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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228132/vivax-malaria-chemoprophylaxis-the-role-of-atovaquone-proguanil-compared-to-other-options
#1
Meltzer Eyal, Galia Rahav, Schwartz Eli
Background: Atovaquone-Proguanil is considered causal prophylaxis (inhibition of liver-stage schizonts) for Plasmodium falciparum, however, its causal prophylactic efficacy for P. vivax is not known. Travelers returning to non-endemic areas, provide a unique opportunity to study P. vivax prophylaxis. Methods: A retrospective observational study. For 11 years Israeli rafters who had traveled to the Omo River in Ethiopia, a highly malaria endemic area, were followed for at least one year after their return...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220797/primaquine-hybrids-as-promising-antimycobacterial-and-antimalarial-agents
#2
Kristina Pavić, Ivana Perković, Šárka Pospíšilová, Marta Machado, Diana Fontinha, Miguel Prudêncio, Josef Jampilek, Aidan Coffey, Lorraine Endersen, Hrvoje Rimac, Branka Zorc
Four series of primaquine (PQ) derivatives were screened for antitubercular and antiplasmodial activity: amides 1a-k, ureas 2a-s, semicarbazides 3a-c and bis-ureas 4a-u. Antimycobacterial activity of PQ derivatives against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), M. avium complex (MAC) and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) were evaluated in vitro and compared with PQ and the standard antitubercular drugs. In general, the PQ derivatives showed higher potency than the parent compound. Most of the compounds of series 1 and 2 showed high activity against MAP, comparable or even higher than the relevant drug ciprofloxacin, and weak or no activity against MTB and MAC...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216842/a-clinical-tool-to-predict-plasmodium-vivax-recurrence-in-malaysia
#3
Norliza Mat Ariffin, Farida Islahudin, Endang Kumolosasi, Mohd Makmor-Bakry
BACKGROUND: Recurrence rates of Plasmodium vivax infections differ across various geographic regions. Interestingly, South-East Asia and the Asia-Pacific region are documented to exhibit the most frequent recurrence incidences. Identifying patients at a higher risk for recurrences gives valuable information in strengthening the efforts to control P. vivax infections. The aim of the study was to develop a tool to identify P. vivax- infected patients that are at a higher risk of recurrence in Malaysia...
December 8, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170087/avian-malaria-infection-intensity-influences-mosquito-feeding-patterns
#4
Jiayue Yan, Josué Martínez-de la Puente, Laura Gangoso, Rafael Gutiérrez-López, Ramón Soriguer, Jordi Figuerola
Pathogen-induced host phenotypic changes are widespread phenomena that can dramatically influence host-vector interactions. Enhanced vector attraction to infected hosts has been reported in a variety of host-pathogen systems, and has given rise to the parasite manipulation hypothesis whereby pathogens may adaptively modify host phenotypes to increase transmission from host to host. However, host phenotypic changes do not always favour the transmission of pathogens, as random host choice, reduced host attractiveness and even host avoidance after infection have also been reported...
November 21, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169341/prevalence-genetic-variants-and-clinical-implications-of-g-6-pd-deficiency-in-burkina-faso-a-systematic-review
#5
Abdoul Karim Ouattara, Pouiré Yameogo, Lassina Traore, Birama Diarra, Maléki Assih, Tegwindé Rébéca Compaore, Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Serge Théophile Soubeiga, Florencia Wendkuuni Djigma, Jacques Simpore
BACKGROUND: It is now well-known that some antimalarials such as primaquine may induce severe hemolytic anemia in people with G-6-PD deficiency. Antimalarial drug prescriptions must, therefore take into account the patient's G-6-PD status in malaria endemic areas such as Burkina Faso, where the prevalence of this genetic abnormality is relatively high. Although great clinical heterogeneity is observed depending on the molecular nature of the deficiency and the residual enzyme activity in the red blood cell, there is very poor data on the prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency and the distribution of involved genetic variants in Burkina Faso...
