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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791883/relationship-between-modification-of-activated-sludge-wastewater-treatment-and-changes-in-antibiotic-resistance-of-bacteria
#1
Ewa Korzeniewska, Monika Harnisz
Biological treatment processes at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which are the most common methods of sewage treatment, could cause selective elimination and/or changes in the proportions of phenotypes/genotypes within bacterial populations in effluent. Therefore, WWTPs based on activated sludge used in sewage treatment constitute an important reservoir of enteric bacteria which harbour potentially transferable resistance genes. Together with treated wastewater, these microorganisms can penetrate the soil, surface water, rural groundwater supplies and drinking water...
May 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785215/mycobacteriosis-and-tuberculosis-laboratory-diagnosis
#2
REVIEW
Davood Azadi, Tahereh Motallebirad, Kazem Ghaffari, Hasan Shojaei
Background: Tuberculosis is one of the most important infectious diseases that has claimed its victims throughout much of known human history. With Koch's discovery of the tubercle bacillus as the etiologic agent of the disease, his sanitary and hygienic measures, which were based on his discovery and the development of a vaccine against tuberculosis by Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin in 1921, an attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain, bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG), and the discovery of the first antibiotic against tuberculosis, streptomycin by Selman Waksman in 1943, soon led to the opinion that appropriate control measures had become available for tuberculosis and it had been assumed that the disease could ultimately be eradicated...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776790/-modern-treatment-of-mesenteric-ischemia
#3
Alexandre Nuzzo, Audrey Huguet, Olivier Corcos
Acute mesenteric ischemia is a highly morbid affliction which requires urgent care. Acute mesenteric ischemia consists in an ischemia injury of the small bowel, secondary to vascular insufficiency, either occlusive (thrombosis, embolism, arterial, venous) or non-occlusive (low flow or vasospasm). Given that the superior mesenteric artery supplies the small bowel as well as the right part of the colon, any ischemic process involving the right colon should be considered an acute mesenteric ischemia until proven otherwise...
May 15, 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774019/long-term-effects-of-residual-chlorine-on-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-simulated-drinking-water-fed-with-low-aoc-medium
#4
Guannan Mao, Yuhao Song, Mark Bartlam, Yingying Wang
Residual chlorine is often required to remain present in public drinking water supplies during distribution to ensure water quality. It is essential to understand how bacteria respond to long-term chlorine exposure, especially with the presence of assimilable organic carbon (AOC). This study aimed to investigate the effects of chlorination on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in low AOC medium by both conventional plating and culture-independent methods including flow cytometry (FCM) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). In a simulated chlorinated system using a bioreactor, membrane damage and DNA damage were measured by FCM fluorescence fingerprint...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762617/anticancer-potential-against-cervix-cancer-hela-cell-line-of-probiotic-lactobacillus-casei-and-lactobacillus-paracasei-strains-isolated-from-human-breast-milk
#5
Muhammad Shahid Riaz Rajoka, Haobin Zhao, Yao Lu, Ziyang Lian, Na Li, Nazim Hussain, Dongyan Shao, Mingliang Jin, Qi Li, Junling Shi
Lactic acid bacteria have been categorized as probiotics and play a crucial role in human health by stimulating the supply of nutrients, shaping the immune system, and preventing the colonization of pathogenic microbes. This study investigated the mechanisms for the action of three potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains: Lactobacillus casei SR1, Lactobacillus casei SR2, and Lactobacillus paracasei SR4 isolated from human breast milk. These Lactobacillus strains were identified via 16S DNA sequencing and characterized via biochemical assays including acid resistance, bile resistance, antioxidant activity, and antibiotic susceptibility...
