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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719216/exploring-ultimate-water-capillary-evaporation-in-nanoscale-conduits
#1
Yinxiao Li, Mohammad Amin Alibakhshi, Yihong Zhao, Chuanhua Duan
Capillary evaporation in nanoscale conduits is an efficient heat/mass transfer strategy that has been widely utilized by both nature and mankind. Despite its broad impact, the ultimate transport limits of capillary evaporation in nanoscale conduits, governed by the evaporation/condensation kinetics at the liquid-vapor interface, have remained poorly understood. Here we report experimental study of the kinetic limits of water capillary evaporation in 2-D nanochannels using a novel hybrid channel design. Our results show that the kinetic-limited evaporation fluxes break down the limits predicated by the classical Hertz-Knudsen equation by an order of magnitude, reaching values up to 37...
July 18, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718615/development-of-nanofiber-sponges-containing-nerve-guidance-conduit-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-in-vivo
#2
Binbin Sun, Zi-Fei Zhou, Tong Wu, Weiming Chen, Dawei Li, Hao Zheng, Hany El-Hamshary, Salem S Al-Deyab, Xiumei Mo, Yinxian Yu
In the study of hollow nerve guidance conduit (NGC), the dispersion of regenerated axons always confused the researchers. To address this problem, filler-containing NGC was prepared, which showed better effect in the application of nerve tissue engineering. In this study, nanofiber sponges with abundant macro-pores, high porosity, and superior compressive strength were fabricated by electrospinning and freeze-drying. Poly (l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone)/silk fibroin (PLCL/SF) nanofiber sponges were used as filler to prepare three-dimensional nanofiber sponges-containing (NS-containing) NGC...
July 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718327/fibrin-glue-increases-the-tensile-strength-of-conduit-assisted-primary-digital-nerve-repair
#3
Jessica R Childe, Steven Regal, Patrick Schimoler, Alexander Kharlamov, Mark C Miller, Peter Tang
BACKGROUND: An ideal peripheral nerve repair construct does not currently exist. Our primary goal was to determine whether fibrin glue adds to the tensile strength of conduit-assisted primary digital nerve repairs. Our secondary goal was to evaluate the impact of varying suture number and location on the tensile strength. METHODS: Ninety cadaveric digital nerves were harvested and divided equally into the following repair groups: A (4/4), B (2/2), C (0/2), D (0/1), and E (0/0) with the first number referring to the number of sutures at the coaptation and the second number referring to the number of sutures at each proximal and distal end of the nerve-conduit junction...
February 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717134/ash-production-by-attrition-in-volcanic-conduits-and-plumes
#4
T J Jones, J K Russell
Tephra deposits result from explosive volcanic eruption and serve as indirect probes into fragmentation processes operating in subsurface volcanic conduits. Primary magmatic fragmentation creates a population of pyroclasts through volatile-driven decompression during conduit ascent. In this study, we explore the role that secondary fragmentation, specifically attrition, has in transforming primary pyroclasts upon transport in volcanic conduits and plumes. We utilize total grain size distributions from a suite of natural and experimentally produced tephra to show that attrition is likely to occur in all explosive volcanic eruptions...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717023/the-evolution-of-diatoms-and-their-biogeochemical-functions
#5
REVIEW
Anne-Sophie Benoiston, Federico M Ibarbalz, Lucie Bittner, Lionel Guidi, Oliver Jahn, Stephanie Dutkiewicz, Chris Bowler
In contemporary oceans diatoms are an important group of eukaryotic phytoplankton that typically dominate in upwelling regions and at high latitudes. They also make significant contributions to sporadic blooms that often occur in springtime. Recent surveys have revealed global information about their abundance and diversity, as well as their contributions to biogeochemical cycles, both as primary producers of organic material and as conduits facilitating the export of carbon and silicon to the ocean interior...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714967/architecture-of-the-type-iv-coupling-protein-complex-of-legionella-pneumophila
#6
Mi-Jeong Kwak, J Dongun Kim, Hyunmin Kim, Cheolhee Kim, James W Bowman, Seonghoon Kim, Keehyoung Joo, Jooyoung Lee, Kyeong Sik Jin, Yeon-Gil Kim, Nam Ki Lee, Jae U Jung, Byung-Ha Oh
Many bacteria, including Legionella pneumophila, rely on the type IV secretion system to translocate a repertoire of effector proteins into the hosts for their survival and growth. Type IV coupling protein (T4CP) is a hexameric ATPase that links translocating substrates to the transenvelope secretion conduit. Yet, how a large number of effector proteins are selectively recruited and processed by T4CPs remains enigmatic. DotL, the T4CP of L. pneumophila, contains an ATPase domain and a C-terminal extension whose function is unknown...
