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Acute heart failure review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716832/mechanical-circulatory-support-devices-for-acute-right-ventricular-failure
#1
REVIEW
Navin K Kapur, Michele L Esposito, Yousef Bader, Kevin J Morine, Michael S Kiernan, Duc Thinh Pham, Daniel Burkhoff
Right ventricular (RV) failure remains a major cause of global morbidity and mortality for patients with advanced heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, or acute myocardial infarction and after major cardiac surgery. Over the past 2 decades, percutaneously delivered acute mechanical circulatory support pumps specifically designed to support RV failure have been introduced into clinical practice. RV acute mechanical circulatory support now represents an important step in the management of RV failure and provides an opportunity to rapidly stabilize patients with cardiogenic shock involving the RV...
July 18, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714410/management-of-blood-pressure-and-heart-rate-in-patients-with-acute-stroke
#2
Carlo Maida, Antonino Tuttolomondo, Domenico Di Raimondo, Antonio Pinto
BACKGROUND: Stroke represent one of the most devastating of all neurological diseases, affecting about 15 million people per year and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and currently the leading cause of adult disability in developed countries. Blood pressure and heart rate may undergo several modifications in patients with both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in fact raised blood pressure levels may lead to cerebral edema, hematoma expansion or hemorrhagic transformation and in contrast low blood pressure can lead to increased cerebral infarction or perihematomal ischemia...
July 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709719/metformin-effects-on-the-heart-and-the-cardiovascular-system-a%C3%A2-review-of-experimental-and-clinical-data
#3
REVIEW
L Nesti, A Natali
BACKGROUND: Metformin, the eldest and most widely used glucose lowering drug, is likely to be effective also on cardiac and vascular disease prevention. Nonetheless, uncertainty still exists with regard to its effects on the cardiovascular system as a whole and specifically on the myocardium, both at the organ and cellular levels. METHODS: We reviewed the available data on the cardiac and vascular effects of metformin, encompassing both in vitro, either tissue or isolated organ, and in vivo studies in experimental animals and humans, as well as the evidence generated by major clinical trials...
May 10, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704244/implementation-of-a-standardized-transfusion-protocol-for-cardiac-patients-treated-with-venoarterial-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-is-associated-with-decreased-blood-component-utilization-and-may-improve-clinical-outcome
#4
Christine M Cahill, Neil Blumberg, Amy E Schmidt, Peter A Knight, Amber L Melvin, Howard T Massey, Joseph M Delehanty, Seth B Zebrak, Majed A Refaai
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation supplies oxygenated blood to the body supporting the heart and lungs. Survival rates of 20% to 50% are reported among patients receiving ECMO for cardiac arrest, severe cardiogenic shock, or failure to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass following cardiac surgery. Bleeding is one of the most common complications in ECMO patients due to coagulopathy, systemic anticoagulation, and the presence of large bore cannulas at systemic pressure. Absence of a standardized transfusion protocol in this population leads to inconsistent transfusion practices...
July 10, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699323/intra-procedural-continuous-dialysis-to-facilitate-interventional-catheterization-in-pediatric-patients-with-severe-renal-failure
#5
Angeline D Opina, Athar M Qureshi, Eileen Brewer, Ewa Elenberg, Sarah Swartz, Mini Michael, Henri Justino
BACKGROUND: Interventional catheterization procedures may be needed for patients with severe renal failure who are dependent on dialysis. To avoid the risk of fluid overload and electrolyte derangement during complex procedures in this oliguric/anuric patient population, we performed intra-procedural dialysis, either continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) or continous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD). METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of a cohort of pediatric patients, ages 0-18 years, with dialysis-dependent renal failure who received CRRT or CCPD during catheterization procedures from January 2013 to March 2016...
July 12, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697252/association-of-positive-airway-pressure-with-cardiovascular-events-and-death-in-adults-with-sleep-apnea-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Jie Yu, Zien Zhou, R Doug McEvoy, Craig S Anderson, Anthony Rodgers, Vlado Perkovic, Bruce Neal
Importance: Sleep apnea (obstructive and central) is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk factors and increased risks of cardiovascular disease. Positive airway pressure (PAP) provides symptomatic relief, whether delivered continuously (CPAP) or as adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV), but the associations with cardiovascular outcomes and death are unclear. Objective: To assess the association of PAP vs control with cardiovascular events and death in patients with sleep apnea...
