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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139090/tofacitinib-a-review-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#1
Sohita Dhillon
Tofacitinib (Xeljanz(®)) is a potent, selective JAK inhibitor that preferentially inhibits Janus kinase (JAK) 1 and JAK3. In the EU, oral tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in adult patients who have responded inadequately to, or who are intolerant of, one or more DMARDs. Several clinical studies of ≤ 24 months' duration showed that tofacitinib monotherapy (as first- or second-line treatment) and combination therapy with a conventional synthetic DMARD (csDMARD; as second- or third-line treatment) was effective in reducing signs and symptoms of disease and improving health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), with benefits sustained during long-term therapy (≤ 96 months)...
November 14, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134428/the-influence-of-hepatic-and-renal-impairment-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-a-treatment-for-herpes-zoster-amenamevir-asp2151-phase-1-open-label-single-dose-parallel-group-studies
#2
Tomohiro Kusawake, Donna Kowalski, Akitsugu Takada, Kota Kato, Masataka Katashima, James J Keirns, Michaelene Lewand, Kenneth C Lasseter, Thomas C Marbury, Richard A Preston
INTRODUCTION: Amenamevir (ASP2151) is a nonnucleoside human herpesvirus helicase-primase inhibitor that was approved in Japan for the treatment of herpes zoster (shingles) in 2017. This article reports the results of two clinical trials that investigated the effects of renal and hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of amenamevir. METHODS: These studies were phase 1, open-label, single-dose (oral 400 mg), parallel-group studies evaluating the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of amenamevir in healthy participants and participants with moderate hepatic impairment and mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment...
November 13, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113740/efficacy-of-pritelivir-and-acyclovir-in-the-treatment-of-herpes-simplex-virus-infections-in-a-mouse-model-of-herpes-simplex-encephalitis
#3
Debra C Quenelle, Alexander Birkmann, Thomas Goldner, Tamara Pfaff, Holger Zimmermann, Susanne Bonsmann, Deborah J Collins, Terri L Rice, Mark N Prichard
Pritelivir, a helicase-primase inhibitor, has excellent in vitro and in vivo activity against human herpes simplex virus (HSV). Mice lethally infected with HSV type 1 or 2, including acyclovir-resistant strains, were treated 72 h after infection for 7 days with pritelivir or acyclovir. Both drugs were administered orally twice daily either alone or in combination. Dosages of pritelivir from 0.3 to 30 mg/kg reduced mortality (P < 0.001) against HSV-1, E-377. With an acyclovir resistant HSV-1, 11360, pritelivir at 1 and 3 mg/kg increased survival (P < 0...
November 4, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081658/understanding-the-positive-benefit-risk-profile-of-alemtuzumab-in-relapsing-multiple-sclerosis-perspectives-from-the-alemtuzumab-clinical-development-program
#4
REVIEW
Eva Havrdova, Jeffrey A Cohen, Dana Horakova, Ivana Kovarova, Eva Meluzinova
The introduction of high-efficacy therapies for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis has driven re-evaluation of treatment goals and benefit:risk considerations in treatment choice. In the alemtuzumab Phase II and III clinical trials, patients treated with alemtuzumab 12 mg versus subcutaneous interferon beta-1a demonstrated significantly reduced annualized relapse rates and improved magnetic resonance imaging outcomes, and were significantly more likely to achieve no evidence of disease activity and reduction in brain volume loss...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076107/pharmacokinetic-evaluation-of-the-interactions-of-amenamevir-asp2151-with-ketoconazole-rifampicin-midazolam-and-warfarin-in-healthy-adults
#5
Tomohiro Kusawake, Martin den Adel, Dorien Groenendaal-van de Meent, Alberto Garcia-Hernandez, Akitsugu Takada, Kota Kato, Yoshiaki Ohtsu, Masataka Katashima
INTRODUCTION: Amenamevir is a nonnucleoside antiherpes virus compound available for treating herpes zoster infections. Four studies aimed to determine any potential interactions between amenamevir and ketoconazole, rifampicin, midazolam, or warfarin in healthy male participants. METHODS: Two studies were open-label studies that evaluated the effects of multiple doses of ketoconazole (400 mg) and rifampicin (600 mg) on the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of amenamevir...
October 26, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045212/tofacitinib-or-adalimumab-versus-placebo-for-psoriatic-arthritis
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Philip Mease, Stephen Hall, Oliver FitzGerald, Désirée van der Heijde, Joseph F Merola, Francisco Avila-Zapata, Dorota Cieślak, Daniela Graham, Cunshan Wang, Sujatha Menon, Thijs Hendrikx, Keith S Kanik
BACKGROUND: Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor that is under investigation for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis. We evaluated tofacitinib in patients with active psoriatic arthritis who previously had an inadequate response to conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). METHODS: In this 12-month, double-blind, active-controlled and placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients in a 2:2:2:1:1 ratio to receive one of the following regimens: tofacitinib at a 5-mg dose taken orally twice daily (107 patients), tofacitinib at a 10-mg dose taken orally twice daily (104), adalimumab at a 40-mg dose administered subcutaneously once every 2 weeks (106), placebo with a blinded switch to the 5-mg tofacitinib dose at 3 months (52), or placebo with a blinded switch to the 10-mg tofacitinib dose at 3 months (53)...
