breast cancer(mBC). We conducted an early phase II study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new regimen using multiple peptide vaccines(KRM-19)for patients with metastatictriple -negative breast cancer. KRM-19 consisted of 19 mixed peptides chosen from the previously reported 31 PPVs according to their anti-tumor immunologiceffec ts and safety profiles for patients with mBC...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Orlando Jorge Martins Torres, Márcio Carmona Marques, Fabio Nasser Santos, Igor Correia de Farias, Anelisa Kruschewsky Coutinho, Cássio Virgílio Cavalcante de Oliveira, Antonio Nocchi Kalil, Celso Abdon Lopes de Mello, Jaime Arthur Pirola Kruger, Gustavo Dos Santos Fernandes, Claudemiro Quireze, André M Murad, Milton José de Barros E Silva, Charles Edouard Zurstrassen, Helano Carioca Freitas, Marcelo Rocha Cruz, Rui Weschenfelder, Marcelo Moura Linhares, Leonaldson Dos Santos Castro, Charles Vollmer, Elijah Dixon, Héber Salvador de Castro Ribeiro, Felipe José Fernandez Coimbra
In the last module of this consensus, controversial topics were discussed. Management of the disease after progression during first line chemotherapy was the first discussion. Next, the benefits of liver resection in the presence of extra-hepatic disease were debated, as soon as, the best sequence of treatment. Conversion chemotherapy in the presence of unresectable liver disease was also discussed in this module. Lastly, the approach to the unresectable disease was also discussed, focusing in the best chemotherapy regimens and hole of chemo-embolization...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
C Grassberger, H Paganetti
The variety of treatment options for cancer patients has increased significantly in recent years. Not only do we combine radiation with surgery and chemotherapy, new therapeutic approaches such as immunotherapy and targeted therapies are starting to play a bigger role. Physics has made significant contributions to radiation therapy treatment planning and delivery. In particular, treatment plan optimization using inverse planning techniques has improved dose conformity considerably. Furthermore, medical physics is often the driving force behind tumor control and normal tissue complication modeling...
October 19, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Xiaoqi Li, Yong Chen, Ruosha Li
We consider recurrent events of the same type that occur during alternating restraint and non-restraint time periods. This research is motivated by a study on juvenile recidivism, where the probationers were followed for re-offenses during alternating placement periods and free-time periods. During the placement periods, the probationers were under a restricted environment with direct supervision of the probation officers. During the free-time periods, the probationers were released to home and not under direct supervision...
October 18, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
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