July 11, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689634/impact-of-the-australian-gender-specific-thresholds-using-the-abbott-high-sensitivity-troponin-i-assay-in-clinical-care
#7
Robert Bender, Faith Njue, Samuel Vasikaran, Ramon Lambert, Jamie Rankin, Graham S Hillis, Damon A Bell
The aim of this study was to ascertain the impact of gender specific hs-TnI thresholds in a clinical setting and determine the clinical characteristics and discharge diagnosis for individuals presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) with elevated troponin I with the Abbott high-sensitivity troponin I (hs-TnI) assay, but non-elevated troponin I on the previous generation assay (STAT TnI-II). Medical records of individuals presenting to the Royal Perth Hospital ED with elevated hs-TnI between 12 November 2013 and 24 December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed...
July 6, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682954/acute-intracardiac-thrombosis-and-pulmonary-thromboembolism-after-cardiopulmonary-bypass-a-systematic-review-of-reported-cases
#8
Brittney Williams, Brody Wehman, Michael A Mazzeffi, Patrick Odonkor, Ryan L Harris, Zachary Kon, Kenichi A Tanaka
Intracardiac thrombosis (ICT) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are life-threatening events, but pathological mechanisms are not yet well defined. The aim of this review is to provide an update of case literature of a postbypass hypercoagulable state. Case commonalities among 48 ICT/PE events included congestive heart failure (50%), platelet transfusion (37.5%), CPB duration greater than 3 hours (37.5%), and aortic injury (27.1%). Preexisting thrombophilia was rarely reported, and 16...
July 4, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679294/inflammation-in-heart-failure-known-knowns-and-unknown-unknowns
#9
Giuseppe Cocco, Paul Jerie, Philip Amiet, Stefano Pandolfi
The review deals with inflammation in heart failure (HF). Many data show that systemic inflammation is frequent in HF and implicate that inflammation contributes to damage and dysfunction of the cardiovascular system. Areas Covered: Experimental data have been mainly obtained in acute laboratory animal models. It is questionable whether animals' data can be translated into clinical settings with patients with chronic HF who have concomitant pathologies. The idea of a common inflammatory pathway that characterizes all different forms of clinical HF is unrealistic...
July 6, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675998/cardiovascular-and-pulmonary-manifestations-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#10
M B Urowitz, Konstantinos Tselios
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by various clinical manifestations and immunologic abnormalities. Among clinical manifestations, cardiovascular and respiratory system involvement is increasingly recognized as critical for patients' prognosis. OBJECTIVE: Heart involvement, most commonly presents with pericarditis. However, valvular disease and less often myocarditis may be detected. METHOD: Accelerated atherosclerosis is currently considered as one of the most important co-morbidities of SLE with cardiovascular events being one of the leading causes of death at relatively young ages...
July 4, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674132/exploration-into-lipid-management-and-persistent-risk-in-patients-hospitalised-for-acute-coronary-syndrome-in-japan-explore-j-protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-study
#11
Masato Nakamura, Kiyoko Uno, Atsushi Hirayama, Junya Ako, Atsushi Nohara, Hidenori Arai, Mariko Harada-Shiba
INTRODUCTION: The present study is the largest registry study ever conducted in Japan exploring the prevalence of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Our study aims to (1) evaluate the status of lipid management and the subsequent risk of major cardiovascular events following hospitalisation of Japanese patients with ACS in real-world clinical practice; (2) determine the proportion of Japanese patients with ACS who achieve the lipid management goal and have a reduction of event risks with strict lipid management (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol <1...
July 2, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672731/neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-as-a-risk-marker-in-cardiovascular-disease
#12
REVIEW
Zenthuja Sivalingam, Sanne Bøjet Larsen, Erik Lerkevang Grove, Anne-Mette Hvas, Steen Dalby Kristensen, Nils Erik Magnusson
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a promising diagnostic biomarker of early acute kidney injury. Increasing evidence suggests that NGAL may also be involved in inflammatory processes in cardiovascular disease. NGAL modulates the enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which is an important mediator of plaque instability in atherosclerosis. The complex formation between NGAL and MMP-9 therefore suggests that NGAL might play a role in progression of atherothrombotic disease...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668721/pde2-at-the-crossway-between-camp-and-cgmp-signalling-in-the-heart
#13
REVIEW
Silvio Weber, Miriam Zeller, Kaomei Guan, Frank Wunder, Michael Wagner, Ali El-Armouche
The cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP are central second messengers in cardiac cells and critical regulators of cardiac physiology as well as pathophysiology. Consequently, subcellular compartmentalization allows for spatiotemporal control of cAMP/cGMP metabolism and subsequent regulation of their respective effector kinases PKA or PKG is most important for cardiac function in health and disease. While acute cAMP-mediated signalling is a mandatory prerequisite for the physiological fight-or-flight response, sustained activation of this pathway may lead to the progression of heart failure...
