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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677199/implications-of-current-therapeutic-restrictions-for-primaquine-and-tafenoquine-in-the-radical-cure-of-vivax-malaria
#1
James Watson, Walter R J Taylor, Germana Bancone, Cindy S Chu, Podjanee Jittamala, Nicholas J White
BACKGROUND: The 8-aminoquinoline antimalarials, the only drugs which prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malaria (radical cure), cause dose-dependent oxidant haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Patients with <30% and <70% of normal G6PD activity are not given standard regimens of primaquine and tafenoquine, respectively. Both drugs are currently considered contraindicated in pregnant and lactating women. METHODS: Quantitative G6PD enzyme activity data from 5198 individuals were used to estimate the proportions of heterozygous females who would be ineligible for treatment at the 30% and 70% activity thresholds, and the relationship with the severity of the deficiency...
April 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672516/use-of-primaquine-and-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency-testing-divergent-policies-and-practices-in-malaria-endemic-countries
#2
REVIEW
Judith Recht, Elizabeth A Ashley, Nicholas J White
Primaquine is the only available antimalarial drug that kills dormant liver stages of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale malarias and therefore prevents their relapse ('radical cure'). It is also the only generally available antimalarial that rapidly sterilises mature P. falciparum gametocytes. Radical cure requires extended courses of primaquine (usually 14 days; total dose 3.5-7 mg/kg), whereas transmissibility reduction in falciparum malaria requires a single dose (formerly 0.75 mg/kg, now a single low dose [SLD] of 0...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615043/a-review-of-progress-towards-sub-national-malaria-elimination-in-matabeleland-south-province-zimbabwe-2011-2015-a-qualitative-study
#3
Gladwin Muchena, Busisani Dube, Rudo Chikodzore, Jasper Pasipamire, Sivakumaran Murugasampillay, Joseph Mberikunashe
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a public health problem in Zimbabwe. However, malaria elimination has become a foreseeable prospect with Matabeleland South Province making significant gains towards halting local malaria transmission. This study reviews malaria elimination progress and challenges to date utilizing the World Health Organization's Malaria Programme Review framework. RESULTS: Between 2011 and 2015, malaria incidence was less than one case per 1000 population at risk in all districts save for Beitbridge and Gwanda...
April 3, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614536/-prophylaxis-and-therapy-of-malaria-current-recommendations
#4
Christof D Vinnemeier, Thierry Rolling
Malaria incidence is decreasing on a global scale, while the number of imported cases has remained at a high level in Germany. To decrease this number, counselling of travellers to malaria-endemic regions is important. Patients to high risk countries need regular chemoprophylaxis. The alternative of stand-by emergency treatment for travellers to regions with low or medium risk has been met with growing criticism. For the treatment of all malaria cases, artemisinins are a mainstay of treatment. Regular follow-up is warranted to prevent relapses...
April 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590343/expanding-the-use-of-primaquine-for-the-radical-cure-of-plasmodium-vivax
#5
Ric N Price, Nicholas M Douglas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590311/primaquine-pharmacokinetics-in-lactating-women-and-breastfed-infant-exposures
#6
Mary Ellen Gilder, Warunee Hanpithakphong, Richard M Hoglund, Joel Tarning, Htun Htun Win, Naw Hilda, Cindy S Chu, Germana Bancone, Verena I Carrara, Pratap Singhasivanon, Nicholas J White, François Nosten, Rose McGready
Background: Primaquine is the only drug providing radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria. It is not recommended for breastfeeding women as it causes hemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient individuals, and breast milk excretion and thus infant exposure are not known. Methods: Healthy G6PD normal breastfeeding women with previous P.vivax infection and their healthy G6PD normal infants between 28 days and 2 years old were enrolled. Mothers took primaquine 0...
March 24, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582583/a-cascade-targeting-nanocapsule-for-enhanced-photothermal-tumor-therapy-with-aid-of-autophagy-inhibition
#7
Xilong Wu, Yundi Wu, Zhiyong Wang, Lixin Liu, Chengxin Sun, Yongming Chen, Chun Wang
Autophagy is a homeostatic lysosome-dependent metabolic process to eliminate damaged or dysfunctional cellular organelles, which is closely associated with tumor progression. Indocyanine green (ICG) can convert NIR light energy to localized heat for cancer cell and tissue ablation. However, the effect of autophagy modulation on ICG-mediated photothermal therapy remains unknown. In this study, it is found that primaquine (PQ) suppresses autophagy flux at a late stage through the impeding fusion of the autophagosome with the lysosome to form an autophagolysosome, leading to cell apoptosis or necrosis...