November 23, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141760/glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency-genetic-variants-in-malaria-patients-in-southwestern-ethiopia
#6
Tamar E Carter, Seleshi Kebede Mekonnen, Karen Lopez, Victoria Bonnell, Lambodhar Damodaran, Abraham Aseffa, Daniel A Janies
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked erythrocyte enzyme disorder with relevance to malaria treatment policy. Treatment with the antimalarial primaquine can result in hemolytic anemia in G6PD-deficient patients. With increased interest in primaquine use, it is important to identify G6PD variants in Ethiopia to inform malaria treatment policy. In the present study, mutations in the G6PD gene are identified in a sample of patients with malaria in Jimma town in southwest Ethiopia. Plasmodium species of infection were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141719/chloroquine-primaquine-versus-chloroquine-alone-to-treat-vivax-malaria-in-afghanistan-an-open-randomized-superiority-trial
#7
Ghulam Rahim Awab, Mallika Imwong, Germana Bancone, Atthanee Jeeyapant, Nicholas P J Day, Nicholas J White, Charles J Woodrow
Afghanistan's national guidelines recommend primaquine (PQ) for radical treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria, but this is rarely implemented because of concerns over potential hemolysis in patients who have G6PD deficiency. Between August 2009 and February 2014, we conducted an open-label, randomized controlled trial of chloroquine (CQ) alone versus chloroquine plus primaquine (0.25 mg base/kg/day for 14 days) (CQ+PQ) in patients aged 6 months and older with microscopy confirmed P. vivax infection. In the CQ+PQ group, G6PD deficiency was excluded by fluorescent spot testing...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121061/a-randomized-double-blind-active-control-trial-to-evaluate-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-a-three-day-course-of-tafenoquine-monotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-plasmodium-vivax-malaria
#8
Mark M Fukuda, Srivicha Krudsood, Khadeeja Mohamed, Justin A Green, Sukhuma Warrasak, Harald Noedl, Ataya Euswas, Mali Ittiverakul, Nillawan Buathong, Sabaithip Sriwichai, R Scott Miller, Colin Ohrt
BACKGROUND: Tafenoquine is an investigational 8-aminoquinoline for the prevention of Plasmodium vivax relapse. Tafenoquine has a long half-life and the potential for more convenient dosing, compared with the currently recommended 14-day primaquine regimen. METHODS: This randomized, active-control, double-blind trial was conducted in Bangkok, Thailand. Seventy patients with microscopically confirmed P. vivax were randomized (2:1) to tafenoquine 400 mg once daily for 3 days or 2500 mg total dose chloroquine phosphate (1500 mg chloroquine base) given over 3 days plus primaquine 15 mg daily for 14 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110709/the-prevalence-incidence-and-prevention-of-plasmodium-falciparum-infections-in-forest-rangers-in-bu-gia-map-national-park-binh-phuoc-province-vietnam-a-pilot-study
#9
Do Hung Son, Nguyen Thuy-Nhien, Lorenz von Seidlein, Truong Le Phuc-Nhi, Ngo Thi Phu, Nguyen Thi Kim Tuyen, Nguyen Huyen Tran, Nguyen Van Dung, Bui Van Quan, Nicholas P J Day, Arjen M Dondorp, Nicholas J White, Guy E Thwaites, Tran Tinh Hien
BACKGROUND: Prophylaxis for high-risk populations, such as forest workers, could be one component for malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Sub-region. A study was conducted to assess the malaria incidence in forest rangers and the feasibility of malaria prophylaxis for rangers sleeping in forest camps. METHODS: Forest rangers deployed in the Bu Gia Map National Park, Vietnam were invited to participate in the study. Plasmodium infections were cleared using presumptive treatment, irrespective of malaria status, with a 3-day course dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine (DP) and a 14-day course of primaquine...
