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Antibiotics supply

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320332/assessing-emergency-obstetric-and-newborn-care-can-performance-indicators-capture-health-system-weaknesses
#1
Andrea Solnes Miltenburg, Richard Forget Kiritta, Thabea Benedicto Bishanga, Jos van Roosmalen, Jelle Stekelenburg
BACKGROUND: Regular monitoring and assessment of performance indicators for emergency obstetric and newborn care can help to identify priorities to improve health services for women and newborns. The aim of this study was to perform a district wide assessment of emergency obstetric and newborn care performance and identify ways for improvement. METHODS: Facility assessment of 13 dispensaries, four health centers and one district hospital in a rural district in Tanzania was performed in two data collection periods in 2014...
March 20, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317865/complete-genome-sequencing-and-antibiotics-biosynthesis-pathways-analysis-of-streptomyces-lydicus-103
#2
Nan Jia, Ming-Zhu Ding, Hao Luo, Feng Gao, Ying-Jin Yuan
More and more new natural products have been found in Streptomyces species, which become the significant resource for antibiotics production. Among them, Streptomyces lydicus has been known as its ability of streptolydigin biosynthesis. Herein, we present the genome analysis of S. lydicus based on the complete genome sequencing. The circular chromosome of S. lydicus 103 comprises 8,201,357 base pairs with average GC content 72.22%. With the aid of KEGG analysis, we found that S. lydicus 103 can transfer propanoate to succinate, glutamine or glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate, CO2 and L-glutamate to ammonia, which are conducive to the the supply of amino acids...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306360/the-antibiotic-pipeline-reviving-research-and-development-and-speeding-drugs-to-market
#3
Katherine H Luepke, John F Mohr
The combination of growing antimicrobial resistance with a dry pipeline has resulted in infections that can no longer be treated. Specific reasons have led to companies' exit from the antibacterial space, however recent incentives are spurring interest to reinvigorate the pipeline. Areas Covered: This article summarizes the available information on the discovery, developmental, and regulatory challenges in antibacterial development that have led to disinterest in the space, as well as ongoing incentives such as public-private partnerships and streamlined pathways to mend these challenges and bring new antibiotics to patients in need...
March 17, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300643/draft-genome-sequence-of-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-enterica-serovar-brancaster-strain-ps01-isolated-from-chicken-meat-malaysia
#4
Pui San Chin, Choo Yee Yu, Geik Yong Ang, Wai-Fong Yin, Kok-Gan Chan
OBJECTIVES: Salmonella spp. represent one of the main diarrhoeal pathogens that are transmitted via the food supply chain. Here we report the draft genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Brancaster (PS01) that was isolated from poultry meat in Malaysia. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from Salmonella strain PS01 and was sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The generated reads were de novo assembled using CLC Genomics Workbench...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293709/metabolic-perturbation-to-enhance-polyketide-and-nonribosomal-peptide-antibiotic-production-using-triclosan-and-ribosome-targeting-drugs
#5
Yukinori Tanaka, Masumi Izawa, Yoshikazu Hiraga, Yuya Misaki, Tomoko Watanabe, Kozo Ochi
Although transcriptional activation of pathwayspecific positive regulatory genes and/or biosynthetic genes is primarily important for enhancing secondary metabolite production, reinforcement of substrate supply, as represented by primary metabolites, is also effective. For example, partial inhibition of fatty acid synthesis with ARC2 (an analog of triclosan) was found to enhance polyketide antibiotic production. Here, we demonstrate that this approach is effective even for industrial high-producing strains, for example enhancing salinomycin production by 40%, reaching 30...
March 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290008/three-dimensional-numerical-simulations-of-biofilm-dynamics-with-quorum-sensing-in-a-flow-cell
#6
Jia Zhao, Qi Wang
We develop a multiphasic hydrodynamic theory for biofilms taking into account interactions among various bacterial phenotypes, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), quorum sensing (QS) molecules, solvent, and antibiotics. In the model, bacteria are classified into down-regulated QS, up-regulated QS, and non-QS cells based on their QS ability. The model is first benchmarked against an experiment yielding an excellent fit to experimental measurements on the concentration of QS molecules and the cell density during biofilm development...
