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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938797/revisiting-the-safety-of-aspartame
#1
Arbind Kumar Choudhary, Etheresia Pretorius
Aspartame is a synthetic dipeptide artificial sweetener, frequently used in foods, medications, and beverages, notably carbonated and powdered soft drinks. Since 1981, when aspartame was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, researchers have debated both its recommended safe dosage (40 mg/kg/d) and its general safety to organ systems. This review examines papers published between 2000 and 2016 on both the safe dosage and higher-than-recommended dosages and presents a concise synthesis of current trends...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938749/the-testicular-transcriptome-associated-with-spermatogonia-differentiation-initiated-by-gonadotrophin-stimulation-in-the-juvenile-rhesus-monkey-macaca-mulatta
#2
Suresh Ramaswamy, William H Walker, Paula Aliberti, Rahil Sethi, Gary R Marshall, Alyxzandria Smith, Seyedmehdi Nourashrafeddin, Alicia Belgorosky, Uma R Chandran, Mark P Hedger, Tony M Plant
STUDY QUESTION: What is the genetic landscape within the testis of the juvenile rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) that underlies the decision of undifferentiated spermatogonia to commit to a pathway of differentiation when puberty is induced prematurely by exogenous LH and FSH stimulation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Forty-eight hours of gonadotrophin stimulation of the juvenile monkey testis resulted in the appearance of differentiating B spermatogonia and the emergence of 1362 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated testicular mRNAs encoding a complex network of proteins ranging from enzymes regulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis to membrane receptors, and from juxtacrine and paracrine factors to transcriptional factors governing spermatogonial stem cell fate...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938737/complex-catsper-dependent-and-independent-ca2-i-signalling-in-human-spermatozoa-induced-by-follicular-fluid
#3
Sean G Brown, Sarah Costello, Mark C Kelly, Mythili Ramalingam, Ellen Drew, Stephen J Publicover, Christopher L R Barratt, Sarah Martins Da Silva
STUDY QUESTION: Does progesterone in human follicular fluid (hFF) activate CatSper and do other components of hFF modulate this effect and/or contribute separately to hFF-induced Ca2+ signaling? SUMMARY ANSWER: hFF potently stimulates CatSper and increases [Ca2+]i, primarily due to high concentrations of progesterone, however, other components of hFF also contribute to [Ca2+]i signaling, including modulation of CatSper channel activity and inhibition of [Ca2+]i oscillations...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938523/hypothermia-induced-by-anesthesia-regulates-various-signals-expressions-in-the-hippocampus-of-animals
#4
Huimei Hao, Shanshan Wang
Though important for a variety of medical procedures, general anesthesia is not a problem free. Some anesthetics have been suggested to affect a number of signals, which are associated with memory consolidation and cognition. In the present study, we attempted to investigate the molecular mechanism of anesthesia-regulated processes. We found that under hypothermic condition, anesthetic of isoflurane enhances various signals expression in hippocampus, including Hspd1, Actb, Mgst1, THBS4, Syp, C1QC, Serpine, Plat, and Ngf, which were related to cellular stress, neural plasticity responses, and hippocampal injury...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937582/design-of-the-exercise-mri-evaluation-of-hiv-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-longitudinal-determinants-exhalted-trial
#5
Mohamad Amer Alaiti, Aditya Goud, Gautam Ramani, Sashwatee Bagchi, Sadeer Al-Kindi, Steven Sawicki, Christopher Longenecker, Trevor Jenkins, David Pauza, Myung Park, Grace McComsey, Orlando Simonetti, Brian Hoit, Sanjay Rajagopalan
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a potentially serious cause of dyspnea and exercise limitation in patients with HIV infection. In this trial, we propose using exercise MRI in conjunction with cardiopulmonary testing to delineate PAH from other causes of cardiovascular dysfunction, identify individuals with exercise-induced PAH who are at high risk of developing resting PAH, and provide longitudinal estimates of progression of PAH and right ventricular function. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, HIV patients with dyspnea and exercise limitation in the absence of identifiable causes and those who meet the inclusion criteria will be enrolled based on resting pulmonary artery pressure (≤ or >40 mmHg) on a screening echocardiogram and exercise limitation on the Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937530/effects-of-magnesium-chloride-on-rocuronium-induced-neuromuscular-blockade-and-sugammadex-reversal-in-an-isolated-rat-phrenic-nerve-hemidiaphragm-preparation-an-in-vitro-study
#6
Tae-Yun Sung, Hwang-Ju You, Choon-Kyu Cho, Hey Ran Choi, Yong Beom Kim, Yong Sup Shin, Hong Seuk Yang
BACKGROUND: Magnesium potentiates the effects of nondepolarising muscle relaxants. However, few studies have used magnesium chloride (MgCl2). Sugammadex reverses neuromuscular block by steroidal nondepolarising muscle relaxants. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of MgCl2 on rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade and its reversal by sugammadex. DESIGN: In-vitro experimental study. SETTING: Animal laboratory, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea, from 20 March 2016 to 3 April 2016...