November 6, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097646/safety-of-weekly-primaquine-in-g6pd-deficient-patient-with-relapsing-vivax-malaria-a-case-report
#10
Deepali Savargaonkar, Md Zohaib Ahmed, Anupkumar R Anvikar, Neena Valecha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082022/systematic-review-of-the-clinical-manifestations-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency-in-the-greater-mekong-subregion-implications-for-malaria-elimination-and-beyond
#11
Ken Ing Cherng Ong, Hodaka Kosugi, Sophea Thoeun, Hitomi Araki, Moe Moe Thandar, Moritoshi Iwagami, Bouasy Hongvanthong, Paul T Brey, Shigeyuki Kano, Masamine Jimba
INTRODUCTION: To achieve malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) by 2030, proper case management is necessary. 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine, are the only available medicines effective in preventing relapse of the hypnozoite stage of Plasmodium vivax, as well as the onward transmission of Plasmodium falciparum. However, primaquine can cause haemolysis in individuals who have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd). We conducted a systematic review on the reported clinical manifestations of G6PDd to provide a comprehensive overview of the situation in the GMS...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065882/frequency-of-g6pd-mediterranean-in-individuals-with-and-without-malaria-in-southern-pakistan
#12
Bushra Moiz, Haroon Muhammad Arshad, Ahmed Raheem, Hasan Hayat, Najia Karim Ghanchi, M Asim Beg
BACKGROUND: Pakistan has an estimated annual burden of 1.5 million malaria cases. The current situation calls for an effective malaria control and eradication programme in this country. Currently, primaquine is an attractive option for eliminating reservoirs of Plasmodium vivax hypnozoites and killing gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum. However, this drug causes haemolysis in individuals who are glucose-6-phosphate (G6PD) deficient. It is important to map G6PD deficiency and malaria distribution in Pakistan to design an effective malaria eradication regimen...
October 24, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063526/malaria-cases-in-switzerland-from-2005-to-2015-and-recent-rise-of-imported-plasmodium-vivax-malaria
#13
Gilles Eperon, Sophie Durieux-Paillard, Anne Mauris, François Chappuis, Nicole Gysin
Reporting cases of malaria to the Federal Office of Public Health has been mandatory in Switzerland since 1974. We analysed notifications of imported confirmed malaria cases between 2005 and 2015 in Switzerland or Liechtenstein. Data for previously visited countries, nationality and reason for travelling were analysed. In contrast with the impressive drop of malaria cases reported worldwide since 2000, we found that the number of malaria cases imported yearly in Switzerland doubled in 2014 and 2015 compared to the average for the preceding decade...
October 24, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062913/safety-and-effectiveness-of-mass-drug-administration-to-accelerate-elimination-of-artemisinin-resistant-falciparum-malaria-a-pilot-trial-in-four-villages-of-eastern-myanmar
#14
Jordi Landier, Ladda Kajeechiwa, May Myo Thwin, Daniel M Parker, Victor Chaumeau, Jacher Wiladphaingern, Mallika Imwong, Olivo Miotto, Krittaya Patumrat, Jureeporn Duanguppama, Dominique Cerqueira, Benoit Malleret, Laurent Rénia, Suphak Nosten, Lorenz von Seidlein, Clare Ling, Stéphane Proux, Vincent Corbel, Julie A Simpson, Arjen M Dondorp, Nicholas J White, François H Nosten
Background: Artemisinin and partner drug-resistant falciparum malaria is expanding over the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS). Eliminating falciparum malaria in the GMS while drugs still retain enough efficacy could prevent global spread of antimalarial resistance. Eliminating malaria rapidly requires targeting the reservoir of asymptomatic parasite carriers. This pilot trial aimed to evaluate the acceptability, safety, feasibility and effectiveness of mass-drug administration (MDA) in reducing malaria in four villages in Eastern Myanmar...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042501/plasmodium-falciparum-calcium-dependent-protein-kinase-2-is-critical-for-male-gametocyte-exflagellation-but-not-essential-for-asexual-proliferation
#15
Abhisheka Bansal, Alvaro Molina-Cruz, Joseph Brzostowski, Jianbing Mu, Louis H Miller
Drug development efforts have focused mostly on the asexual blood stages of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum Except for primaquine, which has its own limitations, there are no available drugs that target the transmission of the parasite to mosquitoes. Therefore, there is a need to validate new parasite proteins that can be targeted for blocking transmission. P. falciparum calcium-dependent protein kinases (PfCDPKs) play critical roles at various stages of the parasite life cycle and, importantly, are absent in the human host...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020124/glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency-and-the-use-of-primaquine-top-down-and-bottom-up-estimation-of-professional-costs
#16
Henry Maia Peixoto, Marcelo Augusto Mota Brito, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra Romero, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de Lacerda, Maria Regina Fernandes de Oliveira
The aim of this study has been to study whether the top-down method, based on the average value identified in the Brazilian Hospitalization System (SIH/SUS), is a good estimator of the cost of health professionals per patient, using the bottom-up method for comparison. The study has been developed from the context of hospital care offered to the patient carrier of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency with severe adverse effect because of the use of primaquine, in the Brazilian Amazon. The top-down method based on the spending with SIH/SUS professional services, as a proxy for this cost, corresponded to R$60...
