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Antibiotics supply

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870044/foliar-bacteria-and-soil-fertility-mediate-seedling-performance-a-new-and-cryptic-dimension-of-niche-differentiation
#1
Eric A Griffin, M Brian Traw, Peter J Morin, Jonathan N Pruitt, S Joseph Wright, Walter P Carson
The phyllosphere (comprising the leaf surface and interior) is one of the world's largest microbial habitats and is host to an abundant and diverse array of bacteria. Nonetheless, the degree to which bacterial communities are benign, harmful, or beneficial to plants in situ is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the net effect of reducing bacterial abundance and diversity would vary substantially among host species (from harmful to beneficial) and this would be strongly mediated by soil resource availability...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848173/assessing-pharmacists-readiness-to-prescribe-oral-antibiotics-for-limited-infections-using-a-case-vignette-technique
#2
Elizabeth Ung, Petra Czarniak, Bruce Sunderland, Richard Parsons, Kreshnik Hoti
Background Pharmacist's skills are underutilized whilst they are directly involved with antibiotic supply to the community. Addressing this issue could lead to better use of antibiotics and hence decreased resistance. Objective Explore how pharmacists can prescribe oral antibiotics to treat a limited range of infections whilst focusing on their confidence and appropriateness of prescribing. Setting Community pharmacies, Western Australia. Method Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire also containing case vignettes...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836999/quality-of-child-healthcare-at-primary-healthcare-facilities-a-national-assessment-of-the-integrated-management-of-childhood-illnesses-in-afghanistan
#3
Ghulam Farooq Mansoor, Paata Chikvaidze, Sherin Varkey, Ariel Higgins-Steele, Najibullah Safi, Adela Mubasher, Khaksar Yusufi, Sayed Alisha Alawi
OBJECTIVE: To assess quality of the national Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) program services provided for sick children at primary health facilities in Afghanistan. DESIGN: Mixed methods including cross-sectional study. SETTING: Thirteen (of thirty-four) provinces in Afghanistan. PARTICIPANTS: Observation of case management and re-examination of 177 sick children, exit interviews with caretakers and review of equipment/supplies at 44 health facilities...
November 10, 2016: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832404/pharmacist-only-trimethoprim-pharmacist-satisfaction-on-their-training-and-the-impact-on-their-practice
#4
Rhiannon Braund, Emily Henderson, Erica McNab, Rachel Sarten, Emily Wallace, Natalie Gauld
Background In 2012, in a first for the developed world, New Zealand reclassified trimethoprim to allow specially trained pharmacists to supply the medicine without a prescription to women with cystitis fitting specific criteria. Objective This study explored pharmacists' views of the training and screening tool, impact on practice, and the pharmacists' perceptions of views of patients and doctors. Methods Structured interviews were conducted with 28 New Zealand pharmacists trained to supply trimethoprim. These pharmacists were selected to represent geographical spread as well as urban, suburban and rural...
November 10, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826018/analysis-of-pcerc7-a-small-antibiotic-resistance-plasmid-from-a-commensal-st131-escherichia-coli-defines-a-diverse-group-of-plasmids-that-include-various-segments-adjacent-to-a-multimer-resolution-site-and-encode-the-same-nika-relaxase-accessory-protein-enabling
#5
Robert A Moran, Ruth M Hall
The ampicillin resistance plasmid pCERC7, carrying transposon Tn2 with an IS4 insertion, was detected in the draft genome of a commensal Escherichia coli isolate. The genome data also revealed that this isolate belongs to ST131, clade B. pCERC7 is 9712bp comprised of a 3319bp backbone, Tn2::IS4 (6388bp) and 5bp of target site duplication, and was present at a copy number of 40. pCERC7 is related to several plasmids composed of only the backbone, or the backbone with the Tn2 insertion in the same position. These plasmids have been found previously in Escherichia coli or Salmonella enterica recovered in several different countries from as early as the 1970s...