March 13, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284092/antibiotic-resistant-pseudomonas-spp-in-the-aquatic-environment-a-prevalence-study-under-tropical-and-temperate-climate-conditions
#7
Naresh Devarajan, Thilo Köhler, Periyasamy Sivalingam, Christian van Delden, Crispin K Mulaji, Pius T Mpiana, Bastiaan W Ibelings, John Poté
Microbial populations which are resistant to antibiotics are an emerging environmental concern with potentially serious implications for public health. Thus, there is a growing concern in exploring the occurrence of antibiotic resistance in the environment with no limitations to the factors that contribute to their emergence. The aquatic environment is considered to be a hot-spot for the acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance due to pollution with emerging contaminants derived from anthropogenic activities...
February 27, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284083/plasma-pharmacokinetics-and-bioavailability-of-verticillin-a-following-different-routes-of-administration-in-mice-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#8
Jiang Wang, Xiaohua Zhu, Shamala Kolli, Hongyan Wang, Cedric J Pearce, Nicholas H Oberlies, Mitch A Phelps
Verticillin A is a natural product isolated from fungal cultures and has displayed potent antibiotic, antiviral, nematocidal, and anticancer properties in vitro. While in vivo studies have been limited due to sparse supply, the in vivo efficacy data that does exist demonstrates potent anti-tumor activity in murine cancer models. The current study aims to investigate the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of verticillin A in mice to provide guidance for further efficacy assessment in mouse models. A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of verticillin A in mouse plasma...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263527/genotoxicity-of-wastewater-from-health-care-facilities
#9
REVIEW
Alena Vlková, Zdeňka Wittlingerová, Magdalena Zimová, Gabriela Jírová, Kristina Kejlová, Stanislav Janoušek, Dagmar Jírová
Health care facilities use for therapeutic purposes, diagnostics, research, and disinfection a high number of chemical compounds, such as pharmaceuticals (e.g. antibiotics, cytostatics, antidepressants), disinfectants, surfactants, metals, radioactive elements, bleach preparations, etc. Hospitals consume significant amounts of water (in the range of 400 to 1200 liters/day/bed) corresponding to the amount of wastewater discharge. Some of these chemicals are not eliminated in wastewater treatment plants and are the source of pollution for surface and groundwater supplies...
December 18, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253356/resistance-to-antimicrobial-drugs-in-different-surface-waters-and-wastewaters-of-guadeloupe
#10
Stéphanie Guyomard-Rabenirina, Celia Dartron, Mélanie Falord, Syndia Sadikalay, Célia Ducat, Vincent Richard, Sébastien Breurec, Olivier Gros, Antoine Talarmin
OBJECTIVE: The first aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance of Enterobacteriaceae in different water environments of Guadeloupe and especially those impacted by waste water treatment plants (WWTP) effluents. The second objective was to characterize the genetic basis for antibiotic resistance of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates (ESBLE and AmpCE). METHODS: We have collected 70 surface waters (river and sea samples) impacted or not by WWTP and 18 waste waters from 2 WWTPs in 2012 and 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243709/heterologous-production-of-kasugamycin-an-aminoglycoside-antibiotic-from-streptomyces-kasugaensis-in-streptomyces-lividans-and-rhodococcus-erythropolis-l-88-by-constitutive-expression-of-the-biosynthetic-gene-cluster
#11
Kano Kasuga, Akira Sasaki, Takashi Matsuo, Chika Yamamoto, Yuiko Minato, Naoya Kuwahara, Chikako Fujii, Masayuki Kobayashi, Hitosi Agematu, Tomohiro Tamura, Mamoru Komatsu, Jun Ishikawa, Haruo Ikeda, Ikuo Kojima
Kasugamycin (KSM), an aminoglycoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces kasugaensis cultures, has been used against rice blast disease for more than 50 years. We cloned the KSM biosynthetic gene (KBG) cluster from S. kasugaensis MB273-C4 and constructed three KBG cassettes (i.e., cassettes I-III) to enable heterologous production of KSM in many actinomycetes by constitutive expression of KBGs. Cassette I comprised all putative transcriptional units in the cluster, but it was placed under the control of the P neo promoter from Tn5...
