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Khaled M Kebaish, Benjamin D Elder, Sheng-Fu L Lo, Timothy F Witham
STUDY DESIGN: Technical report and case illustration. OBJECTIVE: To review the rationale and steps for a sublaminar decompression in the setting of adult deformity surgery and in degenerative spondylosis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Several variations of lumbar laminotomy and posterior decompressions have been reported, although these are primarily in the setting of isolated lumbar stenosis, and often focus on treatment of central stenosis...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
Trevor J G Robinson, Shannon L Roberts, Robert S Burnham, Eldon Loh, Anne M Agur
Image-guided sensory block and radiofrequency ablation of the nerves innervating the sacro-iliac joint require readily identifiable bony landmarks for accurate needle/electrode placement. Understanding the relative locations of the transverse sacral tubercles along the lateral sacral crest is important for ultrasound guidance, as they demarcate the position of the posterior sacral network (S1-S3 ± L5/S4) innervating the posterior sacro-iliac joint. No studies were found that investigated the spatial relationships of these bony landmarks...
2016: BioMed Research International
Jonathan M Weimer, Martin Marinov, Rafi Avitsian
A 58-year old male with grade II L4-L5 spondylolisthesis and degenerative changes presented for single level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. During decompression of the L4 foramina, distraction of the disc space, and placement of the interbody cage and pedicle screws, episodes of extreme bradycardia with up to 5 seconds of asystole were detected on both EKG and invasive hemodynamic monitoring. The events correlated with and could possibly be a result of traction on the dura. Lumbar spinal surgery may be associated with electrophysiological and hemodynamic abnormalities, and anesthesia providers should be aware of such possibilities and the need to respond appropriately with sympathomimetic or vagolytic interventions...
October 7, 2016: World Neurosurgery
G B Mahadewa Tjokorda, Golden Nyoman, Maliawan Sri, Mizuno Junichi
This report presents two cases of cervicobrachialgia and radiculopathy due to multiple cervical herniated discs and spur formation that dealt with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using different titanium interbody cages. The description of the clinical presentation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances and management strategy are discussed. Both cases showed chronic neck pain and radiating pain from the shoulder to the arm. They had a history of blurry vision, cluster head ache, weakness, and numbness on the shoulder for 2 years...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Paulo Esteves Pinto Faria, Bárbara Masalskas, Anders Heyden, Lars Rasmusson, Luiz Antonio Salata
PURPOSE: The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the two-year outcomes following immediate loading of mono-cortically engaged implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty healthy mandible edentulous patients with an average age of 67.3 years and presenting with sufficient bony ridge at the mandible symphysis were included in the study. Four Astra Tech, Ti-Oblast(®) implants were installed between the mental foramina using the mono-cortical anchorage technique...
September 16, 2016: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Deb K Boruah, Arjun Prakash, Rajnikant R Yadav, Dhaval D Dhingani, Shashidhar Achar, Antony Augustine, Kangkana Mahanta
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safe zone for performing blind sternal procedures based on computed tomography (CT) evaluation of congenital midline sternal foramina using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was carried out on 1,180 patients who underwent MDCT of the thorax from March 2015 to February 2016. The MDCT images were evaluated in axial and reformatted planes. Morphometry and prevalence of midline congenital sternal foramina (SF) and manubrio-foraminal distance (MFD) were evaluated...
September 15, 2016: Skeletal Radiology
Paulo Eduardo Miamoto Dias, Geraldo Elias Miranda, Thiago Leite Beaini, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff Melani
The oral cavity's importance in defining the facial region makes it a primary feature for forensic facial reconstruction (FFR). The aim of this study is to construct a pattern of reference for dimensions and proportions of the lips and establish parameters that may help estimate the vermilion borders' height dimensions and the mouth's width. By means of cone beam computed tomography, divided into two samples: sample 1 (n = 322; 137 male, 185 female) verified the linear distances delimited by anatomical landmarks in soft tissue...
