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ECMO, anticoagulation

Chiara Robba, Andrea Ortu, Federico Bilotta, Alessandra Lombardo, Mypinder S Sekhon, Fabio Gallo, Basil F Matta
BACKGROUND: Veno-venous extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (vv-ECMO) is an established salvage therapy for severe respiratory failure, and may provide an alternative form of treatment for trauma-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) when conventional treatments have failed. The need for systemic anticoagulation is a relative contraindication in patients with bleeding risks, especially in multi traumatic injury. METHODS: We describe a case series of four trauma patients with ARDS who were managed with ECMO admitted to the Neuro Critical Care Unit (NCCU) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge (UK), from January 2000 to January 2016...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Pilar Anton-Martin, Bruno Braga, Stephen Megison, Janna Journeycake, Jessica Moreland
Severe trauma may cause refractory life-threatening respiratory failure requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Concurrent traumatic brain injury, however, complicates the use of ECMO because of the major risk of intracranial bleeding with systemic anticoagulation. Craniotomy and/or craniectomy for hematoma evacuation during ECMO are extremely high-risk procedures secondary to ongoing anticoagulation, and there are only a few such case reports in the literature.We present the case of a child with multiple thoracic injuries and life-threatening respiratory failure supported on ECMO...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Linfeng Qian, Junnan Zheng, Hongfei Xu, Liping Shi, Lanjuan Li
BACKGROUND: Patients with respiratory failure caused by H7N9 may benefit from veno-venous, veno-arterial, and veno-veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. CASE SUMMARY: A 55-year-old male patient was suffering from H7N9-caused acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). He had a mechanical mitral and aortic valve replacement surgery and was using warfarin for anticoagulation. After prolonged mechanical ventilation, oxygen saturation was not improved...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Cécile Aubron, Joris DePuydt, François Belon, Michael Bailey, Matthieu Schmidt, Jayne Sheldrake, Deirdre Murphy, Carlos Scheinkestel, D Jamie Cooper, Gilles Capellier, Vincent Pellegrino, David Pilcher, Zoe McQuilten
BACKGROUND: Bleeding is the most frequent complication associated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support in critically ill patients. Nonetheless, risk factors for bleeding have been poorly described especially those associated with coagulation anomalies and anticoagulant therapy during ECMO support. The aim of this study is to describe bleeding complications in critically ill patients undergoing ECMO and to identify risk factors for bleeding events. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed ICU charts of adults who received either veno-venous (VV) or veno-arterial (VA) ECMO support in two participating ICUs between 2010 and 2013...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Michael C Sklar, Eric Sy, Laurance Lequier, Eddy Fan, Hussein D Kanji
BACKGROUND: The optimal anticoagulation strategy for venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is not known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety of anticoagulation strategies and monitoring during VV-ECMO for respiratory failure. DATA SOURCES: We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the association between anticoagulation strategies during VV-ECMO and pre-specified outcomes including major bleeding episodes, thrombotic events, and in-hospital mortality...
October 3, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Susan M Hastings, Shriprasad Deshpande, Scott Wagoner, Kevin O Maher, David N Ku
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for cardiopulmonary support of critically ill patients is used frequently in the pediatric population. ECMO is burdened by complications, including thrombosis and hemorrhage. Here we demonstrate the focused location of clots, their histological composition, and the relationship of in situ thrombus to local hemodynamics in ECMO circuits.Pediatric ECMO circuits from Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University (Atlanta, GA) were obtained following removal from extracorporeal support over a 2...
September 20, 2016: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Yoon Sang Chung, Dai Yun Cho, Dong Suep Sohn, Wang Soo Lee, Hoyoun Won, Dong Hoon Lee, Hyun Kang, Joonhwa Hong
Anticoagulation treatment during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) treatment is unavoidable. However, discontinuation of heparin infusion is necessary when challenges associated with the use of heparin, such as bleeding and thrombocytopenia, are encountered. The medical records of 94 adult (age ≥ 18 years) patients treated with ECMO from January 2011 to March 2015, at Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul, Korea, were reviewed. Among the 94 patients, 55 patients underwent ECMO treatment for 3 or more days...
September 20, 2016: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Gautam Rawal, Raj Kumar, Sankalp Yadav
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) has evolved as a treatment option for patients having potentially reversible severe respiratory failure who are deteriorating on conventional ventilation. During ECMO, systemic anticoagulation is needed to maintain patency of the circuit. Therefore, ongoing haemorrhage remains a relative contra-indication to ECMO as it can further increase the bleeding. There is only limited evidence available for the use of ECMO in patients with alveolar haemorrhage. Most of these patients did not receive any anticoagulation during ECMO...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Franziska C Trudzinski, Peter Minko, Daniel Rapp, Sebastian Fähndrich, Hendrik Haake, Myriam Haab, Rainer M Bohle, Monika Flaig, Franziska Kaestner, Robert Bals, Heinrike Wilkens, Ralf M Muellenbach, Andreas Link, Heinrich V Groesdonk, Christian Lensch, Frank Langer, Philipp M Lepper
BACKGROUND: Even though bleeding and thromboembolic events are major complications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), data on the incidence of venous thrombosis (VT) and thromboembolism (VTE) under ECMO are scarce. This study analyzes the incidence and predictors of VTE in patients treated with ECMO due to respiratory failure. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients treated on ECMO in our center from 04/2010 to 11/2015. Patients with thromboembolic events prior to admission were excluded...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Filippo Sanfilippo, Sven Asmussen, Dirk M Maybauer, Cristina Santonocito, John F Fraser, Gabor Erdoes, Marc O Maybauer
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) offers therapeutic options in refractory respiratory and/or cardiac failure. Systemic anticoagulation with heparin is routinely administered. However, in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia or heparin resistance, the direct thrombin inhibitor bivalirudin is a valid option and has been increasingly used for ECMO anticoagulation. We aimed at evaluating its safety and its optimal dosing for ECMO. METHODS: Systematic web-based literature search of PubMed and EMBASE performed via National Health Service Library Evidence and manually, updated until January 30, 2016...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
David Zonies
Extracorporeal life support has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Once considered as salvage or experimental therapy in adults, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is evolving into a mainstream treatment for adult critical care. This is especially true in trauma and high-risk surgical patients, who have traditionally been excluded from consideration. Several technological advances have made this possible. This includes anticoagulant-bonded circuits, device miniaturization, servo-regulated centrifugal systems, and more efficient oxygenators...
