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Antibiotics supply

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154717/characterization-of-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-from-victoria-australia-dairy-farm-environments
#1
Catherine M McAuley, Kate E McMillan, Sean C Moore, Narelle Fegan, Edward M Fox
Safe dairy food production starts at the farm level, with the presence of pathogens on farms potentially impacting the downstream food supply. Studies often commence with looking for pathogens in fecal material of farm animals, predominantly cows; however, pathogens may arise from other on-farm sources. In Australia, few studies have looked at the broader farm environment, particularly in relation to Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The present study characterized the genetic similarity of these pathogens from bovine, ovine, and caprine dairy farm environments and related this to the stx1, stx2, eae, or ehx virulence markers in E...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152694/rna-seq-analysis-of-antibiotic-producing-bacillus-subtilis-sc-8-reveals-a-role-for-small-peptides-in-controlling-papr-signaling
#2
Byung Wook Yang, In-Cheol Yeo, Jae Hee Choi, Chandra Datta Sumi, Young Tae Hahm
Bacillus subtilis SC-8 (BSSC8) shows a narrow antimicrobial activity against the Bacillus cereus group. Previously, B. cereus-derived PapR as a signal peptide to stimulate PlcR, which plays a significant role in regulating the transcription of virulence factors, was assumed to stimulate antibiotic production in BSSC8. To better understand the functional role of PapR in the antibiotic production of BSSC8 and the interspecies interaction, the global transcriptomic profiling of BSSC8 was investigated using RNA-Seq in this study...
November 20, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135306/a-calculation-tool-and-process-to-pre-position-pharmaceuticals-for-anthrax-post-exposure-prophylaxis
#3
Gary D Peksa, Michael J Robbins, Alexis R Beyer, Elisabeth K Weber, Keneatha Johnson
Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is considered a severe bioterrorism threat because of its high mortality rate. The Chicago Healthcare System Coalition for Preparedness and Response (CHSCPR) aims to pre-position antibiotic medical countermeasures (MCMs) at healthcare facilities in order to provide on-site anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis. Pharmacists proposed moving toward a new process that involved the development of a standardized calculation methodology for acquiring supply drugs. This was an interventional quality improvement project aimed at optimizing inventory, acquisition, and distribution of antibiotic MCMs for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis at Chicago hospitals for hospital personnel, associated first responders, and their families...
November 14, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133391/adaptive-benefits-from-small-mutation-supplies-in-an-antibiotic-resistance-enzyme
#4
Merijn L M Salverda, Jeroen Koomen, Bertha Koopmanschap, Mark P Zwart, J Arjan G M de Visser
Populations with large mutation supplies adapt via the "greedy" substitution of the fittest genotype available, leading to fast and repeatable short-term responses. At longer time scales, smaller mutation supplies may in theory lead to larger improvements when distant high-fitness genotypes more readily evolve from lower-fitness intermediates. Here we test for long-term adaptive benefits from small mutation supplies using in vitro evolution of an antibiotic-degrading enzyme in the presence of a novel antibiotic...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095181/intravenous-push-cephalosporin-antibiotics-in-the-emergency-department-a-practice-improvement-project
#5
Julie M McLaughlin, Robin A Scott, Stephanie L Koenig, Scott W Mueller
Delays in administration of appropriate antibiotics to patients with septic shock are associated with increased mortality. To improve the care of patients with sepsis within our 73-bed emergency department (ED), a "first-dose" intravenous push (IVP) cephalosporin antibiotic protocol was initiated. This project was aimed at improving the time from provider order of antibiotic to administration, which follows the Sepsis Core Measure of timely antibiotic administration.This was a single-center, retrospective analysis of a practice improvement study...
October 2017: Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092659/cost-justification-of-the-biofire-filmarray-meningitis-encephalitis-panel-versus-standard-of-care-for-diagnosing-meningitis-in-a-community-hospital
#6
Dana K Soucek, Lisa E Dumkow, Kali M VanLangen, Andrew P Jameson
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram stain and culture along with CSF viral polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the current standard of care (SOC) to diagnose meningitis. Unfortunately, these tests take up to 72 hours to provide results and are not always sensitive to detect a pathogen. BioFire FilmArray (FA) meningitis/encephalitis (ME) panel uses PCR to provide quick, accurate identification of the causative organism. For community hospitals, the cost of this technology may be prohibitive...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079613/enterococcus-faecalis-responds-to-individual-exogenous-fatty-acids-independently-of-saturation-or-chain-length
#7
Holly E Saito, John R Harp, Elizabeth M Fozo
Enterococcus faecalis is a commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract that can persist in the external environment and is a leading cause of hospital acquired infections. Given its diverse habitats, the organism has developed numerous strategies to survive a multitude of environmental conditions. Previous studies have demonstrated that E. faecalis will incorporate fatty acids from bile and serum into its membrane, resulting in an induced tolerance to membrane damaging agents. To discern whether all fatty acids induce membrane stress protection, we examined how E...
