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Antibiotics supply

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214443/photodegradation-and-sorption-govern-tetracycline-removal-during-wastewater-treatment-in-algal-ponds
#1
Zane N Norvill, Alma Toledo-Cervantes, Saul Blanco, Andy Shilton, Benoit Guieysse, Raul Muñoz
The degradation of the antibiotic tetracycline, supplied at 100µgL(-1) in domestic wastewater, was studied in an outdoor, pilot scale, high rate algal pond (HRAP). Effective operation was demonstrated with the biomass concentration and the chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency averaging 1.2±0.1gTSSL(-1) and 80±4%, respectively, across all operational periods. Tetracycline removal exceeded 93% and 99% when the HRAP was operated at hydraulic retention times of 4 and 7days, respectively. Batch tests and pulse testing during HRAP operation repeatedly evidenced the significance of photodegradation as a removal mechanism...
February 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208877/evaluation-of-antibiotic-residues-in-pasteurized-and-raw-milk-distributed-in-the-south-of-khorasan-e-razavi-province-iran
#2
Mortez Mohammadzadeh Moghadam, Mostafa Amiri, Hamed Ramezani Awal Riabi, Hamid Ramezani Awal Riabi
INTRODUCTION: The presence of antibiotic residues in milk and other products livestock is a health problem which can endanger public health. Antibiotics are used widely in animal husbandry to treat diseases related to bacterial infections. Antimicrobial drugs have been in use for decades in industry. They are commonly used in livestock facilities to treat mastitis. AIM: This study aimed to investigate antibiotic residues in pasteurized milk distributed in schools, in milk collection centers, and in milk production factories in Gonabad city...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199275/assessing-the-cost-of-prophylactic-antibiotic-use-after-cleft-lip-and-lip-adhesion-procedures
#3
Kimberly M Daniels, Michael D Lappi, Susan Flath Sporn, Catherine Noonan Caillouette, Ronald Heald, John G Meara
The purpose of this study was to understand the true cost of administering prophylactic antibiotics postoperatively to patients undergoing cleft lip and lip adhesion procedures for which the rate of infection is historically low. Using time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) methodologies, the plastic surgery department of one hospital created a process map with related time intervals and personnel cost rates for administering the antibiotic. The cost for each provider, based on standard salary information, was multiplied by the time required to complete his or her stage of the process, and this outcome was added to the supply costs...
July 2016: Journal of Healthcare Management / American College of Healthcare Executives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188340/development-and-validation-of-a-new-dynamic-in-vitro-model-of-the-piglet-colon-pigutivm-application-to-the-study-of-probiotics
#4
Mickaël Alain Fleury, Olivier Le Goff, Sylvain Denis, Frédérique Chaucheyras-Durand, Eric Jouy, Isabelle Kempf, Monique Alric, Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot
For ethical, technical, regulatory, and cost reasons, in vitro methods are increasingly used as an alternative to in vivo experimentations. The aim of the present study was to validate, according to in vivo data in living animals, a new in vitro model of the piglet colon, the PigutIVM, under both control conditions and antibiotic disturbance by the widely used colistin. The PigutIVM reproduces the main biotic and abiotic parameters of the piglet colon: temperature, pH, retention time, supply of ileal effluents, complex, and metabolically active microbiota and self-maintained anaerobiosis...
February 10, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128086/vesicular-contact-reaction-may-progress-into-erythema-multiforme
#5
Magdalena Czarnecka-Operacz, Dorota Jenerowicz, Joanna Szulczyńska-Gabor, Ewa Teresiak-Mikołajczak, Joanna Szyfter-Harris, Monika Bowszyc-Dmochowska
Dear Editor, Erythema multiforme is considered an acute skin condition, characterized by a self-limiting and sometimes recurrent course. It is regarded as a type IV hypersensitivity reaction associated with certain infections, medications, and other various triggers. Allergic contact dermatitis is in turn a delayed type of induced allergy as a result of cutaneous contact with a specific allergen to which the patient develops specific sensitivity. This type of cutaneous reaction is associated with inflammation manifesting with erythema, edema, and vesicles...
December 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119403/are-age-appropriate-antibiotic-formulations-missing-from-the-who-list-of-essential-medicines-for-children-a-comparison-study
#6
Verica Ivanovska, Hubert G Leufkens, Carin Ma Rademaker, Elizabeta Zisovska, Mariëlle W Pijnenburg, Liset van Dijk, Aukje K Mantel-Teeuwisse
OBJECTIVE: There is a global call for formulations, which are better suited for children of different age categories and in a variety of settings. One key public health area of interest is age-appropriate paediatric antibiotics. We aimed to identify clinically relevant paediatric formulations of antibiotics listed on pertinent formularies that were not on the WHO Essential Medicines List for Children (EMLc). METHODS: We compared four medicines lists versus the EMLc and contrasted paediatric antibiotic formulations in relation to administration routes, dosage forms and/or drug strengths...
