Read by QxMD icon Read

Antibiotics supply

Yanlei Yu, Yin Chen, Paiyz Mikael, Fuming Zhang, Apryll M Stalcup, Rebecca German, Francois Gould, Jocelyn Ohlemacher, Hong Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
Heparin, a member of a family of molecules called glycosaminoglycans, is biosynthesized in mucosal mast cells. This important anticoagulant polysaccharide is primarily produced by extraction of the mast cell-rich intestinal mucosa of hogs. There is concern about our continued ability to supply sufficient heparin to support the worldwide growth of advanced medical procedures from the static population of adult hogs used as food animals. While the intestinal mucosa of adult pigs is rich in anticoagulant heparin (containing a few hundred milligrams per animal), little is known about how the content of heparin changes with animal age...
October 15, 2016: Glycobiology
Fayezeh Aarabi, Miyuki Kusajima, Takayuki Tohge, Tomokazu Konishi, Tamara Gigolashvili, Makiko Takamune, Yoko Sasazaki, Mutsumi Watanabe, Hideo Nakashita, Alisdair R Fernie, Kazuki Saito, Hideki Takahashi, Hans-Michael Hubberten, Rainer Hoefgen, Akiko Maruyama-Nakashita
Glucosinolates (GSLs) in the plant order of the Brassicales are sulfur-rich secondary metabolites that harbor antipathogenic and antiherbivory plant-protective functions and have medicinal properties, such as carcinopreventive and antibiotic activities. Plants repress GSL biosynthesis upon sulfur deficiency (-S); hence, field performance and medicinal quality are impaired by inadequate sulfate supply. The molecular mechanism that links -S to GSL biosynthesis has remained understudied. We report here the identification of the -S marker genes sulfur deficiency induced 1 (SDI1) and SDI2 acting as major repressors controlling GSL biosynthesis in Arabidopsis under -S condition...
October 2016: Science Advances
Leniza G De Castro-Hamoy, Mary Anne D Chiong, Sylvia C Estrada, Cynthia P Cordero
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare inborn error of metabolism resulting from a deficiency in the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. MSUD has been reported to be the most common inborn error of metabolism in the Philippines. We described all patients with maple syrup urine disease patients diagnosed through newborn screening during its first 2 years of implementation and the challenges encountered during their medical management. There were 24 patients diagnosed with maple syrup urine disease for the 2-year period...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Community Genetics
I Lazareth
Leg ulcers are a chronic condition. Healing can be long for venous ulcers and the risk of complications is significant. Infection is the most severe complication and can occur in the form of easily diagnosed acute bacterial dermohypodermitis that generally responds well to antibiotic treatment if given at an appropriate dose or in the form of localized infection that is more difficult to diagnosis. Indeed, no consensus has been reached in the literature on the clinical criteria to retain for the diagnosis of localized infection...
September 2016: Journal des Maladies Vasculaires
Martin Wiesholzer, Alexandra Winter, Manuel Kussmann, Markus Zeitlinger, Petra Pichler, Heinz Burgmann, Gottfried Reznicek, Wolfgang Poeppl
♦ Background: Intraperitoneal administration of antimicrobial agents is recommended for the treatment of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. For home-based antimicrobial therapy it is common to supply patients with PD fluid bags with admixed antibiotic. Thus, the compatibility of meropenem with different PD fluids (PDFs), namely Extraneal, Physioneal 1.36% and Physioneal 2.27% (all Baxter Healthcare Corp., Deerfield, IL, USA), was investigated under varying storage conditions. ♦ Methods: Meropenem (Venus Pharma, Werne, Germany) was stored at 6°C and 25°C over 14 days and at 37°C over 24 hours...
September 7, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Haruka Miyabe, Atsuhiko Uno, Takahiro Nakajima, Natsue Morizane, Keisuke Enomoto, Masayuki Hirose, Toshinori Hazama, Yukinori Takenaka
Skull base osteomyelitis is classically documented as an extension of malignant otitis externa. Initial presentation commonly includes aural symptoms and cranial nerve dysfunctions. Here we present a case that emerged with multiple infarctions in the right cerebrum. A male in his 70s with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure presented with left hemiparesis. Imaging studies showed that blood flow in the carotid artery remained at the day of onset but was totally occluded 7 days later. However, collateral blood supply prevented severe infarction...
