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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911244/neurosurgical-management-in-lateral-meningocele-syndrome-case-report
#1
Erik C Brown, Kunal Gupta, Christina Sayama
Lateral meningocele syndrome (LMS) is a rare genetic connective tissue disorder. It is associated with morphological changes similar to those of other connective tissue disorders, with the unique distinction of multiple, often bilateral and large, lateral meningoceles herniating through the spinal foramina. In some cases, these lateral meningoceles can cause pain and discomfort due to their presence within retroperitoneal tissues or cause direct compression of the spinal nerve root exiting the foramen; in some cases compression may also involve motor weakness...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903340/-the-clinical-application-of-lumbar-plexus-the-first-posterior-sacral-foramina-block-for-hip-arthroplasty-in-elderly-patients
#2
J Li, X J Ke, Y Liu, K Chen, M B Chen, W Mei
Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of lumbar plexus-the first posterior sacral foramina block as an anesthesia technique for hip arthroplasty in elderly patients. Methods: Forty-four patients, aged 60-91 years, weighing 37-100 kg, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Ⅰ-Ⅲ, underwent elective hip arthroplasty in Tongji Hospital from February 2015 to January 2016.All patients received lumbar plexus and the first posterior sacral foramina block.The first posterior sacral foramina puncture point of 23 cases were located by traditional positioning method, the others were orientated via ultrasonic method...
November 22, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896540/variations-in-the-anatomy-of-the-vertebral-artery-cervical-loop-segment-a-potential-predisposing-factor-for-traumatic-basal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#3
Jonathan E Medcalf, C Paul Johnson, Azzam Taktak, Silke Grabherr
Fatal traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage (TBSAH) is a characteristic forensic pathological entity, the investigation of which requires special techniques. In Liverpool, post-mortem room angiography is undertaken, followed by complete removal of the vertebral arteries and histological examination. It has been observed that the arterial anatomy can be highly variable, particularly the length and course of the loop segments located between the C2 vertebra and the dura. In a number of cases of TBSAH the loop segments of torn vessels have appeared relatively short...
November 29, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892447/a-study-on-variations-of-nutrient-foramen-of-humerus-with-its-clinical-implications
#4
D I Mansur, P Manandhar, M K Haque, D K Mehta, S Duwal, B Timalsina
Background Nutrient foramen is an opening into shaft of humerus which gives passage to the blood vessels of medullary cavity. The knowledge of nutrient foramen is important in surgical procedures like bone grafting and more recently in microsurgical vascularized bone transplantation. Objective To determine the number, location and direction of nutrient foramen and whether the nutrient foramens obey the rule of ossification, that is directed away from the growing end of the bone or not. Method The present study consisted of 253 (108 right and 145 left) dried humeri excluding any fracture or pathological abnormalities during the period of 15th December 2014 - 14th February 2015...
January 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891032/clinical-anatomy-and-significance-of-the-thoracic-intervertebral-foramen-a-cadaveric-study-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Grigorios Gkasdaris, Grigorios Tripsianis, Konstantinos Kotopoulos, Stylianos Kapetanakis
INTRODUCTION: The literature is lacking information on the anatomy and the osseous dimensions of the thoracic intervertebral foramen (IVF). We describe the anatomy of the broader area, and we proceed with morphometric data of the vertebrae and the foramina. Depiction of these features is provided with imaging and illustrations. The purpose of this paper is to survey and present the anatomy of the foramen as a whole and provide baseline statistical data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We review relevant literature, and we present data obtained from skeletal samples of known population and sex...
October 2016: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885288/correlation-between-clinical-features-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-lumbar-disc-prolapse
#6
S S Thapa, R B Lakhey, P Sharma, R K Pokhrel
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging is routinely done for diagnosis of lumbar disc prolapse. Many abnormalities of disc are observed even in asymptomatic patient.This study was conducted tocorrelate these abnormalities observed on Magnetic resonance imaging and clinical features of lumbar disc prolapse. METHODS: A This prospective analytical study includes 57 cases of lumbar disc prolapse presenting to Department of Orthopedics, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital from March 2011 to August 2012...