October 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067090/a-rare-case-of-ralstonia-mannitolilytica-infection-in-an-end-stage-renal-patient-on-maintenance-dialysis-during-municipal-water-contamination
#8
Christopher Thiam Seong Lim, Sut Enn Lee
Ralstonia mannitolilytica is a gram negative soil bacterium. Ralstonia infection though rare, has become the emerging nosocomial pathogens in hospital settings. Various clinical manifestations had been described as well as the mode of transmission. Despite its low virulence factor, it is able to survive under harsh condition and this may potentially cause significant morbidity and mortality especially in immunocompromised patients. Outbreak of Ralstonia mannitolilytica infections in the hospital are typically associated with contaminated medical supplies or instruments...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059358/daptomycin
#9
Mohsen Heidary, Azar Dohkt Khosravi, Saeed Khoshnood, Mohammad Javad Nasiri, Saleh Soleimani, Mehdi Goudarzi
Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic used for the treatment of Gram-positive infections including complicated skin and skin structure infections, right-sided infective endocarditis, bacteraemia, meningitis, sepsis and urinary tract infections. Daptomycin has distinct mechanisms of action, disrupting multiple aspects of cell membrane function and inhibiting protein, DNA and RNA synthesis. Although daptomycin resistance in Gram-positive bacteria is uncommon, there are increasing reports of daptomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030273/heterologous-production-of-myxobacterial-%C3%AE-pyrone-antibiotics-in-myxococcus-xanthus
#10
Hilda Sucipto, Domen Pogorevc, Eva Luxenburger, Silke C Wenzel, Rolf Müller
Myxopyronins (MXN) and corallopyronins (COR) are structurally related α-pyrone antibiotics from myxobacteria that represent a highly promising compound class for the development of broad-spectrum antibacterial therapeutic agents. Their ability to inhibit RNA polymerase through interaction with the "switch region", a novel target, distant from previously characterized RNA polymerase inhibitors (e.g. rifampicin), makes them particularly promising candidates for further research. To improve compound supply for further investigation of MXN, COR and novel derivatives of these antibacterial agents, establishment of an efficient and versatile microbial production platform for myxobacterial α-pyrone antibiotics is highly desirable...
October 10, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023394/carbon-based-oxamate-cobalt-iii-complexes-as-bioenzyme-mimics-for-contaminant-elimination-in-high-backgrounds-of-complicated-constituents
#11
Nan Li, Yun Zheng, Xuemei Jiang, Ran Zhang, Kemei Pei, Wenxing Chen
Complex wastewater with massive components is now a serious environmental issue facing humanity. Selective removal of low-concentration contaminants in mixed constituents holds great promise for increasing water supplies. Bioenzymes like horseradish peroxidase exhibit oxidizing power and selectivity. Here, we manufactured its mimic through immobilizing non-heme oxamate anionic cobalt(III) complex ([Co(III)(opba)](-), opba = o-phenylenebis(oxamate)) onto pyridine (Py) modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes ([Co(III)(opba)](-)-Py-MWCNTs, MWCNTs = multiwalled carbon nanotubes), where MWCNTs captured substrates and Py functioned as the fifth ligand...
October 12, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973457/direct-modulation-of-t-box-riboswitch-controlled-transcription-by-protein-synthesis-inhibitors
#12
Vassiliki Stamatopoulou, Maria Apostolidi, Shuang Li, Katerina Lamprinou, Athanasios Papakyriakou, Jinwei Zhang, Constantinos Stathopoulos
Recently, it was discovered that exposure to mainstream antibiotics activate numerous bacterial riboregulators that control antibiotic resistance genes including metabolite-binding riboswitches and other transcription attenuators. However, the effects of commonly used antibiotics, many of which exhibit RNA-binding properties, on the widespread T-box riboswitches, remain unknown. In Staphylococcus aureus, a species-specific glyS T-box controls the supply of glycine for both ribosomal translation and cell wall synthesis, making it a promising target for next-generation antimicrobials...
