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Vinicius A Sortica, Juliana D Lindenau, Maristela G Cunha, Maria DO Ohnishi, Ana Maria R Ventura, Ândrea Kc Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Sidney Eb Santos, Luciano Sp Guimarães, Mara H Hutz
BACKGROUND: Chloroquine/primaquine is the current therapy to eliminate Plasmodium vivax infection in the Amazon region. AIMS: This study investigates CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms influence on cloroquine/primaquine treatment. PATIENTS & METHODS: Generalized estimating equations analyses were performed to determine the genetic influence in parasitemia and/or gametocytemia clearance over treatment time in 164 patients...
October 21, 2016: Pharmacogenomics
Yoann Duffier, Audrey Lorthiois, Pau Cisteró, Florian Dupuy, Grégory Jouvion, Laurence Fiette, Dominique Mazier, Alfredo Mayor, Catherine Lavazec, Alicia Moreno Sabater
The development of new drugs to disrupt malaria transmission requires the establishment of an in vivo model to address the biology of Plasmodium falciparum sexual stages (gametocytes). Herein we show that chemically immune-modulated NSG mice grafted with human erythrocytes support complete sexual development of P. falciparum parasites and generate high gametocytemia. Immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR analyses indicate an enrichment of immature gametocytes in the bone marrow and the spleen, suggesting a sequestration mechanism reminiscent to that observed in humans...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Toby Leslie, Sami Nahzat, Walid Sediqi
Around half of the population of Afghanistan resides in areas at risk of malaria transmission. Two species of malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) account for a high burden of disease-in 2011, there were more than 300,000 confirmed cases. Around 80-95% of malaria is P. vivax Transmission is seasonal and focal, below 2,000 m in altitude, and in irrigated areas which allow breeding of anopheline mosquito vectors. Malaria risk is stratified to improve targeting of interventions. Sixty-three of 400 districts account for ∼85% of cases, and are the target of more intense control efforts...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Claudia Surjadjaja, Asik Surya, J Kevin Baird
Endemic malaria occurs across much of the vast Indonesian archipelago. All five species of Plasmodium known to naturally infect humans occur here, along with 20 species of Anopheles mosquitoes confirmed as carriers of malaria. Two species of plasmodia cause the overwhelming majority and virtually equal shares of malaria infections in Indonesia: Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax The challenge posed by P. vivax is especially steep in Indonesia because chloroquine-resistant strains predominate, along with Chesson-like strains that relapse quickly and multiple times at short intervals in almost all patients...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Ladda Kajeechiwa, May Myo Thwin, Paw Wah Shee, Nan Lin Yee, Elvina Elvina, Peapah Peapah, Kyawt Kyawt, Poe Thit Oo, William PoWah, Jacqueline Roger Min, Jacher Wiladphaingern, Lorenz von Seidlein, Suphak Nosten, Francois Nosten
BACKGROUND: A targeted malaria elimination project, including mass drug administrations (MDA) of dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine plus a single low dose primaquine is underway in villages along the Thailand Myanmar border. The intervention has multiple components but the success of the project will depend on the participation of the entire communities. Quantitative surveys were conducted to study reasons for participation or non-participation in the campaign with the aim to identify factors associated with the acceptance and participation in the mass drug administrations...
September 27, 2016: Malaria Journal
Michelle E Roh, Caesar Oyet, Patrick Orikiriza, Martina Wade, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Yap Boum, Gertrude N Kiwanuka, Sunil Parikh
Despite the potential benefit of primaquine in reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission and radical cure of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale infections, concerns over risk of hemolytic toxicity in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd) have hampered its deployment. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 to assess the G6PDd prevalence among 631 children between 6 and 59 months of age in southwestern Uganda, an area where primaquine may be a promising control measure...
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Dhelio Pereira, André Daher, Graziela Zanini, Ivan Maia, Lais Fonseca, Luciana Pitta, Rosilene Ruffato, Paola Marchesini, Cor Jesus Fontes
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a major public health problem, with half the world population at risk of contracting malaria. The effects of Plasmodium vivax on prosperity and longevity have been highlighted in several recent clinical case reports. The first line of vivax treatment drugs has seen no radical innovation for more than 60 years. This study introduces a subtle incremental innovation to vivax treatment: a chloroquine and primaquine co-blister. The co-blister includes a new chloroquine formulation incorporating coated tablets to mask the drug's bitter taste and user-friendly packaging containing tablets of each drug, which may improve patient adherence and facilitate the appropriate use of the drugs...
