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Atherosclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441695/increased-high-risk-coronary-plaque-burden-is-associated-with-arterial-stiffness-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-without-clinical-signs-of-coronary-artery-disease-a-computed-tomography-angiography-study
#1
Kristian L Funck, Esben Laugesen, Kristian Øvrehus, Jesper M Jensen, Bjarne L Nørgaard, Damini Dey, Troels K Hansen, Per L Poulsen
OBJECTIVES: Arterial stiffness and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis may yield valuable information on cardiovascular risk. We aimed to characterize coronary atherosclerosis in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy controls and to investigate the association between baseline arterial stiffness and coronary plaque volumes after 5-year follow-up. METHODS: Data from 45 patients and 61 matched controls were available for coronary plaque assessment...
June 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441665/microrna-1185-promotes-arterial-stiffness-though-modulating-vcam-1-and-e-selectin-expression
#2
Haoyuan Deng, Zhenfeng Song, Huan Xu, Xinrui Deng, Qiao Zhang, Hongyu Chen, Yanjiao Wang, Ying Qin, Ying Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of cardiovascular ischaemic events; arterial stiffness is a characteristic of the atherosclerotic process. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been revealed as crucial modulators of atherosclerosis. However, the role of arterial stiffness-related miRNAs in the atherosclerotic process is still unclear. METHODS: Four hundred six participants from Northern China were enrolled in this study. Circulating miR-1185 and adhesion molecule levels were measured...
April 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441650/microrna-1185-induces-endothelial-cell-apoptosis-by-targeting-uvrag-and-krit1
#3
Haoyuan Deng, Xia Chu, Zhenfeng Song, Xinrui Deng, Huan Xu, Yaxin Ye, Songtao Li, Qiao Zhang, Changhao Sun, Ying Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial chronic disease and is the main cause of death and impairment in the world. Endothelial injury and apoptosis play a crucial role in the onset and development of atherosclerosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been proven to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, studies of the functional role of apoptosis-related miRNAs in the endothelium during atherogenesis are limited. METHODS: Cell injury and apoptosis were measured in five types of cells transfected with miR-1185 or co-transfected with miR-1185 and its inhibitor...
April 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441154/clarifying-complex-inheritance-apolipoprotein-c3-and-atherosclerosis
#4
David J Galton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe some steps in the progress in the molecular biology of a peptide, apolipoprotein C3; its gene mutations that render individuals susceptible or resistant to developing hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Data that lead to the development of a new therapeutic agent volanesorsen. SUMMARY: The agent blocks the function of the mRNA of apolipoprotein C3 and successfully treats severe hypertriglyceridaemia in phase 3 trials (Ionis Pharmaceuticals)...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440512/astemizole-protects-against-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cell-injury-induced-by-hydrogen-peroxide-via-the-p53-signaling-pathway
#5
Jia-Nan Tian, Xiao-Dong Shi, Xiao-Kun Wang, Shuang Wang, Jing-Xue Xu, Chun-Xiao Yang
Astemizole has gained attention as an antineoplastic drug that targets important ion channels. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of astemizole against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‑induced oxidative damage to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were pretreated with astemizole (0.5 and 1 µM) for 12 h, then exposed to H2O2 (200 µM) for 12 h. Cell viability was measured using the MTT assay. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH‑Px), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic percentage were determined...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440421/allicin-induces-the-upregulation-of-abca1-expression-via-ppar%C3%AE-lxr%C3%AE-signaling-in-thp-1-macrophage-derived-foam-cells
#6
Xiao-Long Lin, Hui-Jun Hu, Yuan-Bo Liu, Xue-Mei Hu, Xiao-Juan Fan, Wei-Wen Zou, Yong-Quan Pan, Wen-Quan Zhou, Min-Wen Peng, Cai-Hong Gu
Allicin is considered anti-atherosclerotic due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, which makes it an important drug for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. However, the effects of allicin on foam cells are unclear. Thus, in this study, we examined the effects of allicin on lipid accumulation via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ)/liver X receptor α (LXRα) in THP‑1 macrophage-derived foam cells. THP‑1 cells were exposed to 100 nM phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) for 24 h, and then to oxydized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL; 50 mg/ml) to induce foam cell formation...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440398/lycopene-inhibits-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-and-adhesion-molecule-expression-through-nrf2-mediated-heme-oxygenase-1-in-endothelial-cells
#7
Po-Min Yang, Huang-Zhi Chen, Yu-Ting Huang, Chia-Wen Hsieh, Being-Sun Wung
The endothelial expression of cell adhesion molecules plays a leading role in atherosclerosis. Lycopene, a carotenoid with 11 conjugated double bonds, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we demonstrate a putative mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effects of lycopene. We demonstrate that lycopene inhibits the adhesion of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-stimulated monocytes to endothelial cells and suppresses the expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) at the transcriptional level...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439487/modified-rice-bran-hemicellulose-inhibits-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-induced-angiogenesis-in-vitro-via-vegfr2-and-its-downstream-signaling-pathways
#8
Xia Zhu, Aya Okubo, Naoki Igari, Kentaro Ninomiya, Yukari Egashira
Angiogenesis is implicated in diverse pathological conditions such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, atherosclerosis, and retinal neovascularization. In the present study, we investigated the effects of modified rice bran hemicellulose (MRBH), a water-soluble hemicellulose preparation from rice bran treated with shiitake enzymes, on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in vitro and its mechanism. We found that MRBH significantly inhibited VEGF-induced tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) co-cultured with human dermal fibroblasts...
