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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731996/-pancreatitis-genes-and-islet-cells-auto-transplant-updates-and-new-horizons
#1
Edgardo D Rivera Rivera
Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas that can progress from an acute presentation to an acute recurring presentation and eventually to chronic pancreatitis, which is characterized by irreversible morphological changes and scarring of the pancreas. The entity known as hereditary pancreatitis has been recognized in the literature for years and certainly the discovery of the PRSS1 gene in 1996 marked the beginning of a new era of genetic discoveries associated with the disease. Since then, multiple genes have been described as the causing agents of pancreatitis or disease modifiers, some of the most important ones being the PRSS1, SPINK1, CFTR, CASR, CTRC, CLDN2, and CPA1...
April 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731926/history-of-anaesthesia-the-ketamine-story-past-present-and-future
#2
Georges Mion
: Ketamine's history begins in the 1950s in Detroit, Michigan, at Parke-Davis Laboratories. On 26 March 1956, Harold V. Maddox synthesised phencyclidine or PCP. Domino studied PCP effects in animals and in 1958, Greifenstein made the first trials of PCP in humans under the name of Sernyl. Sernyl did not cause depression of cardiovascular and respiratory functions, but elicited severe excitation with a very prolonged postoperative recovery. Because of its psychedelic effects, it became a street drug under the name of 'angel dust' and was placed on schedule II of Federal Controlled Substance Act (CSA) in 1978...
July 20, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731778/a-pharmacologic-algorithm-for-youth-who-are-at-high-risk-for-bipolar-disorder
#3
Christopher D Schneck, Kiki D Chang, Manpreet K Singh, Melissa P DelBello, David J Miklowitz
OBJECTIVE: Depression and brief periods of manic symptoms are linked to a significant risk of progression to bipolar disorder (BD) in children who have a first-degree relative with BD I or II. However, little evidence exists to guide the pharmacologic management of children with these high-risk phenotypes. We propose a pharmacological treatment algorithm for high-risk youth and present results on its use in a study of children with a first-degree relative with BD. METHODS: Subjects were 40 youth (mean 12...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731198/gsk-3%C3%AE-inhibition-suppresses-instability-induced-osteolysis-by-a-dual-action-on-osteoblast-and-osteoclast-differentiation
#4
Mehdi Amirhosseini, Rune Vinther Madsen, K Jane Escott, Mathias Bostrom, F Patrick Ross, Anna Fahlgren
Currently, there are no medications available to treat aseptic loosening of orthopedic implants. Using osteoprotegerin fusion protein (OPG-Fc), we previously blocked instability-induced osteoclast differentiation and peri-prosthetic osteolysis. Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which regulates OPG secretion from osteoblasts, also modulates the bone tissue response to mechanical loading. We hypothesized that activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) would reduce instability-induced bone loss through regulation of both osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730896/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-potential-mechanisms-for-the-benefit-of-capsaicin-and-hot-water-hydrotherapy-in-treatment
#5
John R Richards, Jeff M Lapoint, Guillermo Burillo-Putze
INTRODUCTION: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is a clinical disorder that has become more prevalent with increasing use of cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids, and which is difficult to treat. Standard antiemetics commonly fail to alleviate the severe nausea and vomiting characteristic of the syndrome. Curiously, cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome patients often report dramatic relief of symptoms with hot showers and baths, and topical capsaicin. OBJECTIVES: In this review, we detail the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of capsaicin and explore possible mechanisms for its beneficial effect, including activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and neurohumoral regulation...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730874/abortion-politics-in-cambodia-social-history-local-forms-and-transnational-issues
#6
Pascale Hancart Petitet
Cambodia's current abortion rate and ratio could be among the highest in Southeast Asia. In 1997, the Cambodian parliament passed the first law regulating abortions. This law was adopted to contribute to reduce the high maternal mortality ratio, as a significant number of maternal deaths were believed to be related to complications of unsafe abortion. A decade later, the Ministry of Health had not yet established medical protocols for safe abortion access and women often continued to induce their own terminations or seek unsafe services...