2016: Malaria Journal
Pius S Fasinu, Babu L Tekwani, Bharathi Avula, Narayan D Chaurasiya, N P Dhammika Nanayakkara, Yan-Hong Wang, Ikhlas A Khan, Larry A Walker
BACKGROUND: There has been some evidence to suggest that the addition of chloroquine (CQ) or quinine (QN) to 8-aminoquinoline (8-AQ) treatment regimens may increase the therapeutic efficacy of the 8-AQ and simultaneously mitigate against its haemolytic toxicity. However, both CQ and QN are considered effective, although perhaps moderate inhibitors of CYP2D6, an enzyme now regarded as necessary for primaquine (PQ) pharmacologic activity. An understanding of the influence of CQ and QN on the metabolism of PQ may shed light on the potential mechanisms of the beneficial interaction...
2016: Malaria Journal
I Perković, M Antunović, I Marijanović, K Pavić, K Ester, M Kralj, J Vlainić, I Kosalec, D Schols, D Hadjipavlou-Litina, E Pontiki, B Zorc
A series of novel compounds 3a-j and 6a-j with primaquine and hydroxyl or halogen substituted benzene moieties bridged by urea or bis-urea functionalities were designed, synthesized and evaluated for biological activity. The title compounds were prepared using benzotriazole as the synthon, through several synthetic steps. 3-[3,5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1-{4-[(6-methoxyquinolin-8-yl)amino]pentyl}urea (3j) was the most active urea and 1-[({4-[(6-methoxyquinolin-8-yl)amino]pentyl}carbamoyl)amino]-3-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]urea (6h) the most active bis-urea derivative in antiproliferative screening in vitro against eight tested cancer cell lines...
August 24, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Rhea J Longley, Piyarat Sripoorote, Pornpimol Chobson, Teerawat Saeseu, Chonlaphat Sukasem, Suparat Phunanukoonnon, Wang Nguitragool, Ivo Mueller, Jetsumon Sattabongkot
Primaquine is the only licensed antimalarial drug that is capable of clearing dormant Plasmodium vivax liver stage parasites. To date, there is no clear evidence of resistance of the liver stage parasite against this drug, because of the difficulty in ascertaining the cause of recurrent infection. We followed 52 Thai P. vivax patients for 9 months after directly observed treatment of 15 mg primaquine daily for 14 days. Blood samples taken at 2-4 weekly intervals were assessed by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of parasites...
September 6, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Marcelo Augusto Mota Brito, Henry Maia Peixoto, Anne Cristine Gomes de Almeida, Maria Regina Fernandes de Oliveira, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra Romero, José Pereira Moura-Neto, Nakul Singh, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de Lacerda
INTRODUCTION: In the Brazilian Amazon, malaria infections are primarily caused by Plasmodium vivax. The only drug that kills the hypnozoite form of P. vivax is primaquine, thereby preventing relapse. However, treating glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals with primaquine can lead to severe hemolysis. G6PD deficiency (G6PDd) affects approximately 400 million people worldwide, most of whom live in malaria-endemic areas. Therefore, clinicians need tools that can easily and reliably identify individuals with G6PDd...
July 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Wenting Zhao, Qin Pang, Ruixue Xu, Jianwen Liu, Shengfa Liu, Jian Li, Xin-Zhuan Su
Leucocytozoon parasites infect many species of avian hosts, including domestic chicken, and can inflict heavy economic loss on the poultry industry. Two major species of Leucocytozoon parasites have been reported in China, L. sabrazesi and L. caulleryi, although L. sabrazesi appears to be more widespread than L. caulleryi in southern China. The traditional method for detecting Leucocytozoon infection is microscopic examination of blood smears for the presence of mature gametocytes in circulation, which may miss infections with low parasitemia (gametocytemia) or immature gametocytes...
2016: PloS One
Jaishree Raman, Natashia Morris, John Frean, Basil Brooke, Lucille Blumberg, Philip Kruger, Aaron Mabusa, Eric Raswiswi, Bridget Shandukani, Eunice Misani, Mary-Anne Groepe, Devanand Moonasar
BACKGROUND: With a sustained national malaria incidence of fewer than one case per 1000 population at risk, in 2012 South Africa officially transitioned from controlling malaria to the ambitious goal of eliminating malaria within its borders by 2018. This review assesses the progress made in the 3 years since programme re-orientation while highlighting challenges and suggesting priorities for moving the malaria programme towards elimination. METHODS: National malaria case data and annual spray coverage data from 2010 until 2014 were assessed for trends...