March 27, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579195/negligible-impact-of-mass-screening-and-treatment-on-meso-endemic-malaria-transmission-at-west-timor-in-eastern-indonesia-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#8
Inge Sutanto, Ayleen Kosasih, Iqbal R F Elyazar, Deddy R Simanjuntak, Tri A Larasati, M Sopiyudin Dahlan, Isra Wahid, Ivo Mueller, Cristian Koepfli, Rita Kusriastuti, Asik Surya, Ferdinand J Laihad, William A Hawley, Frank H Collins, J Kevin Baird, Neil F Lobo
Background: Mass screening and treatment (MST) aims to reduce malaria risk in communities by identifying and treating infected without regard to illness. Methods: A cluster-randomized trial evaluated malaria incidence with and without MST. Clusters were randomized to three, two, or no MST interventions: MST3=6 clusters (156 households/670 individuals); MST2=5 clusters (89 households/423 individuals); and MST0=5 clusters (174 households/777 individuals). All clusters completed the study with 15 residents withdrawing...
March 22, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558929/understanding-human-genetic-factors-influencing-primaquine-safety-and-efficacy-to-guide-primaquine-roll-out-in-a-pre-elimination-setting-in-southern-africa
#9
Shehu S Awandu, Jaishree Raman, Takalani I Makhanthisa, Philip Kruger, John Frean, Teun Bousema, Jandeli Niemand, Lyn-Marie Birkholtz
BACKGROUND: Primaquine (PQ) is recommended as an addition to standard malaria treatments in pre-elimination settings due to its pronounced activity against mature Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes, the parasite stage responsible for onward transmission to mosquitoes. However, PQ may trigger haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals. Additional human genetic factors, including polymorphisms in the human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) complex, may negatively influence the efficacy of PQ...
March 20, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548285/low-risk-of-recurrence-following-artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine-plus-primaquine-for-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax-infections-in-the-republic-of-the-sudan
#10
Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid, Kamala Thriemer, Maha E Elobied, Nouh S Mahgoub, Salah A Boshara, Hassan M H Elsafi, Suhaib A Gumaa, Tassneem Hamid, Hanadi Abdelbagi, Hamid M Basheir, Jutta Marfurt, Ingrid Chen, Roly Gosling, Ric N Price, Benedikt Ley
BACKGROUND: First-line schizontocidal treatment for uncomplicated malaria in the Republic of the Sudan is artesunate (total dose 12 mg/kg) plus Sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (25/1.25 mg/kg) (AS/SP). Patients with Plasmodium vivax are also treated with 14 days primaquine (total dose 3.5 mg/kg) (PQ). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the national policy. METHODS: Patients above 1 year, with microscopy-confirmed, Plasmodium falciparum and/or P. vivax malaria were treated with AS/SP...
March 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548282/prevalence-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-g6pd-deficiency-among-malaria-patients-in-upper-myanmar
#11
Jinyoung Lee, Tae Im Kim, Jung-Mi Kang, Hojong Jun, Hương Giang Lê, Thị Lam Thái, Woon-Mok Sohn, Moe Kyaw Myint, Khin Lin, Tong-Soo Kim, Byoung-Kuk Na
BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD; EC 1.1.1.49) deficiency is one of the most common X-linked recessive hereditary disorders in the world. Primaquine (PQ) has been used for radical cure of P. vivax to prevent relapse. Recently, it is also used to reduce P. falciparum gametocyte carriage to block transmission. However, PQ metabolites oxidize hemoglobin and generate excessive reactive oxygen species which can trigger acute hemolytic anemia in malaria patients with inherited G6PD deficiency...
March 16, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529291/dosage-of-single-low-dose-primaquine-to-stop-malaria-transmission
#12
Modesto Cruz, Isaac Miguel Sánchez, Jose Diaz, Francisco Cuevas, Miguel Silva, Mildre Disla, Pedro E Ferreira, Maria Isabel Veiga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 24, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517448/clinical-effect-of-hemoparasite-infections-in-snowy-owls-bubo-scandiacus
#13
Kendra C Baker, Christy L Rettenmund, Samantha J Sander, Anne E Rivas, Kaitlin C Green, Lisa Mangus, Ellen Bronson
Vector-borne hemoparasites are commonly found in avian species. Plasmodium spp., the causative agent of avian malaria, are intraerythrocytic parasites that can cause signs ranging from subclinical infection to severe acute disease. In raptor species, most hemoparasites are associated with subclinical infection and are generally not treated when seen on blood evaluation. This case series reviews five cases of hemoparasite infection in snowy owls ( Bubo scandiacus). These animals were infected with a variety of hemoparasites, including Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leukocytozoon spp...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510711/the-ethics-of-using-placebo-in-randomised-controlled-trials-a-case-study-of-a-plasmodium-vivax-antirelapse-trial
#14
Phaik Yeong Cheah, Norbert Steinkamp, Lorenz von Seidlein, Ric N Price
BACKGROUND: The use of placebos in randomised controlled trials is a subject of considerable ethical debate. In this paper we present a set of considerations to evaluate the ethics of placebo controlled trials that includes: social value of the study; need for a randomised controlled trial and placebo; standards of care; risks of harm due to administration of placebo and the harm benefit balance; clinical equipoise; and double standards. We illustrate the application of these considerations using a case study of a large ongoing multicentre, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomised trial to determine primaquine anti-relapse efficacy in vivax malaria...
