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Acute heart failure review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214140/a-review-of-strategies-for-infarct-size-reduction-during-acute-myocardial-infarction
#1
REVIEW
Yasir Parviz, Sethumadhavan Vijayan, Shahar Lavi
Advances in medical and interventional therapy over the last few decades have revolutionized the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Despite the ability to restore epicardial coronary artery patency promptly through percutaneous coronary intervention, tissue level damage may continue. The reported 30-day mortality after all acute coronary syndromes is 2 to 3%, and around 5% following myocardial infarction. Post-infarct complications such as heart failure continue to be a major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality...
February 8, 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212836/point-of-care-ultrasonography-for-evaluation-of-acute-dyspnea-in-the-emergency-department
#2
Maurizio Zanobetti, Margherita Scorpiniti, Chiara Gigli, Peiman Nazerian, Simone Vanni, Francesca Innocenti, Valerio T Stefanone, Caterina Savinelli, Alessandro Coppa, Sofia Bigiarini, Francesca Caldi, Irene Tassinari, Alberto Conti, Stefano Grifoni, Riccardo Pini
BACKGROUND: Acute dyspnea is a common symptom in the emergency department (ED). Standard approach to dyspnea often relies on radiologic and laboratoristic results, causing excessive delay before adequate therapy is started; an integrated point-of-care ultrasonography (PoCUS) approach can shorten the time needed to formulate a diagnosis maintaining an acceptable safety profile. METHODS: Consecutive adult patients presenting with dyspnea and admitted after ED evaluation were prospectively enrolled...
February 14, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206727/results-of-tricuspid-valve-surgery-for-functional-tricuspid-regurgitation-acute-and-long-term-outcomes-and-predictors-of-failure
#3
Alberto Pozzoli, Nicola Buzzatti, Luca Vicentini, Michele De Bonis, Ottavio Alfieri
The assessment and management of tricuspid valve disease evolved significantly in the last decade. Tricuspid regurgitation is a frequent heart valve disease and it is most often secondary, due to annular dilatation and leaflet tethering from right ventricular remodelling. The indications for tricuspid valve surgery are several and mainly related to the underlying disease, to the severity of the regurgitation and to the right ventricular function. Moreover, surgical tricuspid repair has been avoided for years, because of the erroneous concept that tricuspid regurgitation should disappear once the primary pathology on the left heart has been resolved...
February 15, 2017: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202366/modulation-of-the-trpv4-ion-channel-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-disease
#4
REVIEW
Megan S Grace, Sara J Bonvini, Maria G Belvisi, Peter McIntyre
Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a broadly expressed, polymodally gated ion channel that plays an important role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. TRPV4 knockout mice and several synthetic pharmacological compounds that selectively target TRPV4 are now available, which has allowed detailed investigation in to the therapeutic potential of this ion channel. Results from animal studies suggest that TRPV4 antagonism has therapeutic potential in oedema, pain, gastrointestinal disorders, and lung diseases such as cough, bronchoconstriction, pulmonary hypertension, and acute lung injury...
February 12, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196811/the-heart-failure-epidemic-a-uk-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Martin R Cowie
Heart failure is appropriately described as an epidemic, with 1-2% of healthcare expenditure being directed at its management. In England, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has issued guidance on best practice for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure. Echocardiography is key to the diagnosis of the underlying cardiac abnormalities, and access to this (with our without biochemical testing using natriuretic peptides) is key to high quality and speedy diagnosis...
February 14, 2017: Echo Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192893/non-invasive-ventilation-improves-respiratory-distress-in-children-with-acute-viral-bronchiolitis-a-systematic-review
#6
Yann Combret, Guillaume Prieur, Pascal LE Roux, Clément Médrinal
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a common treatment for bronchiolitis. However, consensus concerning its efficacy is lacking. The aim of this systematic review was to assess NIV effectiveness to reduce respiratory distress. Secondary objectives were to summarize the effects of NIV, identify predictive factors for failure and describe settings and applications. METHODS: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE Pubmed, PEDro, COCHRANE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Up-todate and Sudoc from 1990 to April 2015...
February 13, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167219/the-pro-or-antiarrhythmic-actions-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-of-cholesterol
#7
REVIEW
R Coronel
In this review, the pro- and anti-arrhythmic effects of a diet rich in fish oil fatty acids and hypercholesterolemia will be discussed in relation to two major mechanisms of arrhythmogenesis (triggered activity and re-entry). Whereas a diet rich in fish oil is pro-arrhythmic in relation to re-entry based arrhythmias (as occur in acute myocardial ischemia) and anti-arrhythmic in relation to triggered activity based arrhythmias (as occur in heart failure), the reverse is true for hypercholesterolemia. Changing the lipid composition of cardiomyocytes likely has powerful pro- or anti-arrhythmic consequences, depending on the mechanism of arrhythmias, and has corresponding therapeutic potential...