November 4, 2016: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817759/status-of-the-prevention-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-international-settings-a-survey-of-the-society-for-healthcare-epidemiology-of-america-research-network
#6
Nasia Safdar, Sharmila Sengupta, Jackson S Musuuza, Manisha Juthani-Mehta, Marci Drees, Lilian M Abbo, Aaron M Milstone, Jon P Furuno, Meera Varman, Deverick J Anderson, Daniel J Morgan, Loren G Miller, Graham M Snyder
OBJECTIVE To examine self-reported practices and policies to reduce infection and transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) in healthcare settings outside the United States. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. PARTICIPANTS International members of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Research Network. METHODS Electronic survey of infection control and prevention practices, capabilities, and barriers outside the United States and Canada. Participants were stratified according to their country's economic development status as defined by the World Bank as low-income, lower-middle-income, upper-middle-income, and high-income...
November 7, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809768/comparison-of-antibiotic-resistant-escherichia-coli-obtained-from-drinking-water-sources-in-northern-tanzania-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Beatus Lyimo, Joram Buza, Murugan Subbiah, Woutrina Smith, Douglas R Call
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing and significant threat to public health on a global scale. Escherichia coli comprises Gram-negative, fecal-borne pathogenic and commensal bacteria that are frequently associated with antibiotic resistance. AMR E. coli can be ingested via food, water and direct contact with fecal contamination. METHODS: We estimated the prevalence of AMR Escherichia coli from select drinking water sources in northern Tanzania...
November 3, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789268/prevalence-of-surgical-site-infections-following-orthognathic-surgery-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-on-a-3-day-versus-1-day-postoperative-antibiotic-regimen
#8
Clayton M Davis, Curtis E Gregoire, Ian Davis, Thomas W Steeves
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a 3- versus 1-day antibiotic regimen on the rate of surgical site infection (SSI) in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery at a department of oral and maxillofacial surgery in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, randomized controlled trial was conducted. All patients received 1 day of intravenous antibiotics after surgery. Then, patients were randomly distributed into groups that received 2 days of additional antibiotics (group A) or placebo (group B)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744271/surprising-absence-of-heparin-in-the-intestinal-mucosa-of-baby-pigs
#9
Yanlei Yu, Yin Chen, Paiyz Mikael, Fuming Zhang, Apryll M Stalcup, Rebecca German, Francois Gould, Jocelyn Ohlemacher, Hong Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
Heparin, a member of a family of molecules called glycosaminoglycans, is biosynthesized in mucosal mast cells. This important anticoagulant polysaccharide is primarily produced by extraction of the mast cell-rich intestinal mucosa of hogs. There is concern about our continued ability to supply sufficient heparin to support the worldwide growth of advanced medical procedures from the static population of adult hogs used as food animals. While the intestinal mucosa of adult pigs is rich in anticoagulant heparin (containing a few hundred milligrams per animal), little is known about how the content of heparin changes with animal age...
October 15, 2016: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730214/sulfur-deficiency-induced-repressor-proteins-optimize-glucosinolate-biosynthesis-in-plants
#10
Fayezeh Aarabi, Miyuki Kusajima, Takayuki Tohge, Tomokazu Konishi, Tamara Gigolashvili, Makiko Takamune, Yoko Sasazaki, Mutsumi Watanabe, Hideo Nakashita, Alisdair R Fernie, Kazuki Saito, Hideki Takahashi, Hans-Michael Hubberten, Rainer Hoefgen, Akiko Maruyama-Nakashita
Glucosinolates (GSLs) in the plant order of the Brassicales are sulfur-rich secondary metabolites that harbor antipathogenic and antiherbivory plant-protective functions and have medicinal properties, such as carcinopreventive and antibiotic activities. Plants repress GSL biosynthesis upon sulfur deficiency (-S); hence, field performance and medicinal quality are impaired by inadequate sulfate supply. The molecular mechanism that links -S to GSL biosynthesis has remained understudied. We report here the identification of the -S marker genes sulfur deficiency induced 1 (SDI1) and SDI2 acting as major repressors controlling GSL biosynthesis in Arabidopsis under -S condition...