February 27, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214443/photodegradation-and-sorption-govern-tetracycline-removal-during-wastewater-treatment-in-algal-ponds
#12
Zane N Norvill, Alma Toledo-Cervantes, Saul Blanco, Andy Shilton, Benoit Guieysse, Raul Muñoz
The degradation of the antibiotic tetracycline, supplied at 100µgL(-1) in domestic wastewater, was studied in an outdoor, pilot scale, high rate algal pond (HRAP). Effective operation was demonstrated with the biomass concentration and the chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency averaging 1.2±0.1gTSSL(-1) and 80±4%, respectively, across all operational periods. Tetracycline removal exceeded 93% and 99% when the HRAP was operated at hydraulic retention times of 4 and 7days, respectively. Batch tests and pulse testing during HRAP operation repeatedly evidenced the significance of photodegradation as a removal mechanism...
February 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208877/evaluation-of-antibiotic-residues-in-pasteurized-and-raw-milk-distributed-in-the-south-of-khorasan-e-razavi-province-iran
#13
Mortez Mohammadzadeh Moghadam, Mostafa Amiri, Hamed Ramezani Awal Riabi, Hamid Ramezani Awal Riabi
INTRODUCTION: The presence of antibiotic residues in milk and other products livestock is a health problem which can endanger public health. Antibiotics are used widely in animal husbandry to treat diseases related to bacterial infections. Antimicrobial drugs have been in use for decades in industry. They are commonly used in livestock facilities to treat mastitis. AIM: This study aimed to investigate antibiotic residues in pasteurized milk distributed in schools, in milk collection centers, and in milk production factories in Gonabad city...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199275/assessing-the-cost-of-prophylactic-antibiotic-use-after-cleft-lip-and-lip-adhesion-procedures
#14
Kimberly M Daniels, Michael D Lappi, Susan Flath Sporn, Catherine Noonan Caillouette, Ronald Heald, John G Meara
The purpose of this study was to understand the true cost of administering prophylactic antibiotics postoperatively to patients undergoing cleft lip and lip adhesion procedures for which the rate of infection is historically low. Using time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) methodologies, the plastic surgery department of one hospital created a process map with related time intervals and personnel cost rates for administering the antibiotic. The cost for each provider, based on standard salary information, was multiplied by the time required to complete his or her stage of the process, and this outcome was added to the supply costs...
July 2016: Journal of Healthcare Management / American College of Healthcare Executives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188340/development-and-validation-of-a-new-dynamic-in-vitro-model-of-the-piglet-colon-pigutivm-application-to-the-study-of-probiotics
#15
Mickaël Alain Fleury, Olivier Le Goff, Sylvain Denis, Frédérique Chaucheyras-Durand, Eric Jouy, Isabelle Kempf, Monique Alric, Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot
For ethical, technical, regulatory, and cost reasons, in vitro methods are increasingly used as an alternative to in vivo experimentations. The aim of the present study was to validate, according to in vivo data in living animals, a new in vitro model of the piglet colon, the PigutIVM, under both control conditions and antibiotic disturbance by the widely used colistin. The PigutIVM reproduces the main biotic and abiotic parameters of the piglet colon: temperature, pH, retention time, supply of ileal effluents, complex, and metabolically active microbiota and self-maintained anaerobiosis...
