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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706205/the-alkaloids-of-banisteriopsis-caapi-the-plant-source-of-the-amazonian-hallucinogen-ayahuasca-stimulate-adult-neurogenesis-in-vitro
#1
Jose A Morales-García, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Sandra Alonso-Gil, María Isabel Rodríguez-Franco, Amanda Feilding, Ana Perez-Castillo, Jordi Riba
Banisteriopsis caapi is the basic ingredient of ayahuasca, a psychotropic plant tea used in the Amazon for ritual and medicinal purposes, and by interested individuals worldwide. Animal studies and recent clinical research suggests that B. caapi preparations show antidepressant activity, a therapeutic effect that has been linked to hippocampal neurogenesis. Here we report that harmine, tetrahydroharmine and harmaline, the three main alkaloids present in B. caapi, and the harmine metabolite harmol, stimulate adult neurogenesis in vitro...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591380/chronic-intermittent-exposure-to-ayahuasca-during-aging-does-not-affect-memory-in-mice
#2
N F Correa-Netto, L S Coelho, G S Galfano, F Nishide, F Tamura, M K Shimizu, J G Santos, A Linardi
The Quechua term ayahuasca refers to a beverage obtained from decoctions of the liana Banisteriopsis caapi with leaves of Psychotria viridis. The ritualistic use of ayahuasca is becoming a global phenomenon, with some individuals using this beverage throughout life, including in old age. Cognitive impairment is a common manifestation during aging. There are conflicting reports on the ability of some ayahuasca compounds to exert neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects that could improve or impair learning and memory...
June 5, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591379/an-ontogenic-study-of-the-behavioral-effects-of-chronic-intermittent-exposure-to-ayahuasca-in-mice
#3
N F Correa-Netto, M Y Masukawa, F Nishide, G S Galfano, F Tamura, M K Shimizo, M P Marcato, J G Santos, A Linardi
Ayahuasca is a beverage obtained from decoctions of the Banisteriopsis caapi plus Psychotria viridis. In religious contexts, ayahuasca is used by different age groups. However, little is known of the effects of ayahuasca during ontogenic development, particularly with regard to the functional characteristics of the central nervous system. Animal models are useful for studying the ontogenic effects of ayahuasca because they allow exclusion of the behavioral influence associated with the ritualistic use. We investigated the effects of exposure to ayahuasca (1...
June 5, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105971/determination-of-tryptamines-and-%C3%AE-carbolines-in-ayahuasca-beverage-consumed-during-brazilian-religious-ceremonies
#4
Mônica Cardoso Santos, Sandro Navickiene, Alain Gaujac
Ayahuasca is a potent hallucinogenic beverage prepared from Banisteriopsis caapi in combination with other psychoactive plants. N,N-dimethyltryptamine, tryptamine, harmine, harmaline, harmalol, and tetrahydroharmine were quantified in ayahuasca samples using a simple and low-cost method based on SPE and LC with UV diode-array detection. The experimental variables that affect the SPE method, such as type of solid phase and nature of solvent, were optimized. The method showed good linearity (r > 0.9902) and repeatability (RSD < 0...
May 1, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099572/occurrence-of-ants-hymenoptera-formicidae-in-banisteriopsis-laevifolia-a-juss-b-gates-malpighiaceae-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil
#5
R Sebastiani, R T Fujihara, M Garcia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918874/effects-of-the-natural-%C3%AE-carboline-alkaloid-harmine-a-main-constituent-of-ayahuasca-in-memory-and-in-the-hippocampus-a-systematic-literature-review-of-preclinical-studies
#6
Rafael G Dos Santos, Jaime E C Hallak
Harmine is a natural β-carboline alkaloid found in several botanical species, such as the Banisteriopsis caapi vine used in the preparation of the hallucinogenic beverage ayahuasca and the seeds of Syrian rue (Peganum harmala). Preclinical studies suggest that harmine may have neuroprotective and cognitive-enhancing effects, and retrospective/observational investigations of the mental health of long-term ayahuasca users suggest that prolonged use of this harmine-rich hallucinogen is associated with better neuropsychological functioning...
January 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896660/ayahuasca-exposure-descriptive-analysis-of-calls-to-us-poison-control-centers-from-2005-to-2015
#7
C William Heise, Daniel E Brooks
BACKGROUND: Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic plant preparation which usually contains the vine Banisteriopsis caapi and the shrub Psychotria viridis. This tea originates from the Amazon Basin where it is used in religious ceremonies. Because interest in these religious groups spreading as well as awareness of use of ayahuasca for therapeutic and recreational purposes, its use is increasing. Banisteriopsis caapi is rich in β-carbolines, especially harmine, tetrahydroharmine and harmaline, which have monoamine oxidase inhibiting (MAOI) activity...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377797/a-rapid-and-simple-method-for-the-determination-of-psychoactive-alkaloids-by-ce-uv-application-to-peganum-harmala-seed-infusions
#8
Marcos Tascón, Fernando Benavente, Nora M Vizioli, Leonardo G Gagliardi
The β-carboline alkaloids of the harmala (HAlks) group are compounds widely spread in many natural sources, but found at relatively high levels in some specific plants like Peganum harmala (Syrian rue) or Banisteriopsis caapi. HAlks are a reversible Mono Amino Oxidase type A Inhibitor (MAOI) and, as a consequence, these plants or their extracts can be used to produce psychotropic effects when are combined with psychotropic drugs based on amino groups. Since the occurrence and the levels of the HAlks in natural sources are subject to significant variability, more widespread use is not clinical but recreational or ritual, for example B...
