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Antibiotics supply

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319496/geographic-variations-in-antibiotic-prescription-for-pediatric-acute-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-south-korea
#1
Youn Jung, Hyemin Cho, Eunhee Ji, Eun-Ji Park, Sunmee Jang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the geographic differences in antibiotic prescription rates in pediatric upper respiratory tract infections (URI) patients in South Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a nationwide cross-sectional study using 228 administrative districts of Korea, which are the unit of analysis. Prescription rate of antibiotics, the outcome variable, was measured as the proportion of antibiotic prescription days out of total visit days for the treatment of acute URIs using National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) claims data for 2012...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302137/rethinking-pyogenic-flexor-tenosynovitis-biofilm-formation-treated-in-a-cadaveric-model
#2
Constantinos Ketonis, Noreen J Hickock, Asif M Ilyas
Introduction  Pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis (PFT) of the hand remains a challenging problem that often requires surgical irrigation and parenteral or oral antibiotics. The authors hypothesize that the pathophysiology and microenvironment of PFT can be likened to that of periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs), in which bacteria thrive in a closed synovial space with limited blood supply. As such, they postulate that PFT is also facilitated by bacterial attachment and biofilm formation rendering standard treatments less effective...
December 2017: Journal of Hand and Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281619/shortages-of-benzathine-penicillin-for-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-syphilis-an-evaluation-from-multi-country-surveys-and-stakeholder-interviews
#3
Stephen Nurse-Findlay, Melanie M Taylor, Margaret Savage, Maeve B Mello, Sanni Saliyou, Manuel Lavayen, Frederic Seghers, Michael L Campbell, Françoise Birgirimana, Leopold Ouedraogo, Morkor Newman Owiredu, Nancy Kidula, Lee Pyne-Mercier
BACKGROUND: Benzathine penicillin G (BPG) is the only recommended treatment to prevent mother-to-child transmission of syphilis. Due to recent reports of country-level shortages of BPG, an evaluation was undertaken to quantify countries that have experienced shortages in the past 2 years and to describe factors contributing to these shortages. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Country-level data about BPG shortages were collected using 3 survey approaches. First, a survey designed by the WHO Department of Reproductive Health and Research was distributed to 41 countries and territories in the Americas and 41 more in Africa...
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237649/canadian-physicians-knowledge-and-counseling-practices-related-to-antibiotic-use-and-antimicrobial-resistance-two-cycle-national-survey
#4
Courtney R Smith, Lisa Pogany, Simon Foley, Jun Wu, Karen Timmerman, Margaret Gale-Rowe, Alain Demers
OBJECTIVE: To establish a baseline for physicians' knowledge of and counseling practices on the use of antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and to determine potential changes in these measures after the implementation of a national AMR awareness campaign. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1600 physicians. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physicians' knowledge of and counseling practices on antibiotic use and AMR at baseline and after implementation of the AMR awareness campaign...
December 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237206/-piperacillin-tazobactam-shortage-central-restriction-and-alternative-recommendations-as-effective-antibiotic-stewardship-intervention-at-a-maximal-care-hospital
#5
Johanna Kessel, Barbara Dolff, Thomas Wichelhaus, Nils Keiner, Michael Hogardt, Claudia Reinheimer, Imke Wieters, Sebastian Harder, Volkhard A J Kempf, Christoph Stephan
Background Drug supply bottleneck is a worldwide challenge, e. g. the antibiotics Piperacillin/Tazobactam shortage in 2016/2017. The efficacy of an appropriate replacement management was evaluated at the University Hospital Frankfurt (UHF). Methods The Antibiotic-Stewardship (ABS)-Team at UHF decreed a restriction of PIP/TAZ and provided alternative antibiotic therapy recommendations during the shortage period. Consequences of this intervention on antibiotic consumption and overall costs were investigated...
