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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635205/recurrence-of-right-lower-lobe-pneumonia-3-years-after-the-first-episode-in-an-otherwise-healthy-13-year-old-girl
#1
Antonino Capizzi, Oliviero Sacco, Giovanni A Rossi, Michela Silvestri
Recurrent pneumonia is one of the most frequent reasons for referral to paediatric chest physicians. The diagnostic work-up is dependent on whether infection repeatedly occurs in the same lung lobe, or affects multiple lobes and/or different areas in different episodes. A 13-year-old girl was admitted with a second episode of right lower lobe pneumonia. The chest x-ray demonstrated an inhomogeneous opacity, without a clearly recognizable segmental distribution. A contrast-enhanced CT scan, was therefore performed that showed a polycyclic consolidation with blood supply from a systemic artery, originated from the thoracic aorta...
May 25, 2017: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626609/detection-and-drug-resistance-profile-of-escherichia-coli-from-subclinical-mastitis-cows-and-water-supply-in-dairy-farms-in-saraburi-province-thailand
#2
Woranich Hinthong, Natapol Pumipuntu, Sirijan Santajit, Suphang Kulpeanprasit, Shutipen Buranasinsup, Nitat Sookrung, Wanpen Chaicumpa, Pisinee Aiumurai, Nitaya Indrawattana
Subclinical mastitis is a persistent problem in dairy farms worldwide. Environmental Escherichia coli is the bacterium predominantly responsible for this condition. In Thailand, subclinical mastitis in dairy cows is usually treated with various antibiotics, which could lead to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. E. coli is also a reservoir of many antibiotic resistance genes, which can be conveyed to other bacteria. In this study, the presence of E. coli in milk and water samples was reported, among which enteropathogenic E...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587172/the-rising-tide-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-aquaculture-sources-sinks-and-solutions
#3
REVIEW
Joy E M Watts, Harold J Schreier, Lauma Lanska, Michelle S Hale
As the human population increases there is an increasing reliance on aquaculture to supply a safe, reliable, and economic supply of food. Although food production is essential for a healthy population, an increasing threat to global human health is antimicrobial resistance. Extensive antibiotic resistant strains are now being detected; the spread of these strains could greatly reduce medical treatment options available and increase deaths from previously curable infections. Antibiotic resistance is widespread due in part to clinical overuse and misuse; however, the natural processes of horizontal gene transfer and mutation events that allow genetic exchange within microbial populations have been ongoing since ancient times...
June 1, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559296/cysteine-biosynthesis-controls-serratia-marcescens-phospholipase-activity
#4
Mark T Anderson, Lindsay A Mitchell, Harry L T Mobley
Serratia marcescens causes healthcare-associated opportunistic infections that can be difficult to treat due to a high incidence of antibiotic resistance. One of the many secreted proteins of S. marcescens is the PhlA phospholipase enzyme. Genes involved in the production and secretion of PhlA were identified by screening a transposon insertion library for phospholipase-deficient mutants on phosphatidylcholine-containing medium. Mutations were identified in four genes (cyaA, crp, fliJ and fliP) that are involved in the flagellar-dependent PhlA secretion pathway...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536569/dietary-high-zinc-oxide-modulates-the-microbiome-of-ileum-and-colon-in-weaned-piglets
#5
Ting Yu, Cui Zhu, Shicheng Chen, Lei Gao, Hang Lv, Ruowei Feng, Qingfeng Zhu, Jinsong Xu, Zhuang Chen, Zongyong Jiang
Dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) at pharmacological level has been widely used to prevent and treat diarrhea in weaning piglets. Despite its importance for promoting animal health and performance, the influence of microbiome profiles in intestinal tracts by ZnO needs to be comprehensively investigated. In this study, we conducted a comparative microbial community analysis in the ileum and colon of piglets fed by either control diet, high ZnO (3,000 mg/kg) supplement or antibiotics (300 mg/kg chlortetracycline and 60 mg/kg colistin sulfate) supplement...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526271/an-in-vitro-urinary-catheterization-model-that-approximates-clinical-conditions-for-evaluation-of-innovations-to-prevent-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections
#6
R Y R Chua, K Lim, S S J Leong, P A Tambyah, B Ho
BACKGROUND: Catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) account for about 25% of nosocomial infections globally and often result in increased morbidity and healthcare costs. An added concern is the presence of microbial biofilms which are major reservoirs of bacteria, especially antibiotic resistant bacteria, in catheters. Since the practice of the closed drainage system, innovations to combat CAUTI have not produced significant improvements in clinical outcomes. The lack of a robust laboratory platform to test new CAUTI preventive strategies may impede development of novel technologies...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520993/effects-of-short-and-long-course-antibiotics-on-the-lower-intestinal-microbiome-as-they-relate-to-traveller-s-diarrhea
#7
Lawrence Clifford McDonald
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics have profound and lasting effects on the lower intestinal (gut) microbiome that can both promote resistance and increase susceptibility to colonization and infection; knowledge of these changes is important to the prevention and treatment of traveler's diarrhea. METHODS: Recent data from epidemiologic and modern metagenomics studies were reviewed in regard to how such findings could inform the prevention and treatment of traveler's diarrhea...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485119/case-of-mycobacterium-mucogenicum-in-home-hemodialysis-patient
#8
Miten J Dhruve, Paul E Bunce, Celine D'Gama, Christopher T Chan
We present a case of a patient on home hemodialysis who developed Mycobacterium mucogenicum bacteremia. While infections with this particular organism are rare, disseminated infections have been reported and have been associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis required appropriate cultures, understanding of natural habitat of organism and complete environmental analysis including blood, dialysis sample port, reverse osmosis and incoming water supply cultures. The patient was treated successfully with systemic antibiotics, removal of central venous catheter, patient education and complete exchange of the hemodialysis circuit...