2017: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438866/soluble-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-receptor-predicts-all-cause-5-year-mortality-in-ischemic-stroke-and-tia
#9
Juha Onatsu, Mikko Taina, Pirjo Mustonen, Marja Hedman, Antti Muuronen, Otso Arponen, Miika Korhonen, Pekka Jäkälä, Ritva Vanninen, Kari Pulkki
AIM: We evaluated soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels in different stroke subtypes and assessed their prognostic value regarding 5-year outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 117 stroke patients (81 males; mean=age 61±11 years) with suspected cardioembolic stroke whose plasma suPAR concentration was assessed. Altogether, 20 (17.1%) patients suffered from stroke as a result of cardioembolism, 12 (10.3%) from large-artery atherosclerosis, 9 (7...
May 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438491/immunomodulatory-functions-of-neuronal-guidance-proteins
#10
REVIEW
Valbona Mirakaj, Peter Rosenberger
Neuronal guidance proteins (NGPs) were originally identified for their role during the embryonic development of the nervous system. Recent years have seen the discovery of NGP functions during immune responses. In this context, NGPs were demonstrated to control leukocyte migration and the release of cytokines during conditions of acute inflammation, such as lung injury or sepsis. However, NGPs also display potent actions in the resolution of inflammation, chronic inflammatory conditions, the development of atherosclerosis, and during ischemia followed by reperfusion...
April 21, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438483/what-role-does-rheumatoid-arthritis-disease-activity-have-in-cardiovascular-risk
#11
Marco Aurelio Ramírez Huaranga, María Dolores Mínguez Sanchez, Miguel Ángel Zarca Diaz de la Espina, Pedro José Espinoza Pardos, Guillermo Romero Aguilera
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with a 1.3 to 3-fold increase in mortality, being the major cause of death from cardiovascular complications (40%-50%). Therefore, the initial approach should include cardiovascular risk (CVR) assessment using algorithms adapted for this population. Although, SCOREM is an important advance, there are data indicating that subclinical atherosclerosis may be underdiagnosed. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the strength of association between carotid ultrasound and SCOREM in this population, as well as the implication of disease activity...
April 21, 2017: Reumatología Clinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438303/relation-of-the-bilateral-earlobe-crease-to-endothelial-dysfunction
#12
Nozomu Oda, Tatsuya Maruhashi, Shinji Kishimoto, Masato Kajikawa, Yumiko Iwamoto, Akimichi Iwamoto, Shogo Matsui, Takayuki Hidaka, Yasuki Kihara, Kazuaki Chayama, Chikara Goto, Yoshiki Aibara, Ayumu Nakashima, Kensuke Noma, Harutoyo Hirano, Yukihito Higashi
The presence of an earlobe crease (ELC) may be a simple sign to predict atherosclerosis. We evaluated the relation between ELC and vascular function. We measured flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) and nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation (NID) and observed bilateral earlobes in 400 consecutive subjects. At first, the subjects were divided into 3 groups: non-ELC group, unilateral ELC group, and bilateral ELC group. FMD and NID were significantly lower in the unilateral and bilateral ELC groups than those in the non-ELC group...
March 29, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437655/peripheral-artery-disease-redox-signaling-oxidative-stress-basic-and-clinical-aspects
#13
REVIEW
Sebastian Steven, Andreas Daiber, Jörn F Dopheide, Thomas Münzel, Christine Espinola-Klein
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, e.g. H2O2, nitric oxide) confer redox regulation of essential cellular signaling pathways such as cell differentiation, proliferation, migration and apoptosis. At higher concentrations, ROS and RNS lead to oxidative stress and oxidative damage of biomolecules (e.g. via formation of peroxynitrite, fenton chemistry). Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is characterized by severe ischemic conditions in the periphery leading to intermittent claudication and critical limb ischemia (end stage)...