December 13, 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230215/potential-effects-of-horizontal-gene-exchange-in-the-human-gut
#6
Aaron Lerner, Torsten Matthias, Rustam Aminov
Many essential functions of the human body are dependent on the symbiotic microbiota, which is present at especially high numbers and diversity in the gut. This intricate host-microbe relationship is a result of the long-term coevolution between the two. While the inheritance of mutational changes in the host evolution is almost exclusively vertical, the main mechanism of bacterial evolution is horizontal gene exchange. The gut conditions, with stable temperature, continuous food supply, constant physicochemical conditions, extremely high concentration of microbial cells and phages, and plenty of opportunities for conjugation on the surfaces of food particles and host tissues, represent one of the most favorable ecological niches for horizontal gene exchange...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208785/use-of-a-partial-thickness-flap-for-guided-bone-regeneration-in-the-upper-jaw
#7
Gianluca Porcaro, Alberto Busa, Edoardo Bianco, Gianluigi Caccianiga, Marcello Maddalone
INTRODUCTION: Guided bone regeneration (GBR) aims to restore adequate bone volume for the placement of implants in an ideal location. In this article, we analyze different surgical techniques for tissue management during GBR and a modified partial-thickness surgical approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a year's time span, five patients were enrolled in the study: Four women and one man (aged 44-59 years). In four patients, a GBR with simultaneous implant placement was adopted, whereas in another patient, a delayed implant placement was done...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169629/suppurative-inflammation-and-local-tissue-destruction-reduce-the-penetration-of-cefuroxime-to-infected-bone-implant-cavities
#8
L Kruse Jensen, J Koch, N Lind Henriksen, M Bue, M Tøttrup, P Hanberg, K Søballe, H Elvang Jensen
Treatment of post-traumatic and implant-associated osteomyelitis (IAO) includes surgical debridement, removal of implants and long-term antibiotic therapy. The success of antibiotic therapy relies not only on activity towards the infecting pathogen, but also on sufficient penetration of the target site. The aim of the present study was to characterize the local pathological changes associated with reduced penetration of cefuroxime to infected bone implant cavities. Previously, reduced penetration of systemically administrated cefuroxime was demonstrated in the implant cavity of 10 pigs with Staphylococcus aureus IAO present for 5 days...
November 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169601/antibiotic-management-and-operative-debridement-in-open-fractures-of-the-hand-and-upper-extremity-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
William J Warrender, Christopher J Lucasti, Talia R Chapman, Asif M Ilyas
Open fractures of the hand are thought to be less susceptible to infection than other open fractures because of the increased blood supply to the area. Current evidence for all open fractures shows that antibiotic use and the extent of contamination are predictive of infection risk, but time to debridement is not. We reviewed in a systematic review the available literature on open fractures of the hand and upper extremity to determine infection rates based on the timing of debridement and antibiotic administration...
February 2018: Hand Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169340/situational-analysis-of-antibiotic-use-and-resistance-in-ghana-policy-and-regulation
#10
Saviour Kwame Yevutsey, Kwame Ohene Buabeng, Moses Aikins, Berko Panyin Anto, Richard B Biritwum, Niels Frimodt-Møller, Martha Gyansa-Lutterodt
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics have played an essential role in decreasing morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. However, indiscriminate use and unrestricted access is contributing to the emergence of bacterial resistance. This paper reports on a situational analysis of antimicrobial use and resistance in Ghana, with focus on policy and regulation. METHODS: Relevant policy documents, reports, regulations and enactments were reviewed. PubMed and Google search engines were used to extract relevant published papers...
November 23, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168130/tolerance-towards-gentamicin-is-a-function-of-nutrient-concentration-in-biofilms-of-patient-isolated-staphylococcus-epidermidis
#11
Christoph G Ammann, David Neuhauser, Claudia Eberl, Michael Nogler, Débora Coraça-Huber
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a biofilm-forming bacterial strain that can cause major problems as an agent of nosocomial infections. Bacteria in biofilms are shielded from the environment and can survive high doses of antibiotics. We here test the antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus epidermidis to rising gentamicin concentrations in optimal growth conditions as used in routine bacteriology laboratories with low nutrient situations as suggested to be found in clinical situations. We found that gentamicin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms survived in the absence of external nutrient supply in PBS...
November 22, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164074/systemic-responses-of-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-following-exposure-to-the-antimicrobial-peptide-cathelicidin-bf-imply-multiple-intracellular-targets
#12
Cunbao Liu, Bin Shan, Jialong Qi, Yanbing Ma
Cathelicidin-BF, derived from the banded krait (Bungarus fasciatus), is a typically cationic, amphiphilic and α-helical antimicrobial peptide (AMP) with 30 amino acids that exerts powerful effects on multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolates, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, but whether it targets plasma membranes or intracellular targets to kill bacteria is still controversial. In the present study, we demonstrated that the disruption of bacterial membranes with high concentrations of cathelicidin-BF was the cause of bacterial death, as with conventional antibiotics at high concentrations...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154717/characterization-of-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-from-victoria-australia-dairy-farm-environments
#13
Catherine M McAuley, Kate E McMillan, Sean C Moore, Narelle Fegan, Edward M Fox
Safe dairy food production starts at the farm level, with the presence of pathogens on farms potentially impacting the downstream food supply. Studies often commence with looking for pathogens in fecal material of farm animals, predominantly cows; however, pathogens may arise from other on-farm sources. In Australia, few studies have looked at the broader farm environment, particularly in relation to Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The present study characterized the genetic similarity of these pathogens from bovine, ovine, and caprine dairy farm environments and related this to the stx1, stx2, eae, or ehx virulence markers in E...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152694/rna-seq-analysis-of-antibiotic-producing-bacillus-subtilis-sc-8-reveals-a-role-for-small-peptides-in-controlling-papr-signaling
#14
Byung Wook Yang, In-Cheol Yeo, Jae Hee Choi, Chandra Datta Sumi, Young Tae Hahm
Bacillus subtilis SC-8 (BSSC8) shows a narrow antimicrobial activity against the Bacillus cereus group. Previously, B. cereus-derived PapR as a signal peptide to stimulate PlcR, which plays a significant role in regulating the transcription of virulence factors, was assumed to stimulate antibiotic production in BSSC8. To better understand the functional role of PapR in the antibiotic production of BSSC8 and the interspecies interaction, the global transcriptomic profiling of BSSC8 was investigated using RNA-Seq in this study...