July 21, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730425/at-101-acts-as-anti-proliferative-and-hormone-suppressive-agent-in-mouse-pituitary-corticotroph-tumor-cells
#7
B S Yurekli, B Karaca, A Kisim, E Bozkurt, H Atmaca, S Cetinkalp, G Ozgen, C Yilmaz, S Uzunoglu, R Uslu, F Saygili
PURPOSE: Gossypol, a naturally occurring compound in cottonseeds, has anticancer effects against several tumor cell lines. It has been extensively studied in clinical trials and is well tolerated with a favorable safety profile. AT-101, a derivative of R (-)-gossypol, binds to Bcl-2 family proteins and induces apoptosis in vitro. Although transsphenoidal surgical excision of the pituitary corticotroph adenoma is the gold standard of care, it is not successful all the time. Medical therapy for Cushing's disease still remains a challenge for the clinicians...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730253/fatal-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis-after-chemical-occupational-exposure
#8
Milena Adina Man, Sorin Claudiu Man, Nicoleta Ştefania Motoc, Carmen Monica Pop, Antigona Carmen Trofor
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP; extrinsic allergic alveolitis) is a rare non-immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated inflammatory lung disease caused by inhalation exposure (occupational, recreational or ordinary home exposure). A 36-year-old female patient, without significant medical history, is referred to an outpatient pulmonology clinic for dry cough, shortness of breath, fever, fatigue and weight loss. Chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was performed, and significant lung fibrosis (especially centrilobular and interlobular in bilateral "thick lines"), traction bronchiectasis and alveolitis in both superior lobes are described...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730160/epigenetic-interactions-between-alcohol-and-cannabinergic-effects-focus-on-histone-modification-and-dna-methylation
#9
Tiyash Parira, Alejandra Laverde, Marisela Agudelo
Epigenetic studies have led to a more profound understanding of the mechanisms involved in chronic conditions. In the case of alcohol addiction, according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 16 million adults suffer from Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs). Even though therapeutic interventions like behavioral therapy and medications to prevent relapse are currently available, no robust cure exists, which stems from the lack of understanding the mechanisms of action of alcohol and the lack of development of precision medicine approaches to treat AUDs...
April 2017: Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730156/white-blood-cell-counts-alcoholism-and-cirrhosis-in-pneumococcal-pneumonia
#10
Julianna G Gardner, Divya R Bhamidipati, Adriana M Rueda, Duc T M Nguyen, Edward A Graviss, Daniel M Musher
BACKGROUND: An elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is a characteristic finding in pneumococcal pneumonia. Very low WBC counts, occurring in some cases, are often associated with overwhelming pneumonia and have been attributed to alcohol-induced suppression of bone marrow. However, a systematic study of neutropenia, leukocytosis, alcohol ingestion, and cirrhosis in pneumococcal pneumonia has not been previously reported. METHODS: Using a database of patients with pneumococcal pneumonia at our medical center, we extracted data on WBC counts at admission, differential counts, alcohol ingestion, and cirrhosis, and we related these to 7-day and 30-day mortality...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730085/ocular-surface-evaluation-in-eyes-with-chronic-glaucoma-on-long-term-topical-antiglaucoma-therapy
#11
Manu Saini, Murugesan Vanathi, Tanuj Dada, Tushar Agarwal, Rebika Dhiman, Sudarshan Khokhar
AIM: To evaluate ocular surface changes and its correlation with the central corneal subbasal nerve fibre layer in chronic glaucoma patients. METHODS: A prospective comparative study of ocular surface evaluation was performed in 50 eyes of 25 patients using two or more antiglaucoma medications for at least 6mo and 50 eyes of 25 normal subjects without any ocular problems as controls. The study parameters evaluated included visual acuity, intraocular pressure, ocular surface evaluation parameters [fluorescein break-up time (FTBUT), Schirmer's I test, ocular surface staining scores and ocular surface disease index score (OSDI)], central corneal sensation (Cochet Bonnett aesthesiometer), central subbasal nerve fiber layer density (SBNFLD) by confocal microscopy...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729403/autophagy-inhibition-improves-sunitinib-efficacy-in-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-via-a-lysosome-dependent-mechanism
#12
Tabea Wiedmer, Annika Blank, Sophia Pantasis, Lea Normand, Ruben Bill, Philippe Krebs, Mario P Tschan, Ilaria Marinoni, Aurel Perren
Increasing the efficacy of approved systemic treatments in metastasized pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) is an unmet medical need. The anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib is approved for PanNET treatment. Additionally, sunitinib is a lysosomotropic drug and such drugs can induce lysosomal membrane permeabilization as well as autophagy. We investigated sunitinib-induced autophagy as a possible mechanism of PanNET therapy resistance. Sunitinib accumulated in lysosomes and induced autophagy in PanNET cell lines...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728820/role-of-piezo-channels-in-joint-health-and-injury
#13
W Lee, F Guilak, W Liedtke
Cartilage is an intrinsically mechanically sensitive tissue composed of chondrocytes as the only cell type. Chondrocyte mechanotransduction is not well understood, but recently we identified critical components of the mechanotransduction machinery demonstrating how mechanical stimulation of these cells can be converted into cellular calcium signals. Physiologic mechanical cues induce anabolic responses of (post-mitotic) chondrocytes via transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 ion channels, whereas injurious mechanical stress is transduced by Piezo1 jointly with Piezo2 ion channels...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728494/the-clinical-significance-of-qt-prolongation-associated-with-tamoxifen-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