May 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884603/cranial-nerve-involvement-in-charcot-marie-tooth-disease
#7
Nirav Das, Savannah Kandalaft, Xiao Wu, Ajay Malhotra
BACKGROUND: Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) is a rare disorder with less than 200,000 cases reported in the US every year, making diagnosis challenging. MR and CT imaging has become more common in the evaluation of CMT to identify areas of disease involvement. CASE REPORT: A 27-year-old female from Guatemala with a past history of polio initially presented to the emergency room for necrotizing pneumonia. MRI images demonstrated smoothly enlarged, mildly enhancing trigeminal nerves...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872546/evaluation-of-root-canal-morphology-of-maxillary-second-premolars-in-a-saudi-arabian-sub-population-an-in-vitro-microcomputed-tomography-study
#8
Mutasim Elnour, Abdul Khabeer, Emad AlShwaimi
AIM: To investigate the root canal morphology of maxillary second premolars in a Saudi Arabian subpopulation using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). METHODOLOGY: Micro-CT analysis was performed on 100 maxillary second premolars. The anatomy of each tooth (number of roots, canals, orifices, and apical foramina, and the presence of apical deltas and accessory canals) was analyzed from reconstructed three-dimensional images. RESULTS: The most common morphology was a single root (67%), followed by two roots (30%), and three roots (3%)...
October 2016: Saudi Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870350/the-periosteum-of-the-zygomatic-arch-vascularization-and-growth
#9
Susan W Herring, Pannee Ochareon
In addition to conveying the forces of attaching muscles and ligaments to the zygomatic and temporal bones, the arch periosteum is responsible for lateral apposition and medial resorption during the growth period. In this contribution, we describe the vasculature of the zygomatic arch in young pigs (Sus scrofa dom.) in order to understand the relationship of osseous and periosteal vessels to each other, to surrounding tissues, and to patterns of modeling. Subjects 2-6 weeks of age were perfused with vascular fill; some also received the vital bone label calcein...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866248/microanatomy-of-the-brachial-plexus-roots-and-its-clinical-significance
#10
Li-Yuan Zhong, Ai-Ping Wang, Li Hong, Sheng-Hua Chen, Xian-Qin Wang, Yun-Cheng Lv, Tian-Hong Peng
PURPOSE: To provide the anatomical basis of brachial plexus roots for the diagnosis and treatment of brachial plexus root avulsion injury. METHODS: The morphological features of brachial plexus roots were observed and measured on 15 cervicothoracic spine of adult cadavers. The relationship of brachial plexus nerve roots and the surrounding tissues also were observed, as well as the blood supply of anterior and posterior roots of the brachial plexus. RESULTS: Origination of the nerve roots in the dorsal-ventral direction from the midline was fine-tuned at each level along the spinal cord...
November 19, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862599/effects-of-image-plane-patient-positioning-and-foraminal-zone-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-measurements-of-canine-lumbosacral-intervertebral-foramina
#11
Claudia Zindl, Russell L Tucker, Jelena Jovanovik, Constanza Gomez Alvarez, David Price, Noel Fitzpatrick
Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis has been suspected to have a dynamic component, especially regarding encroachment of the L7 nerve roots exiting the lumbosacral foramina. Angled cross-sectional imaging of the neuroforamina has been found improve the accuracy of the diagnosis of stenosis in humans. In this anatomic study, foraminal apertures were evaluated by MRI at the entry, middle, and exit zones of the nerve roots in 30 dogs that were clinically affected by lumbosacral disease. Standard vs. oblique planar orientation and neutral vs...