March 6, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499733/primaquine-induced-haemolysis-in-females-heterozygous-for-g6pd-deficiency
#15
REVIEW
Cindy S Chu, Germana Bancone, François Nosten, Nicholas J White, Lucio Luzzatto
Oxidative agents can cause acute haemolytic anaemia in persons with G6PD deficiency. Understanding the relationship between G6PD genotype and the phenotypic expression of the enzyme deficiency is necessary so that severe haemolysis can be avoided. The patterns of oxidative haemolysis have been well described in G6PD deficient hemizygous males and homozygous females; and haemolysis in the proportionally more numerous heterozygous females has been documented mainly following consumption of fava beans and more recently dapsone...
March 2, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499488/endoperoxide-8-aminoquinoline-hybrids-as-dual-stage-antimalarial-agents-with-enhanced-metabolic-stability
#16
Rita Capela, Joana Magalhães, Daniela Miranda, Marta Machado, Margarida Sanches-Vaz, Inês S Albuquerque, Moni Sharma, Jiri Gut, Philip J Rosenthal, Raquel Frade, Maria J Perry, Rui Moreira, Miguel Prudêncio, Francisca Lopes
Hybrid compounds may play a critical role in the context of the malaria eradication agenda, which will benefit from therapeutic tools active against the symptomatic erythrocytic stage of Plasmodium infection, and also capable of eliminating liver stage parasites. To address the need for efficient multistage antiplasmodial compounds, a small library of 1,2,4,5-tetraoxane-8- aminoquinoline hybrids, with the metabolically labile C-5 position of the 8-aminoquinoline moiety blocked with aryl groups, was synthesized and screened for antiplasmodial activity and metabolic stability...
February 19, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495139/cost-benefit-analysis-of-malaria-chemoprophylaxis-and-early-diagnosis-for-korean-soldiers-in-malaria-risk-regions
#17
Hee Sung Kim, Gilwon Kang, Sunmi Lee, Chang Gyo Yoon, Minyoung Kim
BACKGROUND: Chemoprophylaxis has been used to prevent malaria among soldiers and secondary transmission, as it effectively facilitates a decline in disease occurrence and secondary prevention. However, poor compliance and decreased risk of exposure to malaria necessitate that control strategies be reestablished. METHODS: To predict the incidence of malaria according to a control strategy, we proposed a mathematical model for its transmission using epidemiological data from 2010 to 2012...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456374/factors-affecting-primaquine-combination-treatment-in-malaria-patients-in-selangor-malaysia
#18
Norliza Mat Ariffin, Farida Islahudin, Mohd Makmor-Bakry, Endang Kumolosasi, Mohd Hafizi A Hamid
Introduction: Primaquine is vital for the management of liver-stage Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale malaria. However, primaquine effectiveness is dependent on various factors and differs between populations. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify factors that affect the length of stay and relapse during primaquine combination treatment in malaria-infected patients in the local setting. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study on the use of primaquine combination among P...
October 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444080/promising-approach-to-reducing-malaria-transmission-by-ivermectin-sporontocidal-effect-against-plasmodium-vivax-in-the-south-american-vectors-anopheles-aquasalis-and-anopheles-darlingi
#19
Yudi T Pinilla, Stefanie C P Lopes, Vanderson S Sampaio, Francys S Andrade, Gisely C Melo, Alessandra S Orfanó, Nágila F C Secundino, Maria G V B Guerra, Marcus V G Lacerda, Kevin C Kobylinski, Karin S Escobedo-Vargas, Victor M López-Sifuentes, Craig A Stoops, G Christian Baldeviano, Joel Tarning, Gissella M Vasquez, Paulo F P Pimenta, Wuelton M Monteiro
BACKGROUND: The mosquito resistance to the insecticides threatens malaria control efforts, potentially becoming a major public health issue. Alternative methods like ivermectin (IVM) administration to humans has been suggested as a possible vector control to reduce Plasmodium transmission. Anopheles aquasalis and Anopheles darlingi are competent vectors for Plasmodium vivax, and they have been responsible for various malaria outbreaks in the coast of Brazil and the Amazon Region of South America...
February 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433507/sudden-spleen-rupture-in-a-plasmodium-vivax-infected-patient-undergoing-malaria-treatment
#20
Aleix Elizalde-Torrent, Fernando Val, Ingrid Cardoso C Azevedo, Wuelton M Monteiro, Luiz C L Ferreira, Carmen Fernández-Becerra, Hernando A Del Portillo, Marcus V G Lacerda
BACKGROUND: Splenomegaly is one of the most common features of malaria. However, spontaneous splenic rupture, although unusual, represents a severe complication often leading to death. It is mostly seen in acute infection and primary attack, and it is most commonly associated with Plasmodium vivax. Here, a case of spontaneous splenic rupture diagnosed with a portable ultrasound apparatus shortly after starting treatment and with recurrent parasitaemia after splenectomy, is reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: In November 2015, a 45-year-old Brazilian man presented to the hospital in Manaus with fever, headache and myalgia...
February 13, 2018: Malaria Journal
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