February 3, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161238/can-vaccinations-improve-heart-failure%C3%A2-outcomes-contemporary-data-and-future-directions
#8
REVIEW
Ankeet S Bhatt, Adam D DeVore, Adrian F Hernandez, Robert J Mentz
Heart failure (HF) is a chronic syndrome characterized by acute exacerbations. There is significant overlap between respiratory infections and exacerbation of underlying HF. Vaccination against respiratory infections in patients with HF could serve as a potential cost-effective intervention to improve patients' quality of life and clinical outcomes. The benefits of influenza vaccination in secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease have been previously studied. However, the evidence for influenza and pneumococcal vaccination specifically in the HF population is less well established...
January 28, 2017: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161130/pharmacological-reasons-that-may-explain-why-randomized-clinical-trials-have-failed-in-acute-heart-failure-syndromes
#9
REVIEW
Juan Tamargo, Giuseppe M C Rosano, Eva Delpón, Luis Ruilope, Jose López-Sendón
Acute heart failure (AHF) represents a clinical challenge as it encloses a heterogeneous group of syndromes (AHFS) with different pathophysiology, clinical presentations, prognosis and response to therapy. In the last 25years multiple therapeutic targets have been identified and numerous new drugs were evaluated but, up to now, all failed to demonstrate a consistent benefit on clinical outcomes. Moreover, a repeated finding has been the poor correlation between the encouraging results of preclinical and early clinical trials and the lack of effect on outcomes observed in phase III trials...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153671/insomnia-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease
#10
REVIEW
Sogol Javaheri, Susan Redline
Insomnia is the most prevalent sleep disorder in the United States and is highly comorbid with a number of cardiovascular diseases. In the last decade a number of observational studies have demonstrated an association between insomnia and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality, including hypertension, coronary heart disease, and heart failure. Despite some inconsistencies in the literature, likely due to variation in how insomnia is defined and measured, the existing data suggest that insomnia, especially when accompanied by short sleep duration, is associated with increased risk for hypertension, coronary heart disease and recurrent acute coronary syndrome, and heart failure...
January 30, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151965/prevention-of-contrast-induced-acute-kidney-injury-in-patients-undergoing-cardiovascular-procedures-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#11
Eliano P Navarese, Paul A Gurbel, Felicita Andreotti, Michalina Marta Kołodziejczak, Suetonia C Palmer, Sofia Dias, Antonino Buffon, Jacek Kubica, Mariusz Kowalewski, Tomasz Jadczyk, Michał Laskiewicz, Marek Jędrzejek, Maximillian Brockmeyer, Flavio Airoldi, Marinella Ruospo, Stefano De Servi, Wojciech Wojakowski, Christopher O' Connor, Giovanni F M Strippoli
BACKGROUND: Interventional diagnostic and therapeutic procedures requiring intravascular iodinated contrast steadily increase patient exposure to the risks of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI), which is associated with death, nonfatal cardiovascular events, and prolonged hospitalization. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for CIAKI prevention in patients undergoing cardiovascular invasive procedures with iodinated contrast...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151503/-contrast-induced-acute-kidney-injury-in-cardiology
#12
Eugenio Genovesi, Mattia Romanello, Raffaele De Caterina
The intravascular administration of contrast media is an important tool in cardiovascular imaging, especially in percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Owing to the widespread use of these procedures, contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) has become one of the most common types of acute renal failures. CI-AKI is mainly mediated by mechanisms of oxidative damage, and its onset is associated with prolonged hospitalization and significant morbidity and mortality. Preexisting chronic kidney disease, diabetes, age, heart failure, and characteristics related to the procedure (primary or elective PCI, type and amount of contrast medium) are the most important risk factors for the development of post-PCI CI-AKI...
December 2016: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134404/-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-recurrence-in-patient-with-chronic-kidney-disease-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
Francesco Caccetta, Maurizio Caroppo, Fernando Musio, Anna Mudoni, Antonella Accogli, Maria Dolores Zacheo, Domenica Burzo, Rolando Mangia, Michele Accogli, Vitale Nuzzo
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (CT) is a syndrome characterized by an acute and transient left ventricular dysfunction, electrocardiographic abnormalities suggestive of acute coronary syndrome, chest pain and/or dyspnea, left ventricular mid-apical segments akinesia and normal coronary angiography. It is mainly observed in postmenopausal women after an intense physical or mental stress. The course is usually favourable but sometimes severe complications occur. The recurrence rate is 2-10%. We present the case of a recurrence of CT in a female, 79 years old, with hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3 who was admitted to the emergency room for dyspnea and vomiting...