September 20, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937452/use-and-effectiveness-of-sleep-medications-by-parent-report-in-individuals-with-williams-syndrome
#7
Marilee A Martens, Daisha L Seyfer, Rebecca R Andridge, Daniel L Coury
OBJECTIVE: Sleep disorders are common in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS), and sleep disturbance has a significant negative effect on attention, learning, and behavior. The use of sleep-inducing medicine in individuals with WS has not been widely investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use and effectiveness of sleep medications among a large sample of individuals with WS by parent survey. METHODS: A survey of the use and effectiveness of sleep medications was completed by 513 (of 2846) members of the Williams Syndrome Association...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937405/alcoholic-hepatitis-appropriate-indication-for-liver-transplantation
#8
Terry D Schneekloth, Shehzad K Niazi, Douglas A Simonetto
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The majority of liver transplantation centers had required patients with alcohol-induced liver disease to demonstrate a period of abstinence (generally 6 months' duration) to qualify for transplant listing. This requirement has excluded patients with alcoholic hepatitis from transplant consideration. Since 2011, several studies have examined the outcomes of patients undergoing liver transplantation with brief abstinence as a lifesaving intervention for alcoholic hepatitis...
September 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937016/impact-of-usage-of-personal-music-systems-on-oto-acoustic-emissions-among-medical-students
#9
Prasanth G Narahari, Jayashree Bhat, Arivudai Nambi, Anshul Arora
BACKGROUND: Intact hearing is essential for medical students and physicians for communicating with patients and appreciating internal sounds with a stethoscope. With the increased use of (PMSs), they are exposed to high sound levels and are at a risk of developing hearing loss. The effect of long term personal music system (PMS) usage on auditory sensitivity has been well established. Our study has reported the immediate and short term effect of PMS usage on hearing especially among medical professionals...
September 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937014/sex-bias-in-basic-and-preclinical-noise-induced-hearing-loss-research
#10
Amanda Marie Lauer, Katrina Marie Schrode
INTRODUCTION: Sex differences in brain biochemistry, physiology, structure, and function have been gaining increasing attention in the scientific community. Males and females can have different responses to medications, diseases, and environmental variables. A small number of the approximately 7500 studies of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) have identified sex differences, but the mechanisms and characterization of these differences have not been thoroughly studied. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) issued a mandate in 2015 to include sex as a biological variable in all NIH-funded research beginning in January 2016...
September 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936952/-application-of-injection-test-in-confirming-the-ideal-position-of-esophageal-balloon-catheter
#11
Han Chen, Ming Xu, Yanlin Yang, Xuan He, Jianxin Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of injection test which is used to locate esophageal balloon catheter. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted. The patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) admitted to general intensive care unit (ICU) of Beijing Tiantan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University from May 2015 and March 2017 were enrolled. The commercially available esophageal balloon catheter was modified to perform injection test...
September 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935760/ultrasound-reverses-chemo-resistance-in-breast-cancer-stem-cell-like-cells-by-altering-abcg2%C3%A2-expression
#12
Lijuan Guo, Pengfei Zheng, Huijun Fan, Haiyan Wang, Wenzhong Xu, Wenyan Zhou
Doxorubicin (DOX)-resistance in breast cancer largely results from the breast cancer stem cell-like cells (BCSCs) which could be targeted to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy. Cell permeabilization using microbubbles (MB) and ultrasound (US) have the potential for delivering molecules into the cytoplasm. We aim to evaluate a new methodology of US on BCSCs. First, our findings indicated that ALDHA1(+) spheres which were derived from fresh primary breast cancer samples displayed stem cell-like features and were resistant to DOX...
September 21, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935489/perinatal-complications-in-patients-with-unisutural-craniosynostosis-an-international-multicentre-retrospective-cohort-study
#13
Martijn J Cornelissen, Madiha Söfteland, Inge Apon, Lars Ladfors, Irene M J Mathijssen, Titia E Cohen-Overbeek, Gouke J Bonsel, Lars Kölby
PURPOSE: Craniosynostosis may lead to hampered fetal head molding and birth complications. To study the interaction between single suture craniosynostosis and delivery complications, an international, multicentre, retrospective cohort study was performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All infants born between 2006 and 2012 in the Netherlands and Sweden with sagittal or metopic suture synostosis were included. All births were included as a reference population. The primary outcome measure was rate of medically assisted labor...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935425/-amiodarone-induced-immune-complex-cutaneous-vasculitis
#14
M Ndiaye, B Lebrun-Vignes, N Ortonne, L Fardet
BACKGROUND: A wide variety of drugs can cause cutaneous vasculitis. Herein we report a case of immune complex vasculitis induced by amiodarone. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 57-year-old patient reported a recent history of pruritus associated with large erythematous, inflammatory, necrotic plaques localized on the lower limbs and back. These cutaneous lesions had appeared less than 2 months after initiation of amiodarone for supra-ventricular arrhythmia. Histological and direct immunofluorescence examinations of a skin biopsy sample revealed vasculitis with the presence of IgM and C3 immune complexes in vessels...
