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Base excess

Lingjun Zhang, Yuriy Fedorov, Drew Adams, Feng Lin
Excessive complement activation contributes significantly to the pathogeneses of various diseases. Currently, significant developmental research efforts aim to identify complement inhibitors with therapeutic uses have led to the approval of one inhibitor for clinical use. However, most existing complement inhibitors are based on monoclonal antibodies, which have many drawbacks such as high costs and limited administration options. With this report, we establish an inexpensive, cell imaging-based high-throughput assay for the large-scale screening of potential small molecule complement inhibitors...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Peng Peng, Shu-Zhuang Sun, Yu-Xiang Liu, Xin-Mei Liu, Svetlana Mintova, Zi-Feng Yan
The basis and contribution of mesopores created in ZSM-5 structures at different treatment conditions are systematically investigated. The results reveal that the mesopores originated from the alkali dissolution of pristine ZSM-5 are mainly intracrystalline and they contribute to excessive Brønsted acid sites, while the mesopores originated from the re-assembly of alkali dissolved aluminosilicate species possess Lewis acid sites. These ZSM-5 mesostructures showed an extended lifespan during the cracking of cumene (88...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Bruna Yhang Da Costa Silva, Helena Alves De Carvalho Sampaio, Nitin Shivappa, James Hébert, Larissa Da Silva Albuquerque, Antônio Augusto Ferreira Carioca, José Artur Costa D'Almeida, Carla Soraya Costa Maia, Maria Luisa Pereira De Melo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) consists of a tool that assesses dietary inflammatory potential based on the assignment of an inflammatory score to a variety of nutrients, seasonings and bioactive compounds. Pro-inflammatory diets are associated to weight and abdominal fat excess. High Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC) seem to contribute to a worse prognosis in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the relation between anthropometric indexes and body adiposity with the clinical condition and the Dietary Inflammatory Index of MS individuals...
August 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Nur Afiqah Azmi, Azila Idris, Nor Saadah Mohd Yusof
Feather keratin is a biomass generated in excess from various livestock industries. With appropriate processing, it holds potential as a green source for degradable biopolymer that could potentially replace current fossil fuel based materials. Several processing methods have been developed, but the use of ultrasonication has not been explored. In this study, we focus on (i) comparing and optimizing the dissolution process of turkey feather keratin through sonication and conventional processes, and (ii) generating a biodegradable polymer material, as a value added product, from the dissolved keratin that could be used in packaging and other applications...
October 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Daoxi Zhang, Samantha Lavender, Jan-Peter Muller, David Walton, Xi Zou, Fang Shi
The historical data from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) is an invaluable archive for studying global waters from inland lakes to open oceans. Although the MERIS sensor ceased to operate in April 2012, the data capacities are now re-established through the recently launched Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI). The development of a consistent time series for investigating phytoplankton phenology features is crucial if the potential of MERIS and OLCI data is to be fully exploited for inland water monitoring...
June 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Stephen Corson, Chris Robertson, Arlene Reynolds, Jim McMenamin
BACKGROUND: For the last 17 years, the UK has employed a routine influenza vaccination programme with the aim of reducing the spread of seasonal influenza. In mid-2000, the programme moved from a purely risk-based approach to a risk and age group targeted approach with all those aged 65+ years being included. To date, there has been no assessment of the population effectiveness of this age targeted policy in Scotland. OBJECTIVES: Statistical modelling techniques were used to determine what impact the routine vaccination of those aged 65+ years has had on influenza related morbidity and mortality in Scotland...
June 16, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Vikas Chauhan, Arthur C Reber, Shiv N Khanna
Alkali atoms have unusually low ionization energies because their electronic structures have an excess electron beyond that of a filled electronic shell. Quantum states in metallic clusters are grouped into shells similar to those in atoms, and clusters with an excess electron beyond a closed electronic may also exhibit alkali character. This approach based on shell-filling is the way alkali species are formed as explained by the periodic table. We demonstrate that the ionization energy of metallic clusters with both filled and unfilled electronic shells can be substantially lowered by attaching ligands...