April 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27039035/inhibition-of-alpha-oscillations-through-serotonin-2a-receptor-activation-underlies-the-visual-effects-of-ayahuasca-in-humans
#9
Marta Valle, Ana Elda Maqueda, Mireia Rabella, Aina Rodríguez-Pujadas, Rosa Maria Antonijoan, Sergio Romero, Joan Francesc Alonso, Miquel Àngel Mañanas, Steven Barker, Pablo Friedlander, Amanda Feilding, Jordi Riba
Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychotropic plant tea typically obtained from two plants, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis. It contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A and sigma-1 agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting properties. Although the psychoactive effects of ayahuasca have commonly been attributed solely to agonism at the 5-HT2A receptor, the molecular target of classical psychedelics, this has not been tested experimentally. Here we wished to study the contribution of the 5-HT2A receptor to the neurophysiological and psychological effects of ayahuasca in humans...
July 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26976063/ayahuasca-pharmacology-neuroscience-and-therapeutic-potential
#10
REVIEW
Elisabet Domínguez-Clavé, Joaquim Soler, Matilde Elices, Juan C Pascual, Enrique Álvarez, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Pablo Friedlander, Amanda Feilding, Jordi Riba
Ayahuasca is the Quechua name for a tea obtained from the vine Banisteriopsis caapi, and used for ritual purposes by the indigenous populations of the Amazon. The use of a variation of the tea that combines B. caapi with the leaves of the shrub Psychotria viridis has experienced unprecedented expansion worldwide for its psychotropic properties. This preparation contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from P. viridis, plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase-inhibiting properties from B...
September 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26716991/effects-of-long-term-ayahuasca-administration-on-memory-and-anxiety-in-rats
#11
Vanessa Manchim Favaro, Maurício Yonamine, Juliana Carlota Kramer Soares, Maria Gabriela Menezes Oliveira
Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that combines the action of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from Psychotria viridis with the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) induced by beta-carbonyls from Banisteriopsis caapi. Previous investigations have highlighted the involvement of ayahuasca with the activation of brain regions known to be involved with episodic memory, contextual associations and emotional processing after ayahuasca ingestion. Moreover long term users show better performance in neuropsychological tests when tested in off-drug condition...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26514589/ayahuasca-tourism-participants-in-shamanic-rituals-and-their-personality-styles-motivation-benefits-and-risks
#12
Veronika Kavenská, Hana Simonová
Ayahuasca continues to attract tourists to South America, where there has been a growth in the number of centers offering hallucinogenic ayahuasca experiences. The aims of this study were to (1) discover the reasons foreigners seek this type of experience; (2) define what an ayahuasca experience entails; (3) discover subjective perceptions of ayahuasca's benefits and risks; and (4) describe personality styles of participants using the personality questionnaire (PSSI). Participants (N=77) were persons who had travelled to South America to use ayahuasca...
November 2015: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26485742/-psychedelics-and-quasi-psychedelics-in-the-light-of-contemporary-research-medical-cannabis-mdma-salvinorin-a-ibogaine-and-ayahuasca
#13
REVIEW
Attila Szabó, Anita Kazai, Ede Frecska, Zoltán Brys
In lack of professional research and appropriate concepts our scientific knowledge of psychedelic agents is limited. According to the long-held official view these drugs are entirely harmful and have no medical use. However, a recent surge of clinical and pharmacological studies in the field indicates that many psychedelic-like agents have therapeutic potentials under proper circumstances. In this paper, from a biomedical and psychological perspective, we provide a brief review of the general effects and promising treatment uses of medical cannabis, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), salvinorin A, ibogaine and the dimethyltryptamine-(DMT)-containing ayahuasca...
September 2015: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26165663/light-microscopy-can-reveal-the-consumption-of-a-mixture-of-psychotropic-plant-and-fungal-material-in-suspicious-death
#14
Patricia E J Wiltshire, David L Hawksworth, Kevin J Edwards
Light microscopical examination of plant and fungal remains in the post mortem gut may be capable of demonstrating the ingestion of unexpected natural psychotropic materials. This is demonstrated here in a case in which a 'shaman' was accused of causing the death of a young man. The deceased had participated in a ceremony which involved the drinking of ayahuasca in order to induce a psychotropic experience. Ayahuasca is an infusion of Banisteriopsis caapi (ayahuasca vine), which produces a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, and one or more additional tropical plants, generally Psychotria viridis (chacruna) which produces dimethyltryptamine (DMT)...