2016: PloS One
Giuseppe M Barbaglio, Giuseppe Raudino, Massimiliano Visocchi, Massimiliano Maione, Francesco Certo
BACKGROUND: Colloid cysts are rare benign intracranial lesions classically described as "third ventricle colloid cysts" because of their location within the third ventricle. These lesions' clinical and diagnostic features are mainly related to intermittent or persistent obstruction of foramina of Monro causing cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) circulation impairment and symptoms of raised intracranial pressure. Few reports on colloid cysts located outside the third ventricle have been published over the years...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Sumit Singh, Curtis Qin, Srikanth Medarametla, Shilpa V Hegde
We report a 14-month-old male with craniometaphyseal dysplasia (CMD). The patient presented with a history of diminishing vision and hearing loss. Cranial computed tomography scan showed diffuse calvarial and skull base hyperostosis with excessive bone narrowing the internal auditory canals and skull base foramina. A subsequent skeletal survey revealed other skeletal abnormalities, which led to the diagnosis of CMD. This was later confirmed by ANKH mutation. CMD is a rare genetic disorder that belongs to the group of craniotubular bone dysplasias...
September 2016: Radiology case reports
Jisoo Yoon, Nalini Pather
INTRODUCTION: The anterior ethmoidal foramen (AEF) and posterior ethmoidal foramina (AEF and PEF, respectively) on the medial wall and the cranio-orbital foramen (COF) on the lateral wall are used as landmarks in orbital surgeries. In surgery these foramina, the neurovascular structures they transmit and other orbital structures in close proximity need to be identified to minimise their risk of damage. Despite the clinical importance, the current understandings lack consistency in the precise location, microanatomy and morphology of the foramina...
September 4, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
Sheri K Palejwala, Jonnae Y Barry, Crystal N Rodriguez, Chandni A Parikh, Stephen A Goldstein, G Michael Lemole
Many neoplasms of the head and neck extend centripetally, gaining access to the central nervous system via nerves through the skull base foramina. Often patients with perineural spread have been excluded from aggressive interventions given the overall poor prognosis and technical difficulty when addressing the perineural components. However, in carefully selected patients combined surgical approaches can provide the greatest potential for disease control as well as neural decompression for symptom relief. We performed a retrospective chart review of 20 consecutive patients who underwent skull base approaches for resection of tumors with intracranial extension via perineural spread from 2011 to 2014...
November 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Sérgio Luiz Pinheiro, Giuliana Rodrigues Azenha, Yasmin Marialva Democh, Daniela Camila Nunes, Silvia Provasi, Giovana Masiero Fontanetti, Danilo Antônio Duarte, Carlos Eduardo Fontana, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira Bueno
OBJECTIVE: The present study sought to evaluate the antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis of photodynamic therapy applied before and after reciprocating instrumentation of permanent molars. BACKGROUND: Apical extrusion of debris can cause flare-ups due to introduction of bacteria into the periapical tissues. METHODS: Eighteen mesial roots from permanent mandibular molars were selected. The crowns were removed to obtain a standard root length of 15 mm...
August 25, 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
G Xiong, Z Xiao, H Wang, S Guo, J Tao
Seventeen fresh lunates with stage III Kienböck's disease were scanned with micro-computed tomography. Four regions of interest were selected to measure trabecular parameters, which were compared with those from normal lunates. Within the three regions in the distal surface, there was more compact trabecular bone in the middle region when compared with the palmar and dorsal regions. In the central part, the trabeculae of the Kienböck's lunates were much thicker than those in normal lunates. The diameters of the palmar nutrient foramina of the Kienböck's lunates were significantly smaller than those in normal lunates...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
Aristeidis H Zibis, Vasileios Mitrousias, Kyriaki Baxevanidou, Michael Hantes, Theofilos Karachalios, Dimitrios Arvanitis
PURPOSE: To describe certain anatomical variations of the foramen transversarium, in spine cervical vertebrae in a contemporary specimen of an Indo-European population and approach their clinical importance during cervical spine surgery. METHODS: 102 cervical vertebrae (C2-C7) from 17 different skeletons, intact without any degenerative or traumatic disorders, which belonged to the collection of the Department of Anatomy, were examined. The age of specimens at the time of their death was between 25 and 65 years...