October 5, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016333/distribution-of-mutations-associated-with-antifolate-and-chloroquine-resistance-among-imported-plasmodium-vivax-in-the-state-of-qatar
#17
Devendra Bansal, Anushree Acharya, Praveen K Bharti, Mohamed H Abdelraheem, Ashraf Elmalik, Salem Abosalah, Fahmi Y Khan, Mohamed ElKhalifa, Hargobinder Kaur, Pradyumna K Mohapatra, Rakesh Sehgal, Mohammed A Idris, Jagadish Mahanta, Neeru Singh, Hamza A Babiker, Ali A Sultan
Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent parasite worldwide, escalating by spread of drug resistance. Currently, in Qatar, chloroquine (CQ) plus primaquine are recommended for the treatment of P. vivax malaria. The present study examined the prevalence of mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr), dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) genes and CQ resistance transporter (crt-o) genes, associated with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine resistance, among imported P. vivax cases in Qatar. Blood samples were collected from patients positive for P...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975866/slco1a2-slco1b1-and-slco2b1-polymorphisms-influences-chloroquine-and-primaquine-treatment-in-plasmodium-vivax-malaria
#18
Vinicius A Sortica, Juliana D Lindenau, Maristela G Cunha, Maria Deise O Ohnishi, Ana Maria R Ventura, Ândrea Kc Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Sidney Eb Santos, Luciano Sp Guimarães, Mara H Hutz
AIM: The association of transporters gene polymorphisms with chloroquine/primaquine malaria treatment response was investigated in a Brazilian population. PATIENTS & METHODS: Totally, 164 Plasmodium vivax malaria infected patients were included. Generalized estimating equations were performed to determine gene influences on parasitemia and/or gametocytemia clearance over treatment time. RESULTS: Significant interaction between SLCO2B1 genotypes and treatment over time for parasitemia clearance rate on day 2 were observed (p FDR = 0...
October 4, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965427/malaria-medicines-to-address-drug-resistance-and-support-malaria-elimination-efforts
#19
Jane Achan, Julia Mwesigwa, Chinagozi Precious Edwin, Umberto D'alessandro
Antimalarial drugs are essential weapons to fight malaria and have been used effectively since the 17(th) century. However, P.falciparum resistance has been reported to almost all available antimalarial drugs, including artemisinin derivatives, raising concerns that this could jeopardize malaria elimination. Areas covered: In this article, we present a historical perspective of antimalarial drug resistance, review current evidence of resistance to available antimalarial drugs and discuss possible mitigating strategies to address this challenge...
October 11, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954071/a-newly-validated-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-method-with-diode-array-ultraviolet-detection-for-analysis-of-the-antimalarial-drug-primaquine-in-the-blood-plasma
#20
Ana Paula Barbosa do Carmo, Manoella Borborema, Stephan Ribeiro, Ana Cecilia Xavier De-Oliveira, Francisco Jose Roma Paumgartten, Davyson de Lima Moreira
INTRODUCTION: Primaquine (PQ) diphosphate is an 8-aminoquinoline antimalarial drug with unique therapeutic properties. It is the only drug that prevents relapses of Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium ovale infections. In this study, a fast, sensitive, cost-effective, and robust method for the extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array ultraviolet detection (HPLC-DAD-UV ) analysis of PQ in the blood plasma was developed and validated. METHODS: After plasma protein precipitation, PQ was obtained by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by HPLC-DAD-UV with a modified-silica cyanopropyl column (250mm × 4...
July 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
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