March 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128086/vesicular-contact-reaction-may-progress-into-erythema-multiforme
#16
Magdalena Czarnecka-Operacz, Dorota Jenerowicz, Joanna Szulczyńska-Gabor, Ewa Teresiak-Mikołajczak, Joanna Szyfter-Harris, Monika Bowszyc-Dmochowska
Dear Editor, Erythema multiforme is considered an acute skin condition, characterized by a self-limiting and sometimes recurrent course. It is regarded as a type IV hypersensitivity reaction associated with certain infections, medications, and other various triggers. Allergic contact dermatitis is in turn a delayed type of induced allergy as a result of cutaneous contact with a specific allergen to which the patient develops specific sensitivity. This type of cutaneous reaction is associated with inflammation manifesting with erythema, edema, and vesicles...
December 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119403/are-age-appropriate-antibiotic-formulations-missing-from-the-who-list-of-essential-medicines-for-children-a-comparison-study
#17
Verica Ivanovska, Hubert G Leufkens, Carin Ma Rademaker, Elizabeta Zisovska, Mariëlle W Pijnenburg, Liset van Dijk, Aukje K Mantel-Teeuwisse
OBJECTIVE: There is a global call for formulations, which are better suited for children of different age categories and in a variety of settings. One key public health area of interest is age-appropriate paediatric antibiotics. We aimed to identify clinically relevant paediatric formulations of antibiotics listed on pertinent formularies that were not on the WHO Essential Medicines List for Children (EMLc). METHODS: We compared four medicines lists versus the EMLc and contrasted paediatric antibiotic formulations in relation to administration routes, dosage forms and/or drug strengths...
January 24, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103822/emergency-obstetric-and-neonatal-care-availability-use-and-quality-a-cross-sectional-study-in-the-city-of-lubumbashi-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-2011
#18
Abel Mukengeshayi Ntambue, Françoise Kaj Malonga, Karen D Cowgill, Michèle Dramaix-Wilmet, Philippe Donnen
BACKGROUND: While emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) is a proxy indicator for monitoring maternal and perinatal mortalities, in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), data on this care is rarely available. In the city of Lubumbashi, the second largest in DRC with an estimated population of 1.5 million, the availability, use and quality of EmONC are not known. This study aimed to assess these elements in Lubumbashi. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in April and May 2011...
January 19, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098952/solving-the-puzzle-of-one-carbon-loss-in-ripostatin-biosynthesis
#19
Chengzhang Fu, David Auerbach, Yanyan Li, Ullrich Scheid, Eva Luxenburger, Ronald Garcia, Herbert Irschik, Rolf Müller
Ripostatin is a promising antibiotic that inhibits RNA polymerase by binding to a novel binding site. In this study, the characterization of the biosynthetic gene cluster of ripostatin, which is a peculiar polyketide synthase (PKS) hybrid cluster encoding cis- and trans-acyltransferase PKS genes, is reported. Moreover, an unprecedented mechanism for phenyl acetic acid formation and loading as a starter unit was discovered. This phenyl-C2 unit is derived from phenylpyruvate (phenyl-C3) and the mechanism described herein explains the mysterious loss of one carbon atom in ripostatin biosynthesis from the phenyl-C3 precursor...
January 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087782/mutation-supply-and-relative-fitness-shape-the-genotypes-of-ciprofloxacin-resistant-escherichia-coli
#20
Douglas L Huseby, Franziska Pietsch, Gerrit Brandis, Linnéa Garoff, Angelica Tegehall, Diarmaid Hughes
Ciprofloxacin is an important antibacterial drug targeting Type II topoisomerases, highly active against Gram-negatives including Escherichia coli The evolution of resistance to ciprofloxacin in E. coli always requires multiple genetic changes, usually including mutations affecting two different drug target genes, gyrA and parC Resistant mutants selected in vitro or in vivo can have many different mutations in target genes and efflux regulator genes that contribute to resistance. Among resistant clinical isolates the genotype, gyrA S83L D87N, parC S80I is significantly overrepresented suggesting that it has a selective advantage...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
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