May 15, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753454/response-of-a-local-hospital-to-a-burn-disaster-contributory-factors-leading-to-zero-mortality-outcomes
#6
Eng-Kean Yeong, Ciaran P O'Boyle, Hui-Fu Huang, Hao-Chih Tai, Yen-Chun Hsu, Shu-Yang Chuang, Yu-Feng Wu, Che-Wei Chang, Tom J Liu, Hong-Shiee Lai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the outcomes of a local healthcare system in managing a burn mass casualty incident (BMCI). METHODS: Thirty-three victims admitted to the National Taiwan University Hospital within 96h of the explosion were included in the study. Data were recorded on: patient demographics, Baux score, laboratory data, management response, treatment strategies, and outcomes. Case notes from June 27, 2015 to November 2015 were reviewed with a focus on fluid resuscitation, ventilation support, nutrition, infection control, sepsis treatment, and wound closure plan...
May 9, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751310/a-continuous-flow-mfc-cw-coupled-with-a-biofilm-electrode-reactor-to-simultaneously-attenuate-sulfamethoxazole-and-its-corresponding-resistance-genes
#7
Hua Li, Hai-Liang Song, Xiao-Li Yang, Shuai Zhang, Yu-Li Yang, Li-Min Zhang, Han Xu, Ya-Wen Wang
A continuous flow microbial fuel cell constructed wetland (MFC-CW) coupled with a biofilm electrode reactor (BER) system was constructed to remove sulfamethoxazole (SMX). The BER unit powered by the stacked MFC-CWs was used as a pretreatment unit, and effluent flowed into the MFC-CW for further degradation. The experimental results indicated that the removal rate of 2 or 4 mg/L SMX in a BER unit was nearly 90%, and the total removal rate in the coupled system was over 99%. As the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was reduced from 16 h to 4 h, the SMX removal rate in the BER decreased from 75% to 48%...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660388/outcomes-of-gracilis-muscle-flaps-in-the-management-of-groin-complications-after-arterial-bypass-with-prosthetic-graft
#8
Anahita Dua, Vy T Ho, Christina Rao, Sapan S Desai
INTRODUCTION: This study details two-year outcomes of a modified gracilis muscle flap (GMF) technique in providing tissue coverage for groin complications after arterial bypass surgery with synthetic graft. METHODS: All patients who developed groin infections after lower extremity arterial bypass with synthetic graft that underwent a GMF were included from June 2014 to March 2017 from a prospectively collected, purpose-built institutional database. Modifications to the standard technique included identification of the muscle using ultrasound to ensure precise skip incisions, preservation of the segmental blood supply, widening of the tunnel through which the muscle is retroflexed, placement of a wound VAC for healing, and lifelong antibiotics...
April 13, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615988/parallel-evolution-of-high-level-aminoglycoside-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-under-low-and-high-mutation-supply-rates
#9
Claudia Ibacache-Quiroga, Juan C Oliveros, Alejandro Couce, Jesus Blázquez
Antibiotic resistance is a major concern in public health worldwide, thus there is much interest in characterizing the mutational pathways through which susceptible bacteria evolve resistance. Here we use experimental evolution to explore the mutational pathways toward aminoglycoside resistance, using gentamicin as a model, under low and high mutation supply rates. Our results show that both normo and hypermutable strains of Escherichia coli are able to develop resistance to drug dosages > 1,000-fold higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration for their ancestors...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574602/enhanced-lincomycin-production-by-co-overexpression-of-metk1-and-metk2-in-streptomyces-lincolnensis
#10
Yurong Xu, Guoqing Tan, Meilan Ke, Jie Li, Yaqian Tang, Sitong Meng, Jingjing Niu, Yansheng Wang, Ruihua Liu, Hang Wu, Linquan Bai, Lixin Zhang, Buchang Zhang
Streptomyces lincolnensis is generally utilized for the production of lincomycin A (Lin-A), a clinically useful antibiotic to treat Gram-positive bacterial infections. Three methylation steps, catalyzed by three different S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases, are required in the biosynthesis of Lin-A, and thus highlight the significance of methyl group supply in lincomycin production. In this study, we demonstrate that externally supplemented SAM cannot be taken in by cells and therefore does not enhance Lin-A production...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566775/food-crises-and-food-safety-incidents-in-european-union-united-states-and-maghreb-area-current-risk-communication-strategies-and-new-approaches
#11
Nadia Chammem, Manel Issaoui, Ana Isabel Dâmaso De Almeida, Amélia Martins Delgado
Globalization has created a dynamic market, which has dramatically intensified interchanges of goods and information as well as the flow of people among nations. This international phenomenon offers the consumer a choice between a wide variety of foods from diverse locations. However, there are challenges to improving food security and safety on a global scale; the major question is how food safety can be guaranteed while increasing the complexity of food supply chains. A food produced in a certain location usually contains ingredients, additives, and preservatives from different and distant origins...