August 2015: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26049017/behavioural-and-neurotoxic-effects-of-ayahuasca-infusion-banisteriopsis-caapi-and-psychotria-viridis-in-female-wistar-rat
#15
Aline Pic-Taylor, Luciana Gueiros da Motta, Juliana Alves de Morais, Willian Melo Junior, Alana de Fátima Andrade Santos, Leandro Ambrósio Campos, Marcia Renata Mortari, Marcus Vinicius von Zuben, Eloisa Dutra Caldas
Ayahuasca, a psychoactive beverage used by indigenous and religious groups, is generally prepared by the coction of Psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caapi plants containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and β-carboline alkaloids, respectively. To investigate the acute toxicity of ayahuasca, the infusion was administered by gavage to female Wistar rats at doses of 30X and 50X the dose taken during a religious ritual, and the animals observed for 14 days. Behavioural functions were investigated one hour after dosing at 15X and 30X using the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests...
September 2015: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25950593/ritualistic-use-of-ayahuasca-versus-street-use-of-similar-substances-seized-by-the-police-a-key-factor-involved-in-the-potential-for-intoxications-and-overdose
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Rafael Lanaro, Débora Bressanim de Aquino Calemi, Loraine Rezende Togni, José Luiz Costa, Maurício Yonamine, Silvia de Oliveira Santos Cazenave, Alessandra Linardi
The ritualistic use of ayahuasca is becoming a global phenomenon. This beverage contains a combination of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine) and N,N-dimethyltryptamine, the main substance responsible for its visionary effect. The recreational use of similar alkaloids and N,N-dimethyltryptamine has increased in recent years, mainly because of their hallucinogenic effects. In the present study, the concentrations of psychoactive alkaloids in three powder samples seized by the São Paulo State Police and nine ayahuasca aqueous extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD in an attempt to distinguish between illicit drugs and the religious beverage...
April 2015: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25820842/serotonergic-psychedelics-temporarily-modify-information-transfer-in-humans
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Joan Francesc Alonso, Sergio Romero, Miquel Àngel Mañanas, Jordi Riba
BACKGROUND: Psychedelics induce intense modifications in the sensorium, the sense of "self," and the experience of reality. Despite advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular level mechanisms of these drugs, knowledge of their actions on global brain dynamics is still incomplete. Recent imaging studies have found changes in functional coupling between frontal and parietal brain structures, suggesting a modification in information flow between brain regions during acute effects...
March 28, 2015: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25806551/antidepressant-effects-of-a-single-dose-of-ayahuasca-in-patients-with-recurrent-depression-a-preliminary-report
#18
Flávia de L Osório, Rafael F Sanches, Ligia R Macedo, Rafael G dos Santos, João P Maia-de-Oliveira, Lauro Wichert-Ana, Draulio B de Araujo, Jordi Riba, José A Crippa, Jaime E Hallak
OBJECTIVES: Ayahuasca (AYA), a natural psychedelic brew prepared from Amazonian plants and rich in dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and harmine, causes effects of subjective well-being and may therefore have antidepressant actions. This study sought to evaluate the effects of a single dose of AYA in six volunteers with a current depressive episode. METHODS: Open-label trial conducted in an inpatient psychiatric unit. RESULTS: Statistically significant reductions of up to 82% in depressive scores were observed between baseline and 1, 7, and 21 days after AYA administration, as measured on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Anxious-Depression subscale of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)...
January 2015: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25714595/ayahuasca-alters-structural-parameters-of-the-rat-aorta
#19
Dimitrius L Pitol, Selma Siéssere, Rafael G Dos Santos, Maria L N M Rosa, Jaime E C Hallak, Priscilla H Scalize, Bruno F Pereira, Melina M Iyomasa, Marisa Semprini, Jordi Riba, Simone C H Regalo
Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic brew traditionally used by Northwestern Amazonian indigenous groups for therapeutic purposes. It is prepared by the decoction of Banisteriopsis caapi with the leaves of Psychotria viridis. Banisteriopsis caapi contains β-carbolines that are inhibitors of monoamine oxidase and P. viris is rich in dimethyltryptamine, a 5-HT(1A/2A/2C) agonist. Acute ayahuasca administration produces moderate cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers, but information regarding long-term use is lacking...
July 2015: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25693169/the-psychedelic-state-induced-by-ayahuasca-modulates-the-activity-and-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-network
#20
Fernanda Palhano-Fontes, Katia C Andrade, Luis F Tofoli, Antonio C Santos, Jose Alexandre S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak, Sidarta Ribeiro, Draulio B de Araujo
The experiences induced by psychedelics share a wide variety of subjective features, related to the complex changes in perception and cognition induced by this class of drugs. A remarkable increase in introspection is at the core of these altered states of consciousness. Self-oriented mental activity has been consistently linked to the Default Mode Network (DMN), a set of brain regions more active during rest than during the execution of a goal-directed task. Here we used fMRI technique to inspect the DMN during the psychedelic state induced by Ayahuasca in ten experienced subjects...
2015: PloS One
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