2016: Malaria Journal
Richard Mwaiswelo, Billy Ngasala, Irina Jovel, Berit Aydin-Schmidt, Roland Gosling, Zul Premji, Bruno Mmbando, Anders Björkman, Andreas Mårtensson
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recently recommended the addition of a single low-dose of the gametocytocidal drug primaquine (PQ) to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in low transmission settings as a component of pre-elimination or elimination programmes. However, it is unclear whether that influences the ACT cure rate. The study assessed treatment outcome of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) plus a single PQ dose (0.25 mg/kg) versus standard AL regimen for treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Tanzania...
2016: Malaria Journal
Mamadou A Diallo, Aida S Badiane, Khadim Diongue, Awa Deme, Naomi W Lucchi, Marie Gaye, Tolla Ndiaye, Mouhamadou Ndiaye, Louise K Sene, Abdoulaye Diop, Amy Gaye, Yaye D Ndiaye, Diama Samb, Mamadou S Yade, Omar Ndir, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Daouda Ndiaye
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium ovale is rarely described in Senegal. A case of clinical malaria due to P. ovale wallikeri in West Central of Senegal is reported. CASE: A 34-year-old male baker in Dakar, with no significant previous medical history, was admitted to a health clinic with fever and vomiting. Fever had been lasting for 4 days with peaks every 48 h. As monospecific Plasmodium falciparum HRP-2 RDT was negative, he was treated with antibiotics. However, owing to persisting symptoms, he was referred to the emergency unit of the Youssou Mbargane Diop Hospital, Dakar, Senegal...
2016: Malaria Journal
Georg Maschmeyer, Jannik Helweg-Larsen, Livio Pagano, Christine Robin, Catherine Cordonnier, Peter Schellongowski
The initiation of systemic antimicrobial treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is triggered by clinical signs and symptoms, typical radiological and occasionally laboratory findings in patients at risk of this infection. Diagnostic proof by bronchoalveolar lavage should not delay the start of treatment. Most patients with haematological malignancies present with a severe PCP; therefore, antimicrobial therapy should be started intravenously. High-dose trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is the treatment of choice...
September 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Suiane Negreiros, Samela Farias, Giselle Maria Rachid Viana, Sheila Akinyi Okoth, Stella M Chenet, Thayna Maria Holanda de Souza, Paola Marchesini, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Marinete Marins Povoa, Ana Carolina Faria E Silva Santelli, Alexandre Macedo de Oliveira
We evaluated the efficacy of chloroquine and primaquine on uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria in Cruzeiro do Sul, Brazil, in 2014. Patients ≥ 5 years of age with either fever or history of fever, and laboratory-confirmed P. vivax monoinfection received chloroquine (total dose = 25 mg/kg) and primaquine (total dose = 3.5 mg/kg), and were followed up for 168 days (24 weeks). We used microsatellite genotyping to differentiate recurrent infections caused by heterologous parasites from those caused by homologous ones...
August 22, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Cindy S Chu, Nicholas J White
INTRODUCTION: Relapses are important contributors to illness and morbidity in Plasmodium vivax and P. ovale infections. Relapse prevention (radical cure) with primaquine is required for optimal management, control and ultimately elimination of Plasmodium vivax malaria. A review was conducted with publications in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish using the search terms 'P. vivax' and 'relapse'. AREAS COVERED: Hypnozoites causing relapses may be activated weeks or months after initial infection...
October 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Yehenew A Ebstie, Solomon M Abay, Wondmagegn T Tadesse, Dawit A Ejigu
Despite declining global malaria incidence, the disease continues to be a threat to people living in endemic regions. In 2015, an estimated 214 million new malaria cases and 438,000 deaths due to malaria were recorded. Plasmodium vivax is the second most common cause of malaria next to Plasmodium falciparum. Vivax malaria is prevalent especially in Southeast Asia and the Horn of Africa, with enormous challenges in controlling the disease. Some of the challenges faced by vivax malaria-endemic countries include limited access to effective drugs treating liver stages of the parasite (schizonts and hypnozoites), emergence/spread of drug resistance, and misperception of vivax malaria as nonlethal...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Sarah O'Neill, Susan Dierickx, Joseph Okebe, Edgard Dabira, Charlotte Gryseels, Umberto d'Alessandro, Koen Peeters Grietens
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials require high levels of participation and low drop-out rates to be successful. However, collecting blood samples from individuals recruited into clinical trials can be challenging when there is reticence about blood-taking. In addition to concerns regarding the feasibility of medical research, fears of 'blood-stealing' and 'blood-selling' have ethical implications related to cultural sensitivity and informed consent. This study explores anxieties around blood-taking during a malaria treatment trial in the Gambia...
2016: PloS One
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