July 17, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712733/long-term-outcomes-after-autogenous-versus-synthetic-lower-extremity-bypass-in-patients-on-hemodialysis
#7
Isibor Arhuidese, Caitlin W Hicks, Satinderjit Locham, Tammam Obeid, Besma Nejim, Mahmoud B Malas
BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis dependence confers unique physiologic conditions. Prior reports of outcomes after infrainguinal open bypass operations in patients on hemodialysis have been based on relatively small sample institutional series. In this study, we evaluate long-term outcomes after open bypass operations in a large contemporary population-based cohort of hemodialysis patients. We studied all hemodialysis patients who underwent infrainguinal open operation using autogenous versus prosthetic conduits in the United States Renal Data System between January 2007 and December 2011...
July 13, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712577/bacterial-adherence-to-graft-tissues-in-static-and-flow-conditions
#8
Tiago Rafael Veloso, Jorien Claes, Soetkin Van Kerckhoven, Bartosz Ditkowski, Luis G Hurtado-Aguilar, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Petra Mela, Ramadan Jashari, Marc Gewillig, Marc F Hoylaerts, Bart Meyns, Ruth Heying
BACKGROUND: Various conduits and stent-mounted valves are used as pulmonary valve graft tissues for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction with good hemodynamic results. Valve replacement carries an increased risk of infective endocarditis (IE). Recent observations have increased awareness of the risk of IE after transcatheter implantation of a stent-mounted bovine jugular vein valve. This study focused on the susceptibility of graft tissue surfaces to bacterial adherence as a potential risk factor for subsequent IE...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707843/health-information-quality-on-the-internet-for-bladder-cancer-and-urinary-diversion-a-multi-lingual-analysis
#9
Julia M Corfield, Nathan Lawrentschuk
BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer patients undergoing radical cystectomy and urinary diversion are faced with difficult decisions regarding mode of urinary diversion. Although these patients may use the Internet as a guide to diagnosis and treatment options, online resources remain largely unregulated leading to a great variation in quality of medical information. Further variation in quality is seen between languages. Fortunately, tools such as an automated toolbar developed by the World Health Organization Health on the Net (HON) Foundation exist to assist physicians in recommending quality online health information to patients...
July 12, 2017: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707171/optimal-use-of-arterial-grafts-during-current-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery
#10
REVIEW
Suzuki Tomoaki
Multiple arterial grafting, including the use of the bilateral internal thoracic arteries (ITAs), has strong benefits on patient clinical outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) but is far from commonly accepted at present. We reviewed the previous randomized and leading observational studies and assembled an up-to-date profile on multiple arterial grafting. Many of the previous trials successfully showed the beneficial effects of arterial grafting after CABG. Although many of these were retrospective studies, the data presented, mostly from world-famous surgeons, show that multiple arterial grafting does have advantages with regard to the long-term patient outcome without increasing rates of early mortality or morbidity...
July 13, 2017: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704262/effect-of-upper-body-position-on-arterial-stiffness-influence-of-hydrostatic-pressure-and-autonomic-function
#11
Elizabeth C Schroeder, Alexander J Rosenberg, Thessa I M Hilgenkamp, Daniel W White, Tracy Baynard, Bo Fernhall
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in arterial stiffness with positional change and whether the stiffness changes are due to hydrostatic pressure alone or if physiological changes in vasoconstriction of the conduit arteries play a role in the modulation of arterial stiffness. METHODS: Thirty participants' (male = 15, 24 ± 4 years) upper bodies were positioned at 0, 45, and 72° angles. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), cardio-ankle vascular index, carotid beta-stiffness index, carotid blood pressure (cBP), and carotid diameters were measured at each position...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702100/transthoracic-versus-transhiatal-esophagectomy-influence-on-patient-survival
#12
Mariusz Łochowski, Barbara Łochowska, Józef Kozak
AIM: To evaluate the survival of patients after surgery of the esophagus/cardia using the transthoracic and transhiatal methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the years 2007-2011, 102 patients were radically treated for cancer of the esophagus/cardia: 24 women and 78 men at the average age of 59.5. There were 38 transthoracic procedures and 64 transhiatal procedures. All patients had a conduit made from the stomach, led through lodges in the esophagus and combined with the stump of the esophagus in the neck following the Collard method...
2017: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697938/outcomes-of-endovascular-recanalization-versus-autogenous-venous-bypass-for-thromboangiitis-obliterans-patients-with-critical-limb-ischemia-due-to-tibioperoneal-arterial-occlusion
#13
Kaichuang Ye, Huihua Shi, Jinbao Qin, Minyi Yin, Xiaobing Liu, Weimin Li, Mi'er Jiang, Xinwu Lu
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to compare the outcomes of endovascular recanalization (ER) vs autogenous venous bypass (AVB) for tibioperoneal arterial occlusion in thromboangiitis obliterans patients with critical lower limb ischemia. METHODS: A total of 90 limbs in 75 patients, successfully treated with ER (ER group, 35 patients, 43 limbs) and AVB (AVB group, 40 patients, 47 limbs) for tibioperoneal arterial occlusions from January 2009 to December 2015 in a single institution, were retrospectively analyzed...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697668/syntrophy-goes-electric-direct-interspecies-electron-transfer
#14
Derek R Lovley
Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) has biogeochemical significance and practical applications that rely on DIET or DIET-based aspects of microbial physiology are growing. Mechanisms for DIET have primarily been studied in defined cocultures in which Geobacter species are one of the DIET partners. Electrically conductive pili (e-pili) can be an important electrical conduit for DIET. However, there may be instances in which electrical contacts are made between electron transport proteins associated with the outer membranes of the partners...