Katherine Fung, Julia Imeson, Frances Cusano
Objective To review the literature discussing QT prolongation associated with the use of tamoxifen in order to evaluate the clinical significance. Data sources A search of PubMed (1946 to 2017), MEDLINE (1946 to 2017) and EMBASE (1947 to 2017) was performed using a combination of the following search terms: tamoxifen, estrogen antagonist, selective estrogen receptor modulator, QT prolongation, QT interval, long QT syndrome and torsades de pointes. All searches were limited to human subjects. Reference lists of the literature found were also reviewed but did not reveal any further articles...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727729/induction-of-labor-versus-expectant-management-of-large-for-gestational-age-infants-in-nulliparous-women
#15
Karolina Moldéus, Yvonne W Cheng, Anna-Karin Wikström, Olof Stephansson
BACKGROUND: There is no apparent consensus on obstetric management, i.e., induction of labor or expectant management of women with suspected large-for-gestational-age (LGA)-fetuses. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To further examine the subject, a nationwide population-based cohort study from the Swedish Medical Birth Register in nulliparous non-diabetic women with singleton, vertex LGA (>90th centile) births, 1992-2013, was performed. Delivery of a live-born LGA infant induced at 38 completed weeks of gestation in non-preeclamptic pregnancies, was compared to those of expectant management, with delivery at 39, 40, 41, or 42 completed weeks of gestation and beyond, either by labor induction or via spontaneous labor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727638/exertional-and-crossfit-induced-rhabdomyolysis
#16
Michelle Meyer, Sneha Sundaram, Ingeborg Schafhalter-Zoppoth
Few publications of exercise-induced rhabomyolysis currently exist in the medical literature besides case reports. However, this condition can be severe, resulting in hospitalization and IV fluid administration to prevent serious sequelae. This report describes a case of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis caused by a CrossFit workout. A 31-year-old female presented with 2 days of bilateral upper extremity pain and soreness, which began 2 days after she completed a CrossFit workout. Workup revealed an elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK) of 18 441 U/L, consistent with exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis, and elevated liver function tests and elevated D-dimer, although her renal function was normal...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727609/atrial-natriuretic-peptide-a-potential-early-therapy-for-the-prevention-of-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome-following-severe-trauma
#17
Rong-Wei Zhang, Li-Li Liu, Lan-Lan Zeng, Rui-Jie Li, Ye-Hua Shen, Bin Zhang, Zi-Zhuo Liu, Meng-Fei Chen, Sheng-Mao Jiang, Li-Bing Jiang, Xiao-Gang Zhao, Shou-Yin Jiang
Trauma remains a tremendous medical burden partly because of increased expenditure for the management of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) developed during hospital stay. The intestinal barrier injury continues to be a second insult resulting in MODS which currently lacks efficient strategies for prevention. Recent studies have uncovered multi-organ protective benefits of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in cardiovascular disease. However, the role of ANP in prevention of MODS following severe trauma has not been understood...
July 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726370/ultra-stretchable-analog-digital-signal-transmission-line-with-carbon-nanotube-sheets
#18
Yourack Lee, Min-Kyu Joo, Viet Thong Le, Raquel Ovalle-Robles, Xavier Lepró, Márcio D Lima, Daniel G Suh, Han Young Yu, Young Hee Lee, Dongseok Suh
Stretchable conductors can be used in various applications depending on their own characteristics. Here, we demonstrate simple and robust elastomeric conductors that are optimized for stretchable electrical signal transmission line. They can withstand strains up to 600% without any substantial change in their resistance (≤ 10% as is and ≤ 1% with passivation), and exhibit suppressed charge fluctuations in the medium. The inherent elasticity of a polymeric rubber and the high conductivity of flexible, highly oriented carbon nanotube sheets were combined synergistically, without losing both properties...
July 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726247/women-s-attitudes-to-safe-induced-abortion-in-iran-findings-from-a-pilot-survey
#19
Nader Aghakhani, Michelle Cleary, Abbas Zarei, Violeta Lopez
AIM: To explore attitudes to safe-induced abortion among pregnant women in Iran. BACKGROUND: In Islamic teachings abortion is generally forbidden. However in specific circumstances abortion may be permitted and currently, in Iran, the law allows termination of pregnancy only if three specialist physicians confirm that the pregnancy outcome may be harmful for the mother during pregnancy or after birth. DESIGN: Pilot, descriptive survey. METHODS: A 15-item structured questionnaire focusing on attitudes to safe-induced abortion was developed and pilot tested...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726081/psoas-muscle-volume-as-a-predictor-of-peripheral-neurotoxicity-induced-by-primary-chemotherapy-in-ovarian-cancers
#20
Tomoyuki Yoshikawa, Masashi Takano, Morikazu Miyamoto, Isao Yajima, Yukihiro Shimizu, Yusuke Aizawa, Yuki Suguchi, Miki Moriiwa, Tadashi Aoyama, Hiroaki Soyama, Tomoko Goto, Junko Hirata, Ayako Suzuki, Hidenori Sasa, Isao Nagaoka, Hitoshi Tsuda, Kenichi Furuya
PURPOSE: Low skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) has been reported to have an influence on survival and toxicities of chemotherapy in several solid tumors. The impact of sarcopenia on the treatment of ovarian cancers has not been determined. The present study aimed to evaluate correlation between sarcopenia and toxicities of chemotherapy in ovarian cancers. METHODS: Medical charts of the ovarian cancer patients that received chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin at our hospital between 2010 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed...
July 19, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
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