June 9, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Kirsten Krueger, Axel Schmutz, Barbara Zieger, Johannes Kalbhenn
Extracorporeal lung support and therapeutic anticoagulation are dogmatically linked for most clinicians in fear of clotting of the extracorporeal circuit. In the last decade, however, we have learned that bleeding complications in the course of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy are common and not occasionally limiting or fatal. Even though international guidelines lowered the PTT-target values, ECMO therapy without anticoagulation has only been reported sporadically in case reports heretofore...
June 3, 2016: Artificial Organs
Harrison T Pitcher, Meredith A Harrison, Colette Shaw, Scott W Cowan, Hitoshi Hirose, Nicholas Cavarocchi
BACKGROUND: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-A ECMO) is a life-saving procedure in patients with both respiratory and cardiac failure. Bleeding complications are common since patients must be maintained on anticoagulation. Massive hemoptysis is a rare complication of ECMO; however, it may result in death if not managed thoughtfully and expeditiously. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of consecutive ECMO patients from 7/2010-8/2014 to identify episodes of massive hemoptysis...
May 25, 2016: Perfusion
S Lavoue, G Le Gac, A Gacouin, M Revest, L Sohier, J Mouline, S Jouneau, E Flecher, P Tattevin, J-M Tadié
OBJECTIVE: To describe two cases of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-SA) necrotizing pneumonia treated with ECMO, and complete pulmonary evaluation at six months. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of two patients presenting with severe PVL-SA pneumonia who both underwent complete respiratory function testing and chest CT scan six months after hospital discharge. RESULTS: Indications for ECMO were refractory hypoxia and left ventricular dysfunction associated with right ventricular dilatation...
September 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Cristobal Calvo, Matias Salineros, Rodrigo Diaz, Sebastian Carvajal
INTRODUCTION: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) is an invasive procedure used in critically ill patients with catastrophic pulmonary failure or cardiogenic shock in which conventional management has failed. These patients are managed with permanent anticoagulation, with increased bleeding risk. Hemorrhage is the main reported complication. CASE: A 25-year-old polytraumatized woman, both lower limbs amputated and a left femoral shaft fracture with catastrophic pulmonary failure (Murray score 4) that required intensive management care with ECMO...
2016: SICOT-J
Ju Yong Lim, Joon Bum Kim, Suk Jung Choo, Cheol Hyun Chung, Jae Won Lee, Sung Ho Jung
BACKGROUND: Heparin is the main anticoagulant used during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. Nafamostat mesilate, a synthetic serine protease inhibitor, has seen increased use as a substitute for heparin in patients undergoing ECMO because of its short half-life. We aimed to compare these 2 anticoagulants with respect to bleeding and thromboembolic complications during ECMO support. METHODS: From January 2005 to November 2014, 320 patients who underwent venoarterial ECMO support were retrospectively reviewed...
August 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Bibek S Pannu, Devang K Sanghavi, Pramod K Guru, Dereddi Raja Reddy, Vivek N Iyer
Protamine sulfate is the only Food and Drug administration approved medication for reversal of intraoperative heparin-induced anticoagulation during cardiac and vascular surgeries. One of the rare side effects of protamine sulfate is an idiosyncratic reaction resulting in acute pulmonary hypertension (APH) and right ventricular (RV) failure occurring after protamine administration. These reactions are rare but catastrophic with high mortality. A 36-year-old female with severe congestive heart failure was undergoing cardiac transplant surgery...
March 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Gaspare Di Lorenzo, Gennaro Martucci, Sergio Sciacca, Rosalia Longo, Michele Pilato, Antonio Arcadipane
Pregnant women with mechanical prosthetic heart valves have an increased risk of thrombosis and valve malfunctioning. Surgery carries a high risk of mortality for the mother and the fetus. A strategy for effective anticoagulation is crucial for these patients because both oral anticoagulants and heparin are associated with high risks for the mother and the fetus. The treatment of a pregnant woman with thrombosis and valve malfunction is a challenge, even for multidisciplinary teams, as cardiac surgery carries considerable risks...
October 2016: Perfusion
Marco Ranucci, Ekaterina Baryshnikova, Mauro Cotza, Giovanni Carboni, Giuseppe Isgrò, Concetta Carlucci, Andrea Ballotta
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the association of the coagulation point-of-care (POC) tests activated clotting time (ACT) and thromboelastography-derived parameters reaction time (R-time) and maximum amplitude (MA) with the standard coagulation tests during postcardiotomy extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), finding adequate values predictive for the target range of the standard coagulation tests. METHODS: Thirty-one patients undergoing postcardiotomy ECMO with heparin anticoagulation were analyzed...
August 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
J Kyle Bohman, Matthew N Vogt, Joseph A Hyder
OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of contraindications to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) among adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and assess the impact of contraindications on the number of patients receiving ECMO (case volume). BACKGROUND: The extent to which contraindications may affect case volumes has not been described. METHODS: Retrospective, observational study at an academic tertiary medical center...
May 2016: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
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