July 11, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697012/comparison-of-direct-site-endovascular-repair-utilizing-expandable-ptfe-stent-grafts-vs-standard-vascular-shunts-in-a-porcine-sus-scrofa-model
#15
Anders J Davidson, Lucas P Neff, J Kevin Grayson, Nathan F Clement, Erik S DeSoucy, Meryl A Simon-Logan, Christopher M Abbot, James B Sampson, Timothy K Williams
INTRODUCTION: The small diameter of temporary vascular shunts for vascular trauma management may restrict flow and result in ischemia or early thrombosis. We have previously reported a clinical experience with direct, open surgical reconstruction using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) stent grafts to create a "sutureless" anastomosis as an alternative to standard temporary vascular shunts. We sought to characterize patency and flow characteristics of these grafts compared to standard shunts in a survival model of porcine vascular injury...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695881/a-case-report-of-modified-laparoscopic-keyhole-plus-repair-for-parastomal-hernia-following-ileal-conduit
#16
S Rajapandian, Samrat V Jankar, Sumanta Dey, Vikram Annamaneni, Sandeep C Sabnis, S Sathiymurthy, R Parthsarathi, P Praveen Raj, P Senthilnathan, C Palanivelu
Parastomal hernia is one of the most common but challenging complication after stoma formation. Modified Sugarbaker technique is the recommended procedure for repair parastomal hernia, however, keyhole repair technique had also been used in certain instances. In cases of parastomal hernia following ileal conduit procedure, the Sugarbaker technique is been described, although with associated theoretical risk of conduit failure. We are reporting a case of post-radical cystectomy with ileal conduit presented with symptomatic large parastomal hernia...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694844/a-synthetic-biology-approach-to-engineering-living-photovoltaics
#17
N Schuergers, C Werlang, C M Ajo-Franklin, A A Boghossian
The ability to electronically interface living cells with electron accepting scaffolds is crucial for the development of next-generation biophotovoltaic technologies. Although recent studies have focused on engineering synthetic interfaces that can maximize electronic communication between the cell and scaffold, the efficiency of such devices is limited by the low conductivity of the cell membrane. This review provides a materials science perspective on applying a complementary, synthetic biology approach to engineering membrane-electrode interfaces...
May 1, 2017: Energy & Environmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690998/results-of-infrainguinal-bypass-with-a-composite-graft-combining-polytetrafluoroethylene-and-vein-graft-in-absence-of-appropriate-saphenous-vein-graft
#18
Myung Jae Jin, Ui Jun Park, Hyoung Tae Kim, Young-Nam Roh
PURPOSE: Use of a composite graft combining a polytetrafluoroethylene graft with an autogenous vein is an option for limb salvage in the absence of an adequate single segment vein graft. We aimed to investigate the results of infrainguinal bypass with a composite graft. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 11 infrainguinal arterial bypasses on 11 limbs which underwent surgery from March 2012 to November 2016. RESULTS: Critical limb ischemia was common (63...
June 2017: Vascular Specialist International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690995/pediatric-vascular-surgery-review-with-a-30-year-experience-in-a-tertiary-referral-center
#19
REVIEW
Seung-Kee Min, Sungsin Cho, Hyun-Young Kim, Sang Joon Kim
Pediatric vascular disease is rare, and remains a big challenge to vascular surgeons. In contrast to adults, surgery for pediatric vascular disease is complicated by issues related to small size, future growth, and availability of suitable vascular conduit. During the last 30 years, 131 major vascular operations were performed in a tertiary referral center, Seoul National University Hospital, including aortoiliac aneurysm, acute or chronic arterial occlusion, renovascular hypertension, portal venous hypertension, trauma, tumor invasion to major abdominal vessels, and others...
June 2017: Vascular Specialist International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689778/urinary-diversion-with-versus-without-bowel-anastomosis-in-patients-with-existing-colostomy-a-multi-institutional-study
#20
Katherine J Cotter, Ronak A Gor, Mary R Kwaan, Yunhua Fan, Piyush Pathak, Jeremy B Myers, Sean P Elliott
OBJECTIVE: To describe the short-term outcomes with the bowel anastomosis vs. no bowel anastomosis approach in adult patients undergoing urinary diversion. METHODS: Chart review was performed of adults undergoing urinary diversion from 2006-2015. Patients with a pre-existing colostomy were divided into a no bowel anastomosis (NBA) and bowel anastomosis (BA) group. Post-operative complications were recorded per the Clavien-Dindo system. Variables were compared using the bowel anastomosis group as a control...
July 6, 2017: Urology
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