April 13, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437620/american-association-of-clinical-endocrinologists-and-american-college-of-endocrinology-guidelines-for-management-of-dyslipidemia-and-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#14
Paul S Jellinger, Yehuda Handelsman, Paul D Rosenblit, Zachary T Bloomgarden, Vivian A Fonseca, Alan J Garber, George Grunberger, Chris K Guerin, David S H Bell, Jeffrey I Mechanick, Rachel Pessah-Pollack, Kathleen Wyne, Donald Smith, Eliot A Brinton, Sergio Fazio, Michael Davidson
OBJECTIVE: The development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres with published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). METHODS: Recommendations are based on diligent reviews of the clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors, according to established AACE/ACE guidelines for guidelines protocols...
April 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436142/cortisol-is-associated-with-low-frequency-of-interleukin-10-producing-b-cells-in-patients-with-atherosclerosis
#15
Yizhong Huo, Yan Chu, Lixin Guo, Linli Liu, Xiaojun Xia, Tierui Wang
It is accepted that inflammation plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis; the pathogenesis is not clear. B-cell-produced interleukin (IL) 10 is an immune regulatory cytokine that can inhibit immune inflammation. This study tests a hypothesis that a psychological stress hormone, cortisol, suppresses IL-10 expression in peripheral B cells of patients with atherosclerosis. Peripheral blood samples were collected from patients with coronary artery atherosclerosis. B cells were isolated from the blood samples to be analyzed for the expression of IL-10 and micro RNA (miR) 98 by real-time polymerase chain reaction...
April 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435982/-changes-in-biological-functions-of-high-density-lipoprotein-after-abnormal-modification
#16
Hang Qu, Yang Yu, Shu-Cun Qin, Guo-Hua Song
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is composed of apolipoproteins, lipids and functional proteins. HDL protects against atherosclerosis (AS) by reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). HDL inhibits the lipid oxidation, inflammation and restores endothelial function. During systemic inflammation or metabolic disorders, HDL can be modified abnormally and converted to a dysfunctional type, which results in the loss of anti-inflammatory factors including apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), paraoxonase (PON) and platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), and gains of pro-inflammatory factors such as serum amyloid A (SAA), triglyceride (TG) and oxidative lipid...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435852/changes-in-metabolic-risk-factors-over-10%C3%A2-years-and-their-associations-with-late-life-cognitive-performance-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#17
Timothy M Hughes, Suzanne Craft, Laura D Baker, Mark A Espeland, Stephen R Rapp, Kaycee M Sink, Alain G Bertoni, Gregory L Burke, Rebecca F Gottesman, Erin D Michos, José A Luchsinger, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Kathleen M Hayden
BACKGROUND: We examined whether changes in metabolic factors over 10 years were associated with cognitive performance. METHODS: Participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis were followed since baseline (2000-2002) with five clinical examinations. At exam 5 (2010-2012), they received a short cognitive battery (Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument [CASI], Digit Symbol Coding [DSC], and Digit Span [DS]). We examined associations between baseline metabolic factors and their changes over time before cognitive testing...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435627/outcome-of-acute-ischemic-stroke-after-intra-arterial-thrombolysis-a-study-from-india
#18
Jaydip Ray Chaudhuri, Randhir Kumar, Matapathi Umamahesh, Kandadai Rukmini Mridula, Suvarnal Alladi, Srinivasarao Bandaru
Background: Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is the currently standard treatment of acute ischemic stroke within 4.5 hours of the onset of stroke. Recent studies have looked at the benefits of administration of intra-arterial (IA) rt-PA within 8 hours onset of symptoms. Our objective was to assess the outcome of stroke after administration of IA rt-PA in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods: We recruited 10 consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients with onset of stroke from 4...
October 7, 2016: Iranian Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435446/cardiovascular-risk-assessment-in-patients-with-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Marcello Casaccia Bertoluci, Viviane Zorzanelli Rocha
Although patients with diabetes have 2 to 4 times increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than individuals without diabetes, recent studies indicate that a significant part of patients are in a lower cardiovascular risk category. Men younger than 35 years, women younger than 45 years, patients with diabetes duration of less than 10 years without other risk factors have a much lower risk than patients who have traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and subclinical or established coronary artery disease (CAD)...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435093/plaque-angiogenesis-and-intraplaque-hemorrhage-in-atherosclerosis
#20
Laura Parma, Fabiana Baganha, Paul H A Quax, Margreet R de Vries
Acute cardiovascular events, due to rupture or erosion of an atherosclerotic plaque, represent the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients. Growing evidence suggests that plaque neovascularization is an important contributor to plaque growth and instability. The vessels' immaturity, with profound structural and functional abnormalities, leads to recurrent intraplaque hemorrhage. This review discusses new insights of atherosclerotic neovascularization, including the effects of leaky neovessels on intraplaque hemorrhage, both in experimental models and humans...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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