2016: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
Wei Zheng, Yonghe Hu, Hai Xin
BACKGROUND: After receiving the 25 April 2015 Nepal earthquake relief mission, a fully self-sufficient Rescue Center of Trauma set up quickly in downtown Kathmandu by Chengdu Military Medical Team of PLA P. R. China. METHODS: The medical team consisted of 68 members and 40 tons of supplies, which was equivalent to a small hospital. The medical area and living area were constructed with tents. Operating areas were converted from eight simple bungalows. The main purpose of the Rescue Center of Trauma was to save those earthquake survivors who needed surgery...
September 2, 2016: International Orthopaedics
Fauziah Rabbani, Shagufta Perveen, Wafa Aftab, Aysha Zahidie, Kashif Sangrasi, Shamim Ahmad Qazi
BACKGROUND: Pakistan's Lady Health Worker Programme aims to provide care to children sick with pneumonia and diarrhoea, which continues to cause 27 % under-five mortality in Pakistan. The quality of supervision received by Lady Health Workers (LHWs) in the programme influence their knowledge and skills, in turn impacting their ability to provide care. METHODS: This study is part of an implementation research project titled "Nigraan" (an Urdu word meaning supervisor), and explores LHW and Lady Health Supervisor (LHS) perspectives regarding the role of supervision in improving LHWs performance and motivation in district Badin, Sindh, Pakistan...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
P Hirsiger, J Malik, D Kümmerlen, B Vidondo, C Arnold, M Harisberger, P Spring, X Sidler
In the present study, risk factors for the use of oral antibiotics in weaned piglets were collected on 112 pig farms by a personal questionaire. The most common indication for an antibiotic group therapy was diarrhoea, and the most frequently used antibiotic was Colistin. On average, 27.33 daily doses in the control farms and 387.21 daily doses in the problem farms per 1000 weaners were administered on a given day. The significant risk factors in the multivariate model were poor hygiene in the water supply of suckling piglets, less than two doses of prestarter feed daily, lack of an all-in-and-all-out production system in weaners, no herd book performance data analysis, and less than two of the legally prescribed veterinary visits per year...
December 2015: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Xi-Guang Sun, Xu Gong, Liang-Song Song, Jian-Li Cui, Xin Yu, Bin Liu, Lai-Jin Lu
Surgical repair of soft tissue defects of the knee and leg remains challenging. Using a case study approach, the anatomy of the popliteo-posterior intermediate cutaneous artery was examined, and a reverse island flap method was developed and implemented. After obtaining informed consent, 5 patients (1 woman, 4 men, age range 31 to 57 years) underwent the experimental use of a reverse island flap with a posterior thigh flap pedicled on the cutaneous vessels arising from the popliteo-posterior intermediate artery to repair soft-tissue defects of the knee and leg...
August 2016: Ostomy/wound Management
Tavey Dorofaeff, Rossella M Bandini, Jeffrey Lipman, Daynia E Ballot, Jason A Roberts, Suzanne L Parker
PURPOSE: With a decreasing supply of antibiotics that are effective against the pathogens that cause sepsis, it is critical that we learn to use currently available antibiotics optimally. Pharmacokinetic studies provide an evidence base from which we can optimize antibiotic dosing. However, these studies are challenging in critically ill neonate and pediatric patients due to the small blood volumes and associated risks and burden to the patient from taking blood. We investigate whether microsampling, that is, obtaining a biologic sample of low volume (<50 μL), can improve opportunities to conduct pharmacokinetic studies...