March 22, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563819/a-case-of-brucella-melitensis-endocarditis-in-a-patient-with-cardiovascular-implantable-electronic-device
#12
Wasl Al-Adsani, Ali Ahmad, Mohammad Al-Mousa
Background: Brucellosis is a bacterial infection, caused by the nonmotile gram-negative aerobic coccobacilli. The clinical manifestation of brucellosis is variable, ranging from mild disease to severe disease. The gold standard test to confirm the diagnosis of brucellosis is assaying blood, bone marrow, or other body fluids or by tissue culture. Preferred first-line treatment in adults with uncomplicated, nonlocalized disease consists of doxycycline-aminoglycoside combination. The recommended duration of treatment is 6 weeks...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536001/prevalence-of-vibrio-cholerae-in-coastal-alternative-supplies-of-drinking-water-and-association-with-bacillus-like-spore-formers
#13
Md Asaduzzaman Shishir, Md Al Mamun, Md Mahmuduzzaman Mian, Umme Tamanna Ferdous, Noor Jahan Akter, Rajia Sultana Suravi, Suvamoy Datta, Md Ehsanul Kabir
The scarcity of hygienic drinking water is a normal phenomenon in the coastal areas of Bangladesh due to the high salinity of ground water. The inhabitants of this locality, therefore, live on alternative supplies of water including rain-fed pond water, and rainwater with persistent complex microbial interactions therein, often contaminated with life-threatening pathogens. Hence, this study was aimed at analyzing the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae ( Vc ) in the alternative drinking waters of Mathbaria, a coastal subdistrict neighboring the Bay of Bengal, the efficacy of pond sand filter (PSF) and the co-association among Bacillus -like spore formers (Sf) and Vc ...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533158/distribution-of-pops-pesticides-and-antibiotic-residues-in-organic-honeys-from-different-production-areas
#14
Luca Maria Chiesa, Sara Panseri, Maria Nobile, Federica Ceriani, Francesco Arioli
Demand for honey is increasing, especially if it is organic and if its nutritional properties are linked to untreated environments in order to guarantee quality for health. Sources of contamination of honey can be divided into environmental and apicultural Therefore, the distribution of POPs (persistent organic pollutants), pesticides and antibiotic residues from geographical areas with different contamination sources (high anthropic impact, intensive farming, husbandry and low anthropic impact) was investigated in order to confirm the potential transfer of xenobiotics into the supply chain and to give beekeepers tools for the selection of areas dedicated to organic production...
March 13, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526649/2015-evidence-analysis-library-systematic-review-on-advanced-technology-in-food-production
#15
Marianne Smith Edge, Mary Elizabeth Kunkel, Jennifer Schmidt, Constantina Papoutsakis
In the late 20th century, plant breeders began using molecular biology techniques such as recombinant DNA, also known as genetic engineering, along with traditional cross-breeding. Ten plant and one animal food have been approved for commercialization in the United States. Today, foods and ingredients from genetically engineered (GE) crops are present throughout the food supply, which has led to varying levels of acceptance. Much discussion exists among consumers and health professionals about the believability of statements made regarding benefits or risks of GE foods...