September 29, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954914/reversing-resistance-different-routes-and-common-themes-across-pathogens
#13
REVIEW
Richard C Allen, Jan Engelstädter, Sebastian Bonhoeffer, Bruce A McDonald, Alex R Hall
Resistance spreads rapidly in pathogen or pest populations exposed to biocides, such as fungicides and antibiotics, and in many cases new biocides are in short supply. How can resistance be reversed in order to prolong the effectiveness of available treatments? Some key parameters affecting reversion of resistance are well known, such as the fitness cost of resistance. However, the population biological processes that actually cause resistance to persist or decline remain poorly characterized, and consequently our ability to manage reversion of resistance is limited...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926636/the-expected-and-unexpected-benefits-of-dispensing-the-exact-number-of-pills
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Carole Treibich, Sabine Lescher, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Bruno Ventelou
BACKGROUND: From November 2014 to November 2015, an experiment in French community pharmacies replaced traditional pre-packed boxes by per-unit dispensing of pills in the exact numbers prescribed, for 14 antibiotics. METHODS: A cluster randomised control trial was carried out in 100 pharmacies. 75 pharmacies counted out the medication by units (experimental group), the other 25 providing the treatment in the existing pharmaceutical company boxes (control group)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922029/exploratory-study-into-the-microbiological-quality-of-spinach-and-cabbage-purchased-from-street-vendors-and-retailers-in-johannesburg-south-africa
#15
Erika M du Plessis, Sarasha Govender, Bala Pillay, Lise Korsten
Knowledge of the microbiological quality and prevalence of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in bacterial isolates from leafy green vegetables supplied by formal suppliers (retailers) and informal suppliers (street vendors) in South Africa is limited. Because leafy vegetables have been implicated in foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, 180 cabbage and spinach samples were collected from three major retailers and nine street vendors in Johannesburg, South Africa. Escherichia coli and coliforms were enumerated using Petrifilm plates...
October 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910226/the-bacterial-renaissance-a-supply-side-answer-to-the-icarus-paradox-of-antibiotic-usage-undermining-its-own-usefulness
#16
Gurney Fields Pearsall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900741/occurrence-and-distribution-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-water-supply-reservoirs-in-jingjinji-area-china
#17
Kai Zhang, Zhi-Guang Niu, Zhiwei Lv, Ying Zhang
Jingjinji area occupies important position in developing of the Chinese economy, while there exists a sharp conflict between economic growth and limited water resources in this area. To ensure the safety of water consumption of cities in Jingjinji area, we investigated the abundance of three classes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in water and sediment of six water supply reservoirs in this area. The results showed that the detection frequency of sul1, tetM and ermB were 100%. However, the content ranges of these genes were different (10(-5) to 10(-2)/16S gene copies for sul1, 10(-5) to 10(-3)/16S gene copies for ermB, and 10(-5) to 10(-3)/16S gene copies for tetM)...
November 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893243/impact-of-pharmacy-worker-training-and-deployment-on-access-to-essential-medicines-for-children-under-five-in-malawi-a-cluster-quasi-experimental-evaluation
#18
Joseph B Babigumira, Solomon J Lubinga, Alisa M Jenny, Erin Larsen-Cooper, Jessica Crawford, Charles Matemba, Andy Stergachis
BACKGROUND: Poor access to essential medicines is common in many low- and middle-income countries, partly due to an insufficient and inadequately trained workforce to manage the medicines supply chain. We conducted a prospective impact evaluation of the training and deployment of pharmacy assistants (PAs) to rural health centers in Malawi. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design was used to compare access to medicines in two districts where newly trained PAs were deployed to health centers (intervention) and two districts with no trained PAs at health centers (comparison)...
September 11, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889650/correlation-of-recommendations-of-treatment-guidelines-and-frequently-prescribed-antibiotics-evaluation-of-their-pharmaceutical-pack-size
#19
Shoma Mukherjee, Nilanjan Saha
There are various factors that contribute to development of antimicrobial resistance. Overuse, inappropriate prescribing and extensive agricultural use of antibiotics are some of the factors which have been identified. Antibiotics are almost always universally packaged by manufacturers in packs that are heavily driven by cost of economies and convenience rather than by any scientific basis or duration of therapy. So, in the present study, the correlation of the treatment guidelines with the choice of antibiotics and whether packing size contributes to left-over dosing units when used according to guideline recommendations were assessed...
September 10, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882639/effects-of-residual-levels-of-tetracycline-on-the-barrier-functions-of-human-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#20
Kuppan Gokulan, Carl E Cerniglia, Charles Thomas, Silvia A Pineiro, Sangeeta Khare
Tetracyclines are frequently used in food-producing animals to treat, control, and prevent microbial diseases. Concerns are raised regarding the effects of residual levels of tetracycline, which may be present in the food supply, for emergence of drug-resistance and transfer of antibiotic-resistance gene in intestinal microbiota. In contrast, no information is available regarding the possible effects of residual tetracycline on the gastrointestinal epithelial layer barrier-disruption. This study investigates the outcome of tetracycline treatment on intestinal epithelial cells integrity...
September 4, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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