January 24, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103822/emergency-obstetric-and-neonatal-care-availability-use-and-quality-a-cross-sectional-study-in-the-city-of-lubumbashi-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-2011
#7
Abel Mukengeshayi Ntambue, Françoise Kaj Malonga, Karen D Cowgill, Michèle Dramaix-Wilmet, Philippe Donnen
BACKGROUND: While emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) is a proxy indicator for monitoring maternal and perinatal mortalities, in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), data on this care is rarely available. In the city of Lubumbashi, the second largest in DRC with an estimated population of 1.5 million, the availability, use and quality of EmONC are not known. This study aimed to assess these elements in Lubumbashi. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in April and May 2011...
January 19, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098952/solving-the-puzzle-of-one-carbon-loss-in-ripostatin-biosynthesis
#8
Chengzhang Fu, David Auerbach, Yanyan Li, Ullrich Scheid, Eva Luxenburger, Ronald Garcia, Herbert Irschik, Rolf Müller
Ripostatin is a promising antibiotic that inhibits RNA polymerase by binding to a novel binding site. In this study, the characterization of the biosynthetic gene cluster of ripostatin, which is a peculiar polyketide synthase (PKS) hybrid cluster encoding cis- and trans-acyltransferase PKS genes, is reported. Moreover, an unprecedented mechanism for phenyl acetic acid formation and loading as a starter unit was discovered. This phenyl-C2 unit is derived from phenylpyruvate (phenyl-C3) and the mechanism described herein explains the mysterious loss of one carbon atom in ripostatin biosynthesis from the phenyl-C3 precursor...
January 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087782/mutation-supply-and-relative-fitness-shape-the-genotypes-of-ciprofloxacin-resistant-escherichia-coli
#9
Douglas L Huseby, Franziska Pietsch, Gerrit Brandis, Linnéa Garoff, Angelica Tegehall, Diarmaid Hughes
Ciprofloxacin is an important antibacterial drug targeting Type II topoisomerases, highly active against Gram-negatives including Escherichia coli The evolution of resistance to ciprofloxacin in E. coli always requires multiple genetic changes, usually including mutations affecting two different drug target genes, gyrA and parC Resistant mutants selected in vitro or in vivo can have many different mutations in target genes and efflux regulator genes that contribute to resistance. Among resistant clinical isolates the genotype, gyrA S83L D87N, parC S80I is significantly overrepresented suggesting that it has a selective advantage...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081583/-early-results-of-adjuvant-topical-treatment-of-recurrent-osteomyelitis-with-absorbable-antibiotic-carriers
#10
Y Gramlich, G Walter, J Gils, R Hoffmann
Background Treatment of musculoskeletal infections principally consists of radical surgical debridement and systemic administration of antibiotics. Additional local antibiotic therapy is not yet generally established, and lacks evidence-based proof of efficacy. Nonetheless, there are a variety of practical approaches, as most specialised departments are unwilling to forego this option. The established polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) carrier system has a number of practical disadvantages. This has led to the increased use of absorbable carrier systems, and those based on calcium sulphate have given particularly encouraging results...
January 12, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077074/single-and-multiple-viral-respiratory-infections-in-children-disease-and-management-cannot-be-related-to-a-specific-pathogen
#11
Jérôme O Wishaupt, Tjeerd van der Ploeg, Ronald de Groot, Florens G A Versteegh, Nico G Hartwig
BACKGROUND: The number of viral pathogens associated with pediatric acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) has grown since the introduction of reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. Multiple viruses are detected during a single ARI episode in approximately a quarter of all cases. The clinical relevance of these multiple detections is unclear, as is the role of the individual virus. We therefore investigated the correlation between clinical data and RT-PCR results in children with single- and multiple viral ARI...
January 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063101/elimination-and-molecular-identification-of-endophytic-bacterial-contaminants-during-in-vitro-propagation-of-bambusa-balcooa
#12
Syandan Sinha Ray, Md Nasim Ali, Shibasis Mukherjee, Gautam Chatterjee, Maitreyi Banerjee
Bambusa balcooa is an economically important, multipurpose bamboo species, decidedly used in construction industry. Availability of natural bamboo is depleting very rapidly due to accelerated deforestation and its unrestrained use. The large number and timely supply of saplings are the need of the hour for the restoration of bamboo stands. Micropropagation, being the potent alternative for season independent rapid regeneration, is restricted in bamboo because of endophytic contamination. An in vitro attempt has been taken to overcome the endophytic contamination by using broad spectrum antibiotics as surface sterilant as well as a media component...
February 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034757/vancomycin-pre-treatment-impairs-tissue-healing-in-experimental-colitis-importance-of-innate-lymphoid-cells
#13
Di Zhao, Chenwen Cai, Qing Zheng, Shuang Jin, Dongjuan Song, Jun Shen, Zhihua Ran
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The interplay between luminal microbes and innate immunity during colonic epithelial repair has been well noted. At the same time, antibiotic has widely been used during flare-ups of ulcerative colitis. The possible effects of luminal microbiota disruption caused by antibiotics usage on epithelial repairing have been scarcely discussed. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) embedded in the lamina propria can be modulated by gut microbes, resulting in altered colonic IL-22/pSTAT3 levels, which is considered a prominent molecular axis in tissue repairing after epithelium damage...