June 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Doreen Mucheru, Mary-Claire Hanlon, Linda E Campbell, Mark McEvoy, Lesley MacDonald-Wicks
BACKGROUND: People with psychosis die on average 25 years earlier than those in the general population, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) contributing to much of the excess mortality. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the relationship between lifestyle risk factors for CVD - poor nutrition, smoking and low physical activity levels - and dyslipidaemia, hypertension and hyperglycaemia while controlling for potential confounders in 1825 people from the Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP) in Australia...
June 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
Kelcy McNally, Laura Lee Noonan, Marguerite Cameron, Karen Phillips, Shamara Baidoobonso, David Sabapathy
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a population-based, public education campaign designed to increase awareness of the Canadian Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines (LRDG). METHOD: A province-wide mass media campaign was introduced. To measure campaign effectiveness, we completed a cross-sectional study using pre- and postcampaign surveys. Measurements included awareness of the LRDG, specific knowledge of the LRDG, and beliefs toward drinking and behavior change...
June 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
Melissa Maritz, Carla Mt Fourie, Johannes M VAN Rooyen, Aletta E Schutte
AIMS: Black populations from sub-Saharan Africa have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease, which places significant strain on public health systems. Aortic stiffness is a prominent risk factor for cardiovascular disease development. We reported earlier that excessive alcohol use predicts aortic stiffness. However, we require a better understanding of other biomarkers involved in stiffness development, beyond alcohol use. Therefore, we determined which biomarkers (metabolic, inflammatory, endothelial activation and oxidative stress) relate to aortic stiffness in young and older black South Africans, self-reporting no alcohol-use...
June 12, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Bistra Kunovska, Kremena Ivanova, Victor Badulin, Martina Cenova, Antoaneta Angelova
In the light of the new ICRP requirements the first National radon survey has been conducted in Bulgaria in the period 2015-16. Indoor radon concentrations were measured for 1 y in 2778 dwellings of whole Bulgarian territory in order to obtain the systematic data for the distribution of radon. The arithmetic mean is 111 Bq m-3 and the geometric mean is 81 Bq m-3 with geometric standard deviation of 2.15. On the base of the data, an annual effective dose to the Bulgarian population due to indoor radon exposure was estimated at 5...
June 14, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Matic Ivančič, Peter Naglič, Franjo Pernuš, Boštjan Likar, Miran Bürmen
Subdiffusive reflectance captured at short source-detector separations provides increased sensitivity to the scattering phase function and hence allows superficial probing of the tissue ultrastructure. Consequently, estimation of subdiffusive optical parameters has been the subject of many recent studies focusing on lookup-table-based (LUT) inverse models. Since an adequate description of the subdiffusive reflectance requires additional scattering phase function related optical parameters, the LUT inverse models, which grow exponentially with the number of estimated parameters, become excessively large and computationally inefficient...
June 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Matthew E Kinney
To determine the effect of capture and restraint on hematologic, plasma biochemical, and venous blood gas values in Dalmatian pelicans ( Pelecanus crispus), blood samples were collected and temperature and heart rate were recorded in 13 pelicans (5 males and 8 females) immediately after capture from a large field exhibit. Repeat sampling was performed after transport, a mean of 74 minutes after initial evaluation. When compared with values at initial sampling to the time of capture, significant increases were documented in the heterophil : lymphocyte ratio (H : L), carbon dioxide (CO2 ), bicarbonate (HCO3 ), total carbon dioxide (Tco2 ), base excess (BE), and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2 ) values after 74 minutes...
June 2018: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Eliza Sharma, Suyash Dahal, Pratibha Sharma, Abani Bhandari, Vishal Gupta, Sumit Dahal
Background: There is an increased risk of second primary malignancies with thyroid cancer. However, the risk and characters of secondary salivary gland malignancy (sSGM) in patients with thyroid cancer have not been evaluated before. Methods: We used the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 18 registry to identify thyroid cancer patients from 1973 to 2014. We then calculated the risk of sSGM using standardized incidence ratio and excess risk. Separately, all cases of primary salivary gland malignancy (pSGM) diagnosed between 1973 - 2014 were extracted from the SEER 18 registry, and their characteristics compared with sSGM using independent samples t -test for continuous variables and Chi-square tests for categorical variables...