August 23, 2016: European Spine Journal
David Ezra, Youssef Masharawi, Khalil Salame, Viviane Slon, Deborah Alperovitch-Najenson, Israel Hershkovitz
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: This cross-sectional study was conducted on the skeletal remains of individuals of known sex, age, and ethnic origin. The vertebral bodies of levels C3-C7 were measured and analyzed. Whereas many studies were performed on the size and shape of the vertebral bodies in the thoracic and lumbar spines, few have focused on the cervical vertebral bodies. Thus, there is insufficient data in the literature on the anatomy of the cervical spine, especially based on large study populations...
August 17, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Aaron D Skolnik, Laurie A Loevner, Deepak M Sampathu, Jason G Newman, John Y Lee, Linda J Bagley, Kim O Learned
Schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumors that may arise along the complex course of the cranial nerves (CNs), anywhere in the head and neck. Sound knowledge of the CN anatomy and imaging features of schwannomas is paramount for making the correct diagnosis. In this article, we review approaches to diagnosing CN schwannomas by describing their imaging characteristics and the associated clinical presentations. Relevant anatomic considerations are highlighted by using illustrative examples and key differential diagnoses categorized according to regions, which include the anterior skull base, orbit, cavernous sinus, basal cisterns, and neck...
September 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Usman B Mahmood, Fazal Wahab Khan, Benish Fatima, Muhammad Usman Tariq, Saulat H Fatimi
We present a case of a 17-year male with a soft tissue density spreading from the neural foramina (T3) of the spinal cord and involving the right upper thoracic cavity. We managed the patient through surgical intervention and resected the complete tumor. Gross definition and microscopic findings of the resected tissue revealed the definitive diagnosis of melanotic schwannoma. The histological characteristics in this case were very specific and harbour an important diagnostic clue for this rare disease. Malignant melanoma was ruled out on the basis of histological findings...
August 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Milap P Mehta, Rao V Chundury, Eric S Ahn, Dipesh Mehta, Lyman M Jellema, Julian D Perry
PURPOSE: To determine how accurately a ray through the anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramina predicts the location of the optic foramen. METHODS: Dried, well-preserved, complete human skulls without bony defects belonging to the Hamann-Todd osteological collection of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History were examined. Photography was performed and a ray was drawn on orbit photographs extending through the center of the anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramina toward the optic canal...
August 16, 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Davide Mattavelli, Andrea Bolzoni Villaret, Marco Ferrari, Marco Ravanelli, Vittorio Rampinelli, Davide Lancini, Luigi Fabrizio Rodella, Marco Fontanella, Roberto Maroldi, Piero Nicolai, Francesco Doglietto
BACKGROUND: Several endoscopic landmarks for the internal carotid artery have been identified, but they have always been proposed in a "static" perspective. The aim of this study was to investigate how the surgical corridor and optical distortion can influence the perception of carotid landmarks in transnasal endoscopic surgery. METHODS: Computed tomography images of the skull of 20 subjects were analyzed. The petrous carotid angle (PCA) was calculated as the angle between the petrous carotid axis and the coronal plane connecting stylomastoid foramina...
August 13, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Janusz Skrzat, Izabela Mróz, Alexandru Spulber, Jerzy Walocha
The paper describes morphological variants of the jugular foramen of the human skull and discusses the reasons for its frequent asymmetry. Bilateral disproportions between the anteroposterior and mediolateral diameters of the jugular foramina were analyzed. We established that the jugular foramen is extremely narrow when its anteroposterior diameter is less than 5.0 mm. When the mediolateral diameter exceeds 20.0 mm, then the foramen exhibits extreme widening.
2016: Folia Medica Cracoviensia
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