November 20, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135306/a-calculation-tool-and-process-to-pre-position-pharmaceuticals-for-anthrax-post-exposure-prophylaxis
#15
Gary D Peksa, Michael J Robbins, Alexis R Beyer, Elisabeth K Weber, Keneatha Johnson
Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is considered a severe bioterrorism threat because of its high mortality rate. The Chicago Healthcare System Coalition for Preparedness and Response (CHSCPR) aims to pre-position antibiotic medical countermeasures (MCMs) at healthcare facilities in order to provide on-site anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis. Pharmacists proposed moving toward a new process that involved the development of a standardized calculation methodology for acquiring supply drugs. This was an interventional quality improvement project aimed at optimizing inventory, acquisition, and distribution of antibiotic MCMs for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis at Chicago hospitals for hospital personnel, associated first responders, and their families...
November 14, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133391/adaptive-benefits-from-small-mutation-supplies-in-an-antibiotic-resistance-enzyme
#16
Merijn L M Salverda, Jeroen Koomen, Bertha Koopmanschap, Mark P Zwart, J Arjan G M de Visser
Populations with large mutation supplies adapt via the "greedy" substitution of the fittest genotype available, leading to fast and repeatable short-term responses. At longer time scales, smaller mutation supplies may in theory lead to larger improvements when distant high-fitness genotypes more readily evolve from lower-fitness intermediates. Here we test for long-term adaptive benefits from small mutation supplies using in vitro evolution of an antibiotic-degrading enzyme in the presence of a novel antibiotic...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095181/intravenous-push-cephalosporin-antibiotics-in-the-emergency-department-a-practice-improvement-project
#17
Julie M McLaughlin, Robin A Scott, Stephanie L Koenig, Scott W Mueller
Delays in administration of appropriate antibiotics to patients with septic shock are associated with increased mortality. To improve the care of patients with sepsis within our 73-bed emergency department (ED), a "first-dose" intravenous push (IVP) cephalosporin antibiotic protocol was initiated. This project was aimed at improving the time from provider order of antibiotic to administration, which follows the Sepsis Core Measure of timely antibiotic administration.This was a single-center, retrospective analysis of a practice improvement study...
October 2017: Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092659/cost-justification-of-the-biofire-filmarray-meningitis-encephalitis-panel-versus-standard-of-care-for-diagnosing-meningitis-in-a-community-hospital
#18
Dana K Soucek, Lisa E Dumkow, Kali M VanLangen, Andrew P Jameson
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram stain and culture along with CSF viral polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the current standard of care (SOC) to diagnose meningitis. Unfortunately, these tests take up to 72 hours to provide results and are not always sensitive to detect a pathogen. BioFire FilmArray (FA) meningitis/encephalitis (ME) panel uses PCR to provide quick, accurate identification of the causative organism. For community hospitals, the cost of this technology may be prohibitive...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079613/enterococcus-faecalis-responds-to-individual-exogenous-fatty-acids-independently-of-saturation-or-chain-length
#19
Holly E Saito, John R Harp, Elizabeth M Fozo
Enterococcus faecalis is a commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract that can persist in the external environment and is a leading cause of hospital acquired infections. Given its diverse habitats, the organism has developed numerous strategies to survive a multitude of environmental conditions. Previous studies have demonstrated that E. faecalis will incorporate fatty acids from bile and serum into its membrane, resulting in an induced tolerance to membrane damaging agents. To discern whether all fatty acids induce membrane stress protection, we examined how E...
October 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067090/a-rare-case-of-ralstonia-mannitolilytica-infection-in-an-end-stage-renal-patient-on-maintenance-dialysis-during-municipal-water-contamination
#20
Christopher Thiam Seong Lim, Sut Enn Lee
Ralstonia mannitolilytica is a gram negative soil bacterium. Ralstonia infection though rare, has become the emerging nosocomial pathogens in hospital settings. Various clinical manifestations had been described as well as the mode of transmission. Despite its low virulence factor, it is able to survive under harsh condition and this may potentially cause significant morbidity and mortality especially in immunocompromised patients. Outbreak of Ralstonia mannitolilytica infections in the hospital are typically associated with contaminated medical supplies or instruments...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
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