July 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Heath D White, Alfredo Vazquez-Sandoval, Pedro F Quiroga, Juhee Song, Shirley F Jones, Alejandro C Arroliga
Acid-base status is frequently assessed in severe sepsis and septic shock. Venous blood gas sampling is proposed as a less-invasive modality but lacks evidence within this population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation and agreement between arterial blood gas (ABG), peripheral venous blood gas (pVBG), and central venous blood gas (cVBG) in severe sepsis and septic shock. We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study in subjects admitted to the medical intensive care unit. Simultaneous blood gas samples, including ABG, pVBG, and cVBG, were analyzed for correlation and agreement...
July 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Antoni Xavier Torres-Collado, Ali R Jazirehi
Patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (B-NHL) who fail to respond to first-line treatment regimens or develop resistance, exhibit poor prognosis. This signifies the need to develop alternative treatment strategies. CD19-chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell-redirected immunotherapy is an attractive and novel option, which has shown encouraging outcomes in phase I clinical trials of relapsed/refractory NHL. However, the underlying mechanisms of, and approaches to overcome, acquired anti-CD19CAR CD8⁺ T cells (CTL)-resistance in NHL remain elusive...
June 14, 2018: Cancers
Nicola Veronese, Jacopo Demurtas, Stefano Celotto, Maria Gabriella Caruso, Stefania Maggi, Francesco Bolzetta, Joseph Firth, Lee Smith, Patricia Schofield, Ai Koyanagi, Lin Yang, Marco Solmi, Brendon Stubbs
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The literature regarding the potential health benefits of chocolate consumption are unclear and the epidemiological credibility has not been systematically scrutinized, while the strength of the evidence is undetermined. We therefore aimed to map and grade the diverse health outcomes associated with chocolate consumption using an umbrella review of systematic reviews. METHODS: Umbrella review of systematic reviews of observational and intervention studies (randomized placebo-controlled trials, RCTs)...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Samia Laokri, Rieza Soelaeman, David R Hotchkiss
BACKGROUND: The goal of universal health coverage is challenging for chronically under-resourced health systems. Although household out-of-pocket payments are the most important source of health financing in low-income countries, relatively little is known about the drivers of primary health care expenditure and the predictability of the burden associated with high fee-for-service payments. This study describes out-of-pocket health expenditure and investigates demand- and supply-side drivers of excessive costs in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a central African country in the midst of a process of reforming its health financing system towards universal health coverage...
June 15, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Mikkel Lykke, Per T Sangild, Johannes B van Goudoever, Dewi van Harskamp, Henk Schierbeek, Berthold Koletzko, Eline M van der Beek, Marieke Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Bert J M van de Heijning, Barbara Stoll, Douglas G Burrin, Thomas Thymann
Background: Excess protein intake in early life has been linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome in later life. Yet protein, and in particular the essential amino acids (EAAs), need to be present in adequate quantity to support growth. Objective: With the use of a piglet model restricted in dietary amino acids (AAs), we compared the efficacy and safety of a standard formula with a low-AA formula containing an adjusted AA composition. Methods: Female piglets (3-7 d old; Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) were fed 1 of 4 isoenergetic AA-based formulas for 14 d (700 kJ · kg body weight-1 · d-1)...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
R P Saunders, M Dowda, K McIver, R R Pate
BACKGROUND: Physical activity helps prevent excessive weight gain in youth. Few studies have examined regional variations in common activities, walking and bicycling. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to examine participation in previous 7-day walking/bicycling for active transport and for fun/exercise by region, gender and age groups. METHODS: Children (n = 2693) from 130 diverse, geographically distributed US communities reported participation in previous 7-day walking/bicycling...
June 14, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
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