October 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714667/challenges-in-the-management-of-patients-with-maple-syrup-urine-disease-diagnosed-by-newborn-screening-in-a-developing-country
#11
Leniza G De Castro-Hamoy, Mary Anne D Chiong, Sylvia C Estrada, Cynthia P Cordero
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare inborn error of metabolism resulting from a deficiency in the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. MSUD has been reported to be the most common inborn error of metabolism in the Philippines. We described all patients with maple syrup urine disease patients diagnosed through newborn screening during its first 2 years of implementation and the challenges encountered during their medical management. There were 24 patients diagnosed with maple syrup urine disease for the 2-year period...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Community Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622980/-when-to-worry-about-before-a-vascular-chronic-leg-ulcer
#12
I Lazareth
Leg ulcers are a chronic condition. Healing can be long for venous ulcers and the risk of complications is significant. Infection is the most severe complication and can occur in the form of easily diagnosed acute bacterial dermohypodermitis that generally responds well to antibiotic treatment if given at an appropriate dose or in the form of localized infection that is more difficult to diagnosis. Indeed, no consensus has been reached in the literature on the clinical criteria to retain for the diagnosis of localized infection...
September 2016: Journal des Maladies Vasculaires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605684/compatibility-of-meropenem-with-different-commercial-peritoneal-dialysis-solutions
#13
Martin Wiesholzer, Alexandra Winter, Manuel Kussmann, Markus Zeitlinger, Petra Pichler, Heinz Burgmann, Gottfried Reznicek, Wolfgang Poeppl
♦ Background: Intraperitoneal administration of antimicrobial agents is recommended for the treatment of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. For home-based antimicrobial therapy it is common to supply patients with PD fluid bags with admixed antibiotic. Thus, the compatibility of meropenem with different PD fluids (PDFs), namely Extraneal, Physioneal 1.36% and Physioneal 2.27% (all Baxter Healthcare Corp., Deerfield, IL, USA), was investigated under varying storage conditions. ♦ Methods: Meropenem (Venus Pharma, Werne, Germany) was stored at 6°C and 25°C over 14 days and at 37°C over 24 hours...
September 7, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597916/a-case-of-skull-base-osteomyelitis-with-multiple-cerebral-infarction
#14
Haruka Miyabe, Atsuhiko Uno, Takahiro Nakajima, Natsue Morizane, Keisuke Enomoto, Masayuki Hirose, Toshinori Hazama, Yukinori Takenaka
Skull base osteomyelitis is classically documented as an extension of malignant otitis externa. Initial presentation commonly includes aural symptoms and cranial nerve dysfunctions. Here we present a case that emerged with multiple infarctions in the right cerebrum. A male in his 70s with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure presented with left hemiparesis. Imaging studies showed that blood flow in the carotid artery remained at the day of onset but was totally occluded 7 days later. However, collateral blood supply prevented severe infarction...
2016: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590202/successful-implementation-of-thirty-five-major-orthopaedic-procedures-under-poor-conditions-after-the-two-thousand-and-fifteen-nepal-earthquake
#15
Wei Zheng, Yonghe Hu, Hai Xin
BACKGROUND: After receiving the 25 April 2015 Nepal earthquake relief mission, a fully self-sufficient Rescue Center of Trauma set up quickly in downtown Kathmandu by Chengdu Military Medical Team of PLA P. R. China. METHODS: The medical team consisted of 68 members and 40 tons of supplies, which was equivalent to a small hospital. The medical area and living area were constructed with tents. Operating areas were converted from eight simple bungalows. The main purpose of the Rescue Center of Trauma was to save those earthquake survivors who needed surgery...