March 8, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518537/high-level-expression-and-purification-of-recombinant-human-serum-albumin-in-pichia-pastoris
#16
Wen Zhu, Guihua Gong, Jie Pan, Shu Han, Wei Zhang, Youjia Hu, Liping Xie
Human serum albumin (HSA) has been extensively used in a series of clinical care settings for nearly seven decades. However, the broad application of this protein is seriously limited by its short supply. In this work, the codon sequence of HSA was cloned under the control of the alcohol oxidase 1 promoter (AOX1) and expressed as a secretory protein in Pichia pastoris. A recombinant strain displaying the highest HSA yield was selected by screening for resistance to the highest concentration of antibiotic G418...
July 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510309/enantioselective-degradation-of-ofloxacin-and-levofloxacin-by-the-bacterial-strains-labrys-portucalensis-f11-and-rhodococcus-sp-fp1
#17
Alexandra S Maia, Maria Elizabeth Tiritan, Paula M L Castro
Fluoroquinolones are a class of antibiotics widely prescribed in both human and veterinary medicine of high environmental concern and characterized as environmental micropollutants due to their ecotoxicity and persistence and antibacterial resistance potential. Ofloxacin and levofloxacin are chiral fluoroquinolones commercialized as racemate and in enantiomerically pure form, respectively. Since the pharmacological properties and toxicity of the enantiomers may be very different, understanding the stereochemistry of these compounds should be a priority in environmental monitoring...
July 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493491/disruption-of-the-gdp-mannose-synthesis-pathway-in-streptomyces-coelicolor-results-in-antibiotic-hyper-susceptible-phenotypes
#18
Robert Howlett, Katri Anttonen, Nicholas Read, Margaret C M Smith
Actinomycete bacteria use polyprenol phosphate mannose as a lipid linked sugar donor for extra-cytoplasmic glycosyl transferases that transfer mannose to cell envelope polymers, including glycoproteins and glycolipids. We showed recently that strains of Streptomyces coelicolor with mutations in the gene ppm1 encoding polyprenol phosphate mannose synthase were both resistant to phage φC31 and have greatly increased susceptibility to antibiotics that mostly act on cell wall biogenesis. Here we show that mutations in the genes encoding enzymes that act upstream of Ppm1 in the polyprenol phosphate mannose synthesis pathway can also confer phage resistance and antibiotic hyper-susceptibility...
April 2018: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481558/coverage-social-mobilization-and-challenges-of-mass-zithromax-administration-campaign-in-south-and-south-east-zones-of-tigray-northern-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Afework Mulugeta, Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs, Selamawit Asfaw, Dejen Yemane, Mengistu Mitiku, Beyene Meresa, Goitom Gigar, Amanuel Kidane
BACKGROUND: The antibiotic treatment of people with trachoma helps to prevent transmission the disease in a community. Currently, Zithromax is the drug recommended for mass drug administration (MDA). MDA should be carried out annually for three to five years in trachoma endemic areas. Coverage survey is essential to track progress towards program goals and to identify communities with poor coverage in order to permit timely and appropriate actions. We assessed mass Zithromax administration coverage, social mobilization and campaign challenges in south and southeast zones of Tigray, Ethiopia...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475860/microbiota-mediated-modulation-of-organophosphate-insecticide-toxicity-by-species-dependent-interactions-with-lactobacilli-in-a-drosophila-melanogaster-insect-model
#20
Brendan A Daisley, Mark Trinder, Tim W McDowell, Stephanie L Collins, Mark W Sumarah, Gregor Reid
Despite the benefits to the global food supply and agricultural economies, pesticides are believed to pose a threat to the health of both humans and wildlife. Chlorpyrifos (CP), a commonly used organophosphate insecticide, has poor target specificity and causes acute neurotoxicity in a wide range of species via the suppression of acetylcholinesterase. This effect is exacerbated 10- to 100-fold by chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO), a principal metabolite of CP. Since many animal-associated symbiont microorganisms are known to hydrolyze CP into CPO, we used a Drosophila melanogaster insect model to investigate the hypothesis that indigenous and probiotic bacteria could affect CP metabolism and toxicity...
May 1, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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