May 9, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481880/a-link-between-damaging-behaviour-in-pigs-sanitary-conditions-and-dietary-protein-and-amino-acid-supply
#9
Yvonne van der Meer, Walter J J Gerrits, Alfons J M Jansman, Bas Kemp, J Elizabeth Bolhuis
The tendency to reduce crude protein (CP) levels in pig diets to increase protein efficiency may increase the occurrence of damaging behaviours such as ear and tail biting, particularly for pigs kept under suboptimal health conditions. We studied, in a 2×2×2 factorial design, 576 tail-docked growing-finishing entire male pigs in 64 pens, subjected to low (LSC) vs. high sanitary conditions (HSC), and fed a normal CP (NP) vs. a low CP diet (LP, 80% of NP) ad libitum, with a basal amino acid (AA) profile or supplemented AA profile with extra threonine, tryptophan and methionine...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479634/clinical-management-of-children-with-fever-a-cross-sectional-study-of-quality-of-care-in-rural-zambia
#10
Karsten Lunze, Godfrey Biemba, J Joseph Lawrence, William B MacLeod, Kojo Yeboah-Antwi, Kebby Musokotwane, Toyin Ajayi, Simon Mutembo, Chilunga Puta, Duncan Earle, Rick Steketee, Davidson H Hamer
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate current practices and standards of evaluation and treatment of childhood febrile illness in Southern Province, Zambia. METHODS: From November to December 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of facilities and health workers and we observed the health workers' interactions with febrile children and their caregivers. The facility survey recorded level of staffing, health services provided by the facility, availability and adequacy of medical equipment, availability of basic drugs and supplies and availability of treatment charts and guidelines...
May 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464890/comparison-of-the-capacity-between-public-and-private-health-facilities-to-manage-under-five-children-with-febrile-illnesses-in-uganda
#11
Esther Buregyeya, Elizeus Rutebemberwa, Phillip LaRussa, Sham Lal, Sîan E Clarke, Kristian S Hansen, Pascal Magnussen, Anthony K Mbonye
BACKGROUND: Public health facilities are usually the first to receive interventions compared to private facilities, yet majority of health seeking care is first done with the latter. This study compared the capacity to manage acute febrile illnesses in children below 5 years in private vs public health facilities in order to design interventions to improve quality of care. METHODS: A survey was conducted within 57 geographical areas (parishes), from August to October 2014 in Mukono district, central Uganda...
May 2, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429519/the-incidence-and-costs-of-bacteremia-due-to-lack-of-gentamicin-lock-solutions-for-dialysis-catheters
#12
Tze Liang Goh, Jason Wei, David Semple, John Collins
The use of antibiotic lock solutions as prophylaxis for catheter-associated blood stream infection (CRBSI) has been shown to be effective in previous randomized controlled trials. However, the cost-effectiveness of this approach had not been studied. In 2012, the routine gentamicin-heparin lock solution used in Auckland City Hospital was withdrawn from the market, leading to a change to heparin-only lock. This was then replaced with gentamicin-citrate lock in 2014. This situation allowed review of the CRBSI rate and financial impact of different catheter lock solutions...
June 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401447/infection-control-in-limited-resources-countries-challenges-and-priorities
#13
Diana Vilar-Compte, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Samuel Ponce-de-León
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review the current status of health care-related infections (HCRI) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). RECENT FINDINGS: HCRI in LMIC are being recognized as an important health problem globally. Despite important efforts, complex medical and non-medical problems prevail. The HCRI burden in LMIC is bigger than in developed countries, with prevalence between 5.7 and 19.1%. The impact on patients, their families, and the hospital systems is high, but has been largely underestimated...