September 2, 2016: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585826/health-workers-perspectives-knowledge-and-skills-regarding-community-case-management-of-childhood-diarrhoea-and-pneumonia-a-qualitative-inquiry-for-an-implementation-research-project-nigraan-in-district-badin-sindh-pakistan
#16
Fauziah Rabbani, Shagufta Perveen, Wafa Aftab, Aysha Zahidie, Kashif Sangrasi, Shamim Ahmad Qazi
BACKGROUND: Pakistan's Lady Health Worker Programme aims to provide care to children sick with pneumonia and diarrhoea, which continues to cause 27 % under-five mortality in Pakistan. The quality of supervision received by Lady Health Workers (LHWs) in the programme influence their knowledge and skills, in turn impacting their ability to provide care. METHODS: This study is part of an implementation research project titled "Nigraan" (an Urdu word meaning supervisor), and explores LHW and Lady Health Supervisor (LHS) perspectives regarding the role of supervision in improving LHWs performance and motivation in district Badin, Sindh, Pakistan...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583661/-risk-factors-for-the-oral-use-of-antibiotics-and-treatment-incidence-of-weaners-in-switzerland
#17
P Hirsiger, J Malik, D Kümmerlen, B Vidondo, C Arnold, M Harisberger, P Spring, X Sidler
In the present study, risk factors for the use of oral antibiotics in weaned piglets were collected on 112 pig farms by a personal questionaire. The most common indication for an antibiotic group therapy was diarrhoea, and the most frequently used antibiotic was Colistin. On average, 27.33 daily doses in the control farms and 387.21 daily doses in the problem farms per 1000 weaners were administered on a given day. The significant risk factors in the multivariate model were poor hygiene in the water supply of suckling piglets, less than two doses of prestarter feed daily, lack of an all-in-and-all-out production system in weaners, no herd book performance data analysis, and less than two of the legally prescribed veterinary visits per year...
December 2015: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564437/posterior-thigh-flap-pedicled-on-the-cutaneous-vessels-arising-from-the-popliteo-posterior-intermediate-artery-a-report-of-5-cases
#18
Xi-Guang Sun, Xu Gong, Liang-Song Song, Jian-Li Cui, Xin Yu, Bin Liu, Lai-Jin Lu
Surgical repair of soft tissue defects of the knee and leg remains challenging. Using a case study approach, the anatomy of the popliteo-posterior intermediate cutaneous artery was examined, and a reverse island flap method was developed and implemented. After obtaining informed consent, 5 patients (1 woman, 4 men, age range 31 to 57 years) underwent the experimental use of a reverse island flap with a posterior thigh flap pedicled on the cutaneous vessels arising from the popliteo-posterior intermediate artery to repair soft-tissue defects of the knee and leg...
August 2016: Ostomy/wound Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544661/uncertainty-in-antibiotic-dosing-in-critically-ill-neonate-and-pediatric-patients-can-microsampling-provide-the-answers
#19
REVIEW
Tavey Dorofaeff, Rossella M Bandini, Jeffrey Lipman, Daynia E Ballot, Jason A Roberts, Suzanne L Parker
PURPOSE: With a decreasing supply of antibiotics that are effective against the pathogens that cause sepsis, it is critical that we learn to use currently available antibiotics optimally. Pharmacokinetic studies provide an evidence base from which we can optimize antibiotic dosing. However, these studies are challenging in critically ill neonate and pediatric patients due to the small blood volumes and associated risks and burden to the patient from taking blood. We investigate whether microsampling, that is, obtaining a biologic sample of low volume (<50 μL), can improve opportunities to conduct pharmacokinetic studies...
September 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540255/service-evaluation-of-a-cystic-fibrosis-home-intravenous-antibiotic-service-provided-by-a-nhs-foundation-trust
#20
Lynn Elsey
AIM: To evaluate carers' satisfaction with the current service for home reconstitution and administration of intravenous (IV) antibiotics to cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and identify ways of improving this service to reduce treatment burden. METHODS: A formative evaluation was conducted of all 17 carers who reconstituted and administered the IV antibiotics at home. This was carried out using a cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire of open and closed questions was sent first class with a pre-paid return envelope to the carers...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
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