September 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Lynn Elsey
AIM: To evaluate carers' satisfaction with the current service for home reconstitution and administration of intravenous (IV) antibiotics to cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and identify ways of improving this service to reduce treatment burden. METHODS: A formative evaluation was conducted of all 17 carers who reconstituted and administered the IV antibiotics at home. This was carried out using a cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire of open and closed questions was sent first class with a pre-paid return envelope to the carers...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Hirminder Ubhi, Mitul Patel, Lisa Ludwig
AIM: Aims of the study included evaluation of outpatient antibiotic prescribing practices relating to good Antimicrobial Stewardship1 focusing on documentation of indication and duration. METHOD: Prescriptions dispensed at the Outpatient Pharmacy over a 6 week were evaluated. Data collected include patient's hospital identification in full, the antibiotic prescribed, duration of treatment, indication (in a specifically allocated area on the prescription) and route of administration, prescriber speciality and grade...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Joanne Wong, Adam Sutherland
AIM: Ketamine is used for post-operative analgesia. There has been recent disruption in it's supply. It is usually prescribed by patient's weight (3 mg/kg in 50 ml 0.9% saline) at a rate of 1-5 ml/hr (1-5 microgram/kg/minute). To conserve ketamine supplies our policy was changed to a concentrated "standardised" concentration of ketamine (250 mg in 50 ml 0.9% sodium chloride) that could be run for a maximum of 72 hrs. There is evidence demonstrating no relationship between duration of infusion and microbiological contamination for 72 hrs...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Katrine Fjaellegaard, Melda Dönmez Sin, Andrea Browatzki, Charlotte Suppli Ulrik
To provide an update on efficacy and safety of antibiotic treatments for stable non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis (BE). Systematic review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was done. Twenty-six studies (1.898 patients) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Studies of inhaled tobramycin have revealed conflicting results regarding quality of life (QoL), exacerbations and admissions, but may result in sputum cultures negative for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, whereas studies investigating the effect of inhaled gentamycin have shown positive effects on sputum bacterial density, decrease in sputum cultures positive for P...
August 9, 2016: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Andreas Porse, Kristian Schønning, Christian Munck, Morten O A Sommer
Large conjugative plasmids are important drivers of bacterial evolution and contribute significantly to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Although plasmid borne multidrug resistance is recognized as one of the main challenges in modern medicine, the adaptive forces shaping the evolution of these plasmids within pathogenic hosts are poorly understood. Here we study plasmid-host adaptations following transfer of a 73 kb conjugative multidrug resistance plasmid to naïve clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli...
November 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
A Joe Shaw, Felix H Lam, Maureen Hamilton, Andrew Consiglio, Kyle MacEwen, Elena E Brevnova, Emily Greenhagen, W Greg LaTouf, Colin R South, Hans van Dijken, Gregory Stephanopoulos
Microbial contamination is an obstacle to widespread production of advanced biofuels and chemicals. Current practices such as process sterilization or antibiotic dosage carry excess costs or encourage the development of antibiotic resistance. We engineered Escherichia coli to assimilate melamine, a xenobiotic compound containing nitrogen. After adaptive laboratory evolution to improve pathway efficiency, the engineered strain rapidly outcompeted a control strain when melamine was supplied as the nitrogen source...
August 5, 2016: Science
Kate McMillan, Sean C Moore, Catherine M McAuley, Narelle Fegan, Edward M Fox
BACKGROUND: Highly pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus can cause disease in both humans and animals. In animal species, including ruminants, S. aureus may cause severe or sub-clinical mastitis. Dairy animals with mastitis frequently shed S. aureus into the milk supply which can lead to food poisoning in humans. The aim of this study was to use genotypic and immunological methods to characterize S. aureus isolates from milk-related samples collected from 7 dairy farms across Victoria...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Elisabet Marti, Belinda Huerta, Sara Rodríguez-Mozaz, Damià Barceló, Jose Luis Balcázar, Rafael Marcé
We used a short-term microcosm approach to investigate the influence of two different subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin (0.01 and 0.1 μg/ml) on both the abundance of a plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant (qnrS) and the structure and composition of bacterial communities from impaired and pristine water supply reservoirs. The results showed that the abundance of the qnrS gene increases in water samples exposed to both subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, especially in water samples from La Llosa del Cavall, which represents the pristine system...
October 2016: Chemosphere
Ross A Pearson, Cameron Evans, Justin G Bendall
Nitrofurazone is an antibiotic with carcinogenic properties. Efforts by regulatory authorities to control nitrofurazone from agricultural foods are an important public health measure that have, to some extent, been undermined by widespread use amongst laboratories of the unreliable marker metabolite semicarbazide. This work confirms what has long been suspected, namely that powdered dairy products that are initially free of semicarbazide develop semicarbazide under storage conditions such as occur normally across commercial supply chains...
August 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"