May 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399047/assessing-quality-and-safety-in-pediatric-supracondylar-humerus-fracture-care
#14
Christopher A Iobst, Matthew Stillwagon, Deidre Ryan, Eric Shirley, Steven L Frick
BACKGROUND: Recently, there has been an emphasis on improving quality, safety, and value in the delivery of health care in the United States. The American Board of Orthopedic Surgery (ABOS) has developed a performance improvement questionnaire (PIQ) for orthopaedic surgeons managing pediatric supracondylar humerus fracture (PSCHF). Using the supracondylar PIQ as a guide, this study evaluates the process of measuring the outcomes and variations in care to PSCHF patients among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396232/treatment-of-osteomyelitis-a-case-for-disruption-of-the-affected-adjacent-periosteum
#15
John W Hudson, Austin P Daly, Michael Foster
PURPOSE: To evaluate the response of mandibular osteomyelitis treated by surgical decortication with disruption of the affected adjacent periosteum in concert with long-term targeted antibiotic therapy. The hypothesis is that, by removing the buccal cortical plate and disrupting the hypertrophically inflamed adjacent periosteum, the medullary bone will be brought in contact with bleeding tissue and circulating immunologic factors and antibiotics, which will promote definitive resolution...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395278/cost-of-deep-brain-stimulation-infection-resulting-in-explantation
#16
Tsinsue Chen, Zaman Mirzadeh, Margaret Lambert, Omar Gonzalez, Ana Moran, Andrew G Shetter, Francisco A Ponce
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) hardware infection is a serious complication, often resulting in multiple hardware salvage attempts, hospitalizations, and long-term antibiotic therapy. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to quantify the costs of DBS hardware-related infections in patients undergoing eventual device explantation. METHODS: Of 362 patients who underwent 530 electrode placements (1 January 2010 to 30 December 2014), 16 (4.4%) had at least 2 hardware salvage procedures...
2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378991/assessment-of-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-legionella-pneumophila-isolated-from-water-systems-in-poland
#17
Agnieszka Sikora, Iwona Gładysz, Maria Kozioł-Montewka, Małgorzata Wójtowicz-Bobin, Tomasz Stańczak, Renata Matuszewska, Bożena Krogulska
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Several studies have reported therapy failures in patients with legionnaires'disease; however, antimicrobial resistance of clinical and environmental isolates of Legionella spp. has not yet been documented. Routine susceptibility testing of Legionella spp. is not recommended because of difficulties in determining standard minimal inhibitory concentration values. The purpose of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility of Legionella pneumophila...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373644/modeling-nosocomial-infections-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-with-environment-contamination
#18
Lei Wang, Shigui Ruan
In this work, we investigate the role of environmental contamination on the clinical epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospitals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium that causes infections in different parts of the body. It is tougher to treat than most strains of Staphylococcus aureus or staph, because it is resistant to some commonly used antibiotics. Both deterministic and stochastic models are constructed to describe the transmission characteristics of MRSA in hospital setting...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359302/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-two-unrelated-fungal-%C3%AE-lactam-producers-acremonium-chrysogenum-and-penicillium-chrysogenum-velvet-regulated-genes-are-major-targets-during-conventional-strain-improvement-programs
#19
Dominik Terfehr, Tim A Dahlmann, Ulrich Kück
BACKGROUND: Cephalosporins and penicillins are the most frequently used β-lactam antibiotics for the treatment of human infections worldwide. The main industrial producers of these antibiotics are Acremonium chrysogenum and Penicillium chrysogenum, two taxonomically unrelated fungi. Both were subjects of long-term strain development programs to reach economically relevant antibiotic titers. It is so far unknown, whether equivalent changes in gene expression lead to elevated antibiotic titers in production strains...
March 31, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352463/pervasive-antibiotic-misuse-in-the-cambodian-community-antibiotic-seeking-behaviour-with-unrestricted-access
#20
Chhorvoin Om, Frances Daily, Erika Vlieghe, James C McLaughlin, Mary-Louise McLaws
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic misuse is widespread in resource-limited countries such as Cambodia where the burden of infectious diseases is high and access to antibiotics is unrestricted. We explored healthcare seeking behaviour related to obtaining antibiotics and drivers of antibiotic misuse in the Cambodian community. METHODS: In-depth interviews were held with family members of patients being admitted in hospitals and private pharmacies termed pharmacy attendants in the catchment areas of the hospitals...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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