October 19, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045207/tofacitinib-for-psoriatic-arthritis-in-patients-with-an-inadequate-response-to-tnf-inhibitors
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Dafna Gladman, William Rigby, Valderilio F Azevedo, Frank Behrens, Ricardo Blanco, Andrzej Kaszuba, Elizabeth Kudlacz, Cunshan Wang, Sujatha Menon, Thijs Hendrikx, Keith S Kanik
BACKGROUND: Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor that is under investigation for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis. We evaluated tofacitinib in patients with active psoriatic arthritis who had previously had an inadequate response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors. METHODS: In this 6-month randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 395 patients, in a 2:2:1:1 ratio, to four regimens: 5 mg of tofacitinib administered orally twice daily (132 patients); 10 mg of tofacitinib twice daily (132 patients); placebo, with a switch to 5 mg of tofacitinib twice daily at 3 months (66 patients); or placebo, with a switch to 10 mg of tofacitinib twice daily at 3 months (65 patients)...
October 19, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044082/rickettsial-retinitis-direct-bacterial-infection-or-an-immune-mediated-response
#8
Rohan Chawla, Gadkar Amit Pundlik, Rama Chaudhry, Chandan Thakur
Infectious retinitis postfebrile illness is known to be caused by chikungunya, dengue, West Nile virus, Bartonella, Lyme's disease, Rift Valley fever, rickettsia, Herpes viruses etc. Rickettsia is Gram-negative bacteria transmitted by arthropods vectors. Ocular involvement is common including conjunctivitis, keratitis, anterior uveitis, panuveitis, retinitis, retinal vascular changes, and optic nerve involvement. Retinitis lesions in rickettsia can occur because of an immunological response to the bacteria or because of direct invasion and proliferation of bacteria in the inner retina...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026166/virus-and-host-specific-differences-in-oral-human-herpesvirus-shedding-kinetics-among-ugandan-women-and-children
#9
Laura Matrajt, Soren Gantt, Bryan T Mayer, Elizabeth M Krantz, Jackson Orem, Anna Wald, Lawrence Corey, Joshua T Schiffer, Corey Casper
Human herpesviruses (HHV) establish lifelong latent infection and are transmitted primarily via shedding at mucosal surfaces. Each HHV causes a unique spectrum of disease depending on the infected individual's age and immunity. We collected weekly oral swabs from young children and mothers in 32 Ugandan households for a median of one year. We characterized kinetics of oral shedding during primary and chronic infection for each virus. Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and HHV-6 were shed at high rates following primary infection...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981391/posterior-scleritis-with-choroidal-effusion-secondary-to-herpes-zoster-ophthalmicus
#10
Edmund Tsui, Soshian Sarrafpour, Yasha S Modi
PURPOSE: To describe a case of posterior scleritis with serous choroidal detachment that occurred as an acute complication of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). METHODS: Retrospective case report. RESULTS: A 75-year-old female presented with 3 days of painful, decreased vision in her left eye 1 week after being diagnosed with HZO. She had unilateral crusted vesicular lesions in the V1 dermatomal distribution and corneal pseudodendrites. Funduscopic examination demonstrated a large choroidal detachment in her left eye...
October 5, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975630/herpes-simplex-and-human-papilloma-virus-coinfections-in-oral-mucosa-of-men-a-6-year-follow-up-study
#11
Johanna Mäki, Henrik Paavilainen, Katja Kero, Veijo Hukkanen, Stina Syrjänen
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes latency in neurons and recurrent infections in oral mucosa. This prospective study analyzes HSV prevalence in oral mucosal brush samples from men with known human papillomavirus (HPV) status. We hypothesized that HSV-1-infection could facilitate HPV persistence as a cofactor. This study was a part of the Finnish Family HPV study accomplished at the University of Turku/Turku University Hospital, Finland. A total of 139 men (mean age 28.6 ± 4.9 years) were enrolled at 36+-weeks of their partner's pregnancy and thereafter followed-up for 6 years...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971780/herpes-labialis-an-update
#12
Alexander K C Leung, Benjamin Barankin
BACKGROUND: Herpes labialis is characterized by recurrent vesicular eruptions primarily on the lips and perioral skin. The condition is contagious, can cause significant discomfort/pain, and can have an adverse effect on quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To update the evaluation and treatment of herpes labialis. METHODS: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key term "herpes labialis". Patents were searched using the key term "herpes labialis" from www...
October 3, 2017: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966005/electroneurography-in-the-acute-stage-of-facial-palsy-as-a-predictive-factor-for-the-development-of-facial-synkinesis-sequela
#13
Takahiro Azuma, Katsuhiko Nakamura, Mika Takahashi, Hitomi Miyoshi, Naoki Toda, Hidetaka Iwasaki, Noriaki Takeda
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the value of ENoG is a predictive factor for the development of facial synkinesis in patients with facial palsy. METHODS: The degree of oral-ocular synkinesis was evaluated quantitatively by an asymmetry of the interpalpebral space width during the mouth movement (% eye opening). Twenty healthy volunteers without a history of facial palsy (12 men and 8 women; 25-65 years old; mean age: 42.3±9.7years) were included in the study to examine the normal range of % eye opening...