June 28, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667815/pulmonary-thromboembolism-in-an-emergency-hospital-are-our-patients-different
#14
Ana Maria Balahura, Andrada Guţă, Vlad Mihalcea, Emma Weiss, Maria Dorobanţu, Daniela Bartoş, Elisabeta Bădilă, Gheorghe Andrei Dan
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary embolism (PTE) represents a medical emergency and is the third most common cause of mortality after myocardial infarction and stroke. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics and management of patients with PTE admitted in a referral emergency hospital in Romania. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all cases of PTE diagnosed in one of the largest emergency hospitals in Bucharest during a 2-year period (January 2014 - December 2016)...
June 27, 2017: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665906/characteristics-of-patients-with-congestive-heart-failure-or-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-readmissions-within-30-days-following-an-acute-exacerbation
#15
Austin Castillo, Hawa Edriss, Kavitha Selvan, Kenneth Nugent
BACKGROUND: The Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program targets Medicare patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and penalizes hospitals that have increased 30-day readmission rates for these patients. The main goals of this study were to determine the clinical explanations for readmissions within 30 days, to identify possible deficiencies in patient care, and to identify typical characteristics of patients who were readmitted to the hospital...
July 2017: Quality Management in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665511/home-based-versus-centre-based-cardiac-rehabilitation
#16
REVIEW
Lindsey Anderson, Georgina A Sharp, Rebecca J Norton, Hasnain Dalal, Sarah G Dean, Kate Jolly, Aynsley Cowie, Anna Zawada, Rod S Taylor
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death globally. Traditionally, centre-based cardiac rehabilitation programmes are offered to individuals after cardiac events to aid recovery and prevent further cardiac illness. Home-based cardiac rehabilitation programmes have been introduced in an attempt to widen access and participation. This is an update of a review previously published in 2009 and 2015. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of home-based and supervised centre-based cardiac rehabilitation on mortality and morbidity, exercise-capacity, health-related quality of life, and modifiable cardiac risk factors in patients with heart disease...
June 30, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652179/non-coding-rna-regulation-of-t-cell-biology-implications-for-age-associated-cardiovascular-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Jose Coelho-Lima, Ioakim Spyridopoulos
Prevalence of age-associated cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has dramatically increased as a result of improvements in life expectancy. Chronic inflammation is a shared pathophysiological feature of age-associated CVDs, indicating a role for the immune system in the onset and development of CVDs. Indeed, ageing elicits profound changes in both the cardiovascular and immune system, especially in the T cell compartment. Although such changes have been well described at the cellular level, the molecular mechanisms underlying immune-mediated cardiovascular ageing remain largely unexplored...
June 23, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646466/effects-of-catheter-based-renal-denervation-on-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Hidekatsu Fukuta, Toshihiko Goto, Kazuaki Wakami, Nobuyuki Ohte
Despite the recent advances in the management of heart failure, the mortality of heart failure patients remains high. It is of urgent need to develop new therapy for heart failure. Heart failure is characterized by increased sympathetic activity, and chronic sympathetic activation is involved in the maintenance of the pathological state. Catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) has emerged as an invasive but safe approach that can reduce sympathetic activation. Studies have reported inconsistent results regarding the effect of RDN in heart failure patients due to limited power with small sample sizes...
June 24, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642328/leukocyte-diversity-in-resolving-and-nonresolving-mechanisms-of-cardiac-remodeling
#19
REVIEW
Bochra Tourki, Ganesh Halade
In response to myocardial infarction (MI), time-dependent leukocyte infiltration is critical to program the acute inflammatory response. Post-MI leukocyte density, residence time in the infarcted area, and exit from the infarcted injury predict resolving or nonresolving inflammation. Overactive or unresolved inflammation is the primary determinant in heart failure pathology post-MI. Here, our review describes supporting evidence that the acute inflammatory response also guides the generation of healing and regenerative mediators after cardiac damage...
June 22, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634172/identifying-an-oxygenation-index-threshold-for-increased-mortality-in-acute-respiratory-failure
#20
Brandon G Hammond, Pamela Garcia-Filion, Paul Kang, Mounica Y Rao, Brigham C Willis, Heidi J Dalton
BACKGROUND: The objective of this work was to examine current oxygenation index (OI) data and outcomes using electronic medical record data to identify a specific OI value associated with mortality. METHODS: This study was a retrospective electronic medical record data review from the pediatric ICU of Phoenix Children's Hospital, with data mining for variables to calculate OIs on subjects age 1 month to 20 y mechanically ventilated >24 h, excluding those with known intracardiac shunts or cyanotic heart disease...
June 20, 2017: Respiratory Care
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