November 2016: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128671/marital-status-cardiovascular-diseases-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-a-review-of-the-evidence
#14
Roberto Manfredini, Alfredo De Giorgi, Ruana Tiseo, Benedetta Boari, Rosaria Cappadona, Raffaella Salmi, Massimo Gallerani, Fulvia Signani, Fabio Manfredini, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Fabio Fabbian
BACKGROUND: There is evidence showing that marital status (MS) and marital disruption (i.e., separation, divorce, and being widowed) are associated with poor physical health outcomes, including for all-cause mortality. We checked for the available evidence on the association between MS and cardiovascular (CV) diseases, outcomes, and CV risk factors. METHODS: A search across the PubMed database of all articles, including the term "marital status" in their title, was performed...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121951/diagnostic-discrepancies-in-clinical-practice-an-autopsy-study-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#15
Victor Sarli Issa, Layara Fernanda Lipari Dinardi, Thiago Vicente Pereira, Lyna Kyria Rodrigues de Almeida, Thaisa Silveira Barbosa, Luiz Alberto Benvenutti, Silvia Moreira Ayub-Ferreira, Edimar Alcides Bocchi
Autopsies are the gold standard for diagnostic accuracy; however, no recent study has analyzed autopsies in heart failure (HF).We reviewed 1241 autopsies (January 2000-May 2005) and selected 232 patients with HF. Clinical and autopsy diagnoses were analyzed and discrepancies categorized according to their importance regarding therapy and prognosis.Mean age was 63.3 ± 15.9 years; 154 (66.4%) patients were male. The causes of death at autopsy were end-stage HF (40.9%), acute myocardial infarction (17.2%), infection (15...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116486/inferior-vena-cava-diameter-in-acute-decompensated-heart-failure-as-predictor-of-all-cause-mortality
#16
Alexander Jobs, Kerstin Brünjes, Alexander Katalinic, Valentin Babaev, Steffen Desch, Michael Reppel, Holger Thiele
Inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter can be used to approximate right atrial pressure in patients admitted for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Recent studies linked IVC dilation to an increased risk of early re-admission and short-term mortality. Moreover, renal insufficiency (RI) is an established risk factor for mortality in ADHF and is associated with congestion. We hypothesized that the IVC diameter is a marker of all-cause mortality but its prognostic impact may be influenced by kidney function...
January 23, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114931/procalcitonin-guided-diagnosis-and-antibiotic-stewardship-revisited
#17
REVIEW
Ramon Sager, Alexander Kutz, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
Several controlled clinical studies have evaluated the potential of the infection biomarker procalcitonin (PCT) to improve the diagnostic work-up of patients with bacterial infections and its influence on decisions regarding antibiotic therapy. Most research has focused on lower respiratory tract infections and critically ill sepsis patients. A clinical utility for PCT has also been found for patients with urinary tract infections, postoperative infections, meningitis, and patients with acute heart failure with possible superinfection (i...
January 24, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113017/cardiac-toxicity-after-radiotherapy-for-stage-iii-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-pooled-analysis-of-dose-escalation-trials-delivering-70-to-90-gy
#18
Kyle Wang, Michael J Eblan, Allison M Deal, Matthew Lipner, Timothy M Zagar, Yue Wang, Panayiotis Mavroidis, Carrie B Lee, Brian C Jensen, Julian G Rosenman, Mark A Socinski, Thomas E Stinchcombe, Lawrence B Marks
Purpose The significance of radiotherapy (RT) -associated cardiac injury for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unclear, but higher heart doses were associated with worse overall survival in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0617 study. We assessed the impact of heart dose in patients treated at our institution on several prospective dose-escalation trials. Patients and Methods From 1996 to 2009, 127 patients with stage III NSCLC (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, 0 to 1) received dose-escalated RT to 70 to 90 Gy (median, 74 Gy) in six trials...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110987/outcomes-for-emergency-department-patients-with-recent-onset-atrial-fibrillation-and-flutter-treated-in-canadian-hospitals
#19
Ian G Stiell, Catherine M Clement, Brian H Rowe, Robert J Brison, D George Wyse, David Birnie, Paul Dorian, Eddy Lang, Jeffrey J Perry, Bjug Borgundvaag, Debra Eagles, Damian Redfearn, Jennifer Brinkhurst, George A Wells
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Recent-onset atrial fibrillation and flutter are the most common arrhythmias managed in the emergency department (ED). We evaluate the management and 30-day outcomes for recent-onset atrial fibrillation and flutter patients in Canadian EDs, where cardioversion is commonly practiced. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study in 6 academic hospital EDs and enrolled patients who had atrial fibrillation and flutter onset within 48 hours. Patients were followed for 30 days by health records review and telephone...
January 19, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107561/beta-blockers-for-hypertension
#20
REVIEW
Charles S Wiysonge, Hazel A Bradley, Jimmy Volmink, Bongani M Mayosi, Lionel H Opie
BACKGROUND: Beta-blockers refer to a mixed group of drugs with diverse pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. They have shown long-term beneficial effects on mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) when used in people with heart failure or acute myocardial infarction. Beta-blockers were thought to have similar beneficial effects when used as first-line therapy for hypertension. However, the benefit of beta-blockers as first-line therapy for hypertension without compelling indications is controversial...
January 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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