September 28, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965966/isolation-purification-and-physicochemical-properties-of-polysaccharide-from-fruiting-body-of-hericium-erinaceus-and-its-effect-on-colonic-health-of-mice
#14
Xiao-Yin Wang, Jun-Yi Yin, Shao-Ping Nie, Ming-Yong Xie
Hericium erinaceus was extracted with boiling water to obtain the crude polysaccharide (HECP) and refined polysaccharide (HERP). HERP was further purified using gradual ethanol precipitation to obtain five sub-fractions. Their physicochemical properties were evaluated, including chemical components, monosaccharide composition and molecular weight. Meanwhile, the effect of HERP on colonic health of mice was investigated by oral administration at dosages of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg of body weight (mg/kgbw), comparing with that of HECP...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960268/mucocutaneous-manifestations-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-infected-patients-in-nouakchott-mauritania
#15
Boushab M Boushab, Fatim-Zahra Malick Fall, Taleb K Ould Cheikh Mohamed Vadel, Mohamed L Ould Cheikh Melaïnine, Mohamed V Maazouz, Mamoudou Savadogo, Leonardo K Basco
BACKGROUND: Mucocutaneous manifestations are one of the first clinical signs in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previous study describing dermatologic manifestations in Mauritanians infected with HIV. The aim of the present study was to determine the profiles of mucocutaneous manifestations in relation to CD4 T cell count in HIV-positive Mauritanian patients. METHODS: A total of 86 adult patients aged > 18 years old attending the Ambulatory Treatment Center of the National Hospital of Nouakchott, Mauritania, with newly diagnosed HIV and who were not under antiretroviral treatment were included in the study in 2015...
September 27, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956768/differentiated-sh-sy5y-human-cells-provide-a-reductionist-model-of-hsv-1-neurotropism
#16
Mackenzie M Shipley, Colleen A Mangold, Chad V Kuny, Moriah L Szpara
Neuron-virus interactions that occur during herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection are not fully understood. Neurons are the site of lifelong latency and are a crucial target for long-term suppressive therapy or viral clearance. A reproducible neuronal model of human origin would facilitate studies of HSV and other neurotropic viruses. Current neuronal models in the herpesvirus field vary widely and have caveats including incomplete differentiation, non-human origins, or the use of dividing cells that have neuropotential, but lack neuronal morphology...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956191/prevalent-herpes-simplex-virus-2-increases-the-risk-of-incident-bacterial-vaginosis-in-women-from-south-africa
#17
Nathlee S Abbai, Makandwe Nyirenda, Sarita Naidoo, Gita Ramjee
Studies have shown that women diagnosed with herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) have a higher risk for bacterial vaginosis (BV) infection. We investigated the presence of HSV-2 infections as a risk factor for incident BV infections in high risk, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) uninfected women enrolled in a HIV prevention trial in Durban, South Africa. The Vaginal and Oral Interventions to Control the Epidemic trial was a multicentre, double blinded, randomized controlled trial which was designed to estimate the effectiveness of daily treatment with vaginal tenofovir gel, oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and oral Truvada in preventing HIV-1 infection in women...
September 27, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954091/beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-review-with-emphasis-on-dermatological-aspects
#18
REVIEW
Maria Antonieta Rios Scherrer, Vanessa Barreto Rocha, Lucas Campos Garcia
Behçet's disease is a systemic vasculitis characterized by attacks of acute inflammation, which can affect almost every vascularized area of the body. There is a close correlation between the geographical distribution of HLA-B51 and its prevalence. In the etiopathogenesis there are indications of genetic susceptibility associated with environmental influence. Among the involved genes are those that encompass innate and adaptive immunities. Polymorphisms and epistatic interactions in several genes are described, as well as the presence of imbalance lineage between HLA-B51 and A (MICA)...
July 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942073/update-on-the-management-of-infectious-keratitis
#19
REVIEW
Ariana Austin, Tom Lietman, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer
Infectious keratitis is a major global cause of visual impairment and blindness, often affecting marginalized populations. Proper diagnosis of the causative organism is critical, and although culture remains the prevailing diagnostic tool, newer techniques such as in vivo confocal microscopy are helpful for diagnosing fungus and Acanthamoeba. Next-generation sequencing holds the potential for early and accurate diagnosis even for organisms that are difficult to culture by conventional methods. Topical antibiotics remain the best treatment for bacterial keratitis, and a recent review found all commonly prescribed topical antibiotics to be equally effective...
November 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932612/concomitant-intravitreal-ganciclovir-and-dexamethasone-therapy-in-the-management-of-acute-retinal-necrosis-in-a-patient-previously-treated-with-oral-famciclovir
#20
Chirag V Patel, Kamal Kishore
Several treatments have been reported for acute retinal necrosis (ARN). We report a case of treatment with intravitreal injection of ganciclovir and dexamethasone in addition to oral valacyclovir in a patient who was previously treated with oral famciclovir for ipsilateral herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO).
2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
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