January 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018590/use-of-asian-selected-agricultural-byproducts-to-modulate-rumen-microbes-and-fermentation
#14
REVIEW
Yasuo Kobayashi, Seongjin Oh, Htun Myint, Satoshi Koike
In the last five decades, attempts have been made to improve rumen fermentation and host animal nutrition through modulation of rumen microbiota. The goals have been decreasing methane production, partially inhibiting protein degradation to avoid excess release of ammonia, and activation of fiber digestion. The main approach has been the use of dietary supplements. Since growth-promoting antibiotics were banned in European countries in 2006, safer alternatives including plant-derived materials have been explored...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012119/antibiotic-treatment-of-women-with-uncomplicated-cystitis-before-and-after-allowing-pharmacist-supply-of-trimethoprim
#15
Natalie J Gauld, Irene S L Zeng, Rosemary B Ikram, Mark G Thomas, Stephen A Buetow
Background In 2012, New Zealand reclassified trimethoprim to allow specially trained pharmacists to supply it without a prescription to women with symptoms suggesting uncomplicated cystitis, under strict criteria for supply. Objective To assess how this policy change allowing pharmacist supply of trimethoprim affected overall antibiotic supply. Setting Randomly selected community pharmacies throughout New Zealand. Methods Data were collected in pharmacies before the implementation ('baseline') and 1 year later ('post-implementation')...
February 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990628/action-plans-with-brief-patient-education-for-exacerbations-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#16
REVIEW
Maxwell Howcroft, E Haydn Walters, Richard Wood-Baker, Julia Ae Walters
BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are a major driver of decline in health status and impose high costs on healthcare systems. Action plans offer a form of self-management that can be delivered in the outpatient setting to help individuals recognise and initiate early treatment for exacerbations, thereby reducing their impact. OBJECTIVES: To compare effects of an action plan for COPD exacerbations provided with a single short patient education component and without a comprehensive self-management programme versus usual care...
19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990309/a-case-of-periodontal-necrosis-following-embolization-of-maxillary-artery-for-epistaxis
#17
Kohei Nishimoto, Ryosei Minoda, Ryoji Yoshida, Toshinori Hirai, Eiji Yumoto
Embolization of the maxillary artery (MA) is a common treatment modality for refractory epistaxis. Tissue necrosis after embolization of the MA is a rare complication. Here, we reported the first case of the development of necrosis of soft tissue and alveolar bone in the periodontium after embolization. A 48-year-old man with poor oral hygiene and a heavy smoking habit was referred to our clinic due to intractable epistaxis. After treatment with anterior-posterior nasal packing (AP nasal packing), the epistaxis relapsed...
2016: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989755/oxidatively-generated-damage-to-dna-and-proteins-mediated-by-photosensitized-uva
#18
REVIEW
Reto Brem, Melisa Guven, Peter Karran
UVA accounts for about 95% of the solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches Earth and most likely contributes to human skin cancer risk. In contrast to UVB, which comprises the remaining 5% and is absorbed by DNA nucleobases to cause direct photodamage, UVA damages DNA indirectly. It does this largely through its interactions with cellular chromophores that act as photosensitisers to generate reactive oxygen species. Exogenously supplied chemicals, including some widely-prescribed medicines, may also act as photosensitisers and these drugs are associated with an increased risk of sun-related cancer...
October 27, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956780/benefits-of-pomegranate-punica-granatum-linn-fruit-extracts-to-weight-changes-total-protein-and-uric-acid-in-white-rats-rattus-norvegicus-as-an-animal-model-of-acute-renal-failure
#19
Hardany Primarizky, Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti, Bambang Sektiari Lukiswanto
AIM: The occurrence of acute renal failure (ARF) cases continues to increase every year. Some of the cases are due to nephrotoxic effect caused by overdose of antibiotic consumption or abuse of the drug, gentamicin. An antibiotic therapy that can be used to overcome in such a case is the pomegranate extracts. However, until now, studies using pomegranate for cases of ARF have not been done. This study aims to determine changes in body weight, the levels of total protein (TP), and the levels of serum uric acid (UA) as a result of the pomegranate extract consumption...
November 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870044/foliar-bacteria-and-soil-fertility-mediate-seedling-performance-a-new-and-cryptic-dimension-of-niche-differentiation
#20
Eric A Griffin, M Brian Traw, Peter J Morin, Jonathan N Pruitt, S Joseph Wright, Walter P Carson
The phyllosphere (comprising the leaf surface and interior) is one of the world's largest microbial habitats and is host to an abundant and diverse array of bacteria. Nonetheless, the degree to which bacterial communities are benign, harmful, or beneficial to plants in situ is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the net effect of reducing bacterial abundance and diversity would vary substantially among host species (from harmful to beneficial) and this would be strongly mediated by soil resource availability...
November 2016: Ecology
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