September 18, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934076/delayed-urinary-symptoms-induced-by-ketamine
#15
María Robles-Martínez, Alfonso C Abad, Violeta Pérez-Rodríguez, Elena Ros-Cucurull, Abderraman Esojo, Carlos Roncero
One of the side-effects of ketamine abuse is genito-urinary damage. This report describes a case of a former ketamine user who presented with urinary symptoms associated with ketamine years after stopping consumption. This was a 26-year-old male with a history of ketamine abuse. He started treatment for alcohol dependence at age 19. He smoked marijuana daily and denied any other drug use. During the follow-up, urinary symptoms were evidenced (dysuria, frequency, urgency, incontinence, nocturia, hematuria, and suprapubic pain)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933269/drug-delivery-and-cosmeceutical-applications-of-polylactic-acid-based-novel-constructs-a-review
#16
Hafiz M N Iqbal, Federico Ruiz-Ruiz, Elena Ivonne Mancera-Andrade, Roberto Parra-Saldivar, Tajalli Keshavarz
In recent years, there has been a great research interest in bio-based biopolymers due to their potential as alternative polymers to the traditional petroleum-based synthetic counterparts. Research is underway around the globe on the development of 'greener' technologies. Recently, bio-based bio-constructs are being engineered for target applications in different bio- and non-bio sectors of the modern world to address growing concerns of a global dependence on non-renewable petroleum-based resources. The utilization of properly designed and structured materials thus allows for the creation of well-defined environment that induces a series of directed measures, and so on...
September 19, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933263/anticancer-properties-of-a-new-hybrid-analog-ad-013-combining-a-coumarin-scaffold-with-an-%C3%AE-methylene-%C3%AE-lactone-motif
#17
Angelika Długosz, Katarzyna Gach-Janczak, Jacek Szymański, Dariusz Deredas, Henryk Krawczyk, Tomasz Janecki, Anna Janecka
Background Coumarin is a natural phytochemical but as such has no medical uses. However, various natural and synthetic coumarin analogs attract attention due to their interesting biological properties. </P><P> Objective Here, we evaluated and compared anticancer properties of a new synthetic hybrid compound AD-013, which integrates a coumarin moiety and an α-methylene-δ-lactone motif, with novobiocin, a natural antibiotic bearing a coumarin scaffold. </P><P> Method Cytotoxic activities of compound AD-013 and novobiocin were assessed by the MTT assay...
September 21, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932875/-severe-cutaneous-drug-reactions-in-children
#18
REVIEW
M Mockenhaupt
Among severe drug reactions in children, besides Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), a specific form of hypersensitivity syndrome which is nowadays known as "drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms" (DRESS) has to be mentioned. Whereas SJS/TEN is considered one reaction entity of different severity, DRESS has to be distinguished from SJS/TEN but also from other severe exanthems due to multiorgan involvement. Although SJS/TEN is generally referred to as a drug reaction, only about 75% of all cases are actually caused by medications and in children it is only about 50%...
September 20, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932614/acute-low-dose-hydralazine-induced-lupus-pneumonitis
#19
Sarah K Holman, Donique Parris, Sarah Meyers, Jason Ramirez
A 35-year-old female was started on hydralazine 10 mg orally three times a day for treatment of postpartum hypertension. Three months later, after multiple unsuccessful courses of prednisone and antibiotics for presumed pneumonia and asthma exacerbations, her respiratory symptoms progressed in severity and she developed resting hypoxia. Previous diagnostic work-up included spirometry with a restrictive pattern, chest CT showing bilateral basilar consolidation, negative BAL, and nonspecific findings on lung biopsy of mild inflammatory cells...
2017: Case Reports in Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932240/perspectives-on-peripheral-neuropathy-as-a-consequence-of-metformin-induced-vitamin-b12-deficiency-in-t2dm
#20
REVIEW
Marwan A Ahmed, George L Muntingh, Paul Rheeder
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a primary complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and a direct manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency. Examining the effects of metformin use on PN status became imperative following clinical studies that showed the vitamin B12-lowering effect of the medication. The complexity of the topic and the inconsistency of the results warrant consideration of topic-specific perspectives for better understanding of the available evidence and more appropriate design of future studies...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
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