November 16, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860392/novel-ct-guided-biopsy-of-isolated-perineural-spread-of-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-along-the-trigeminal-nerve-masquerading-as-chronic-trigeminal-neuropathy
#12
Xian Zhang Eric Yong, Jonathan Dillon, Paul Smith, Cesar Salinas-La Rosa, Ashu Jhamb
The differential diagnoses for chronic peripheral neuropathy are broad and diagnosing a cause can be challenging. We present a case of isolated perineural spread of adenoid cystic carcinoma to the trigeminal nerve involving skull base foramina and Meckel's cave in the setting of chronic trigeminal neuropathy and no known prior malignancy. Computed tomography-guided core (CT) needle biopsy was needed to arrive at a diagnosis and a novel approach was required to obtain tissue from the trigeminal nerve lesion at foramen ovale...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859500/skull-ontogeny-and-modularity-in-two-species-of-lagenorhynchus-morphological-and-ecological-implications
#13
Daniela L Del Castillo, Mariana Viglino, David A Flores, Humberto L Cappozzo
Comparisons of skull shape between closely related species can provide information on the role that phylogeny and function play in cranial evolution. We used 3D-anatomical landmarks in order to study the skull ontogeny of two closely related species, Lagenorhynchus obscurus and Lagenorhynchus australis, with a total sample of 52 skulls. We found shared trends between species, such as the relative compression of the neurocranium and the enlargement of the rostrum during ontogeny. However, these are common mammalian features, associated with prenatal brain development and sensory capsules...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853608/fossil-skulls-reveal-that-blood-flow-rate-to-the-brain-increased-faster-than-brain-volume-during-human-evolution
#14
Roger S Seymour, Vanya Bosiocic, Edward P Snelling
The evolution of human cognition has been inferred from anthropological discoveries and estimates of brain size from fossil skulls. A more direct measure of cognition would be cerebral metabolic rate, which is proportional to cerebral blood flow rate (perfusion). The hominin cerebrum is supplied almost exclusively by the internal carotid arteries. The sizes of the foramina that transmitted these vessels in life can be measured in hominin fossil skulls and used to calculate cerebral perfusion rate. Perfusion in 11 species of hominin ancestors, from Australopithecus to archaic Homo sapiens, increases disproportionately when scaled against brain volume (the allometric exponent is 1...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844258/surface-anatomical-landmarks-for-the-location-of-posterior-sacral-foramina-in-sacral-nerve-stimulation
#15
A Povo, M Arantes, K E Matzel, J Barbosa, M A Ferreira, D Pais, A Rodríguez-Baeza
BACKGROUND: Sacral nerve stimulation is a common treatment for various pelvic floor disorders. It consists of the percutaneous introduction of electrodes through the posterior sacral foramina for therapeutic stimulation of the target sacral spinal nerve. The aim of our study was to determine the surface anatomical landmarks of the sacrum to facilitate identification of the posterior sacral foramina. METHODS: This study was conducted on 20 human cadavers. The cadavers were placed in a prone position, and all the soft tissues of the sacral region were removed to allow exposure of the osseous structures...
November 14, 2016: Techniques in Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837265/unusual-foramen-in-the-middle-cranial-fossae-of-adult-black-south-african-skull-specimens
#16
Pedzisai Mazengenya, Okobi Ekpo
Variations of the skull base foramina are quite common and often cause surgical confusion during surgical intervention of the region. The unusual foramen was observed in five (0.98%) adult skulls of black South Africans obtained from the Raymond A Dart collection of human specimens housed in the School of Anatomical Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand. Three of the five specimens were females while the remaining two were males. In four of the five skulls, the unusual foramen was located anterolateral to the foramen rotundum both on the left and right sides...
November 11, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830877/the-prevalence-and-morphometric-features-of-mastoid-emissary-vein-on-multidedector-computed-tomography
#17
Gulen Demirpolat, Erdogan Bulbul, Bahar Yanık
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the prevalence and morphometric features of mastoid emissary vein (MEV) on multidedector computed tomography (MDCT) scans, emphasize its clinical significance and review its surgical implications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cranial and temporal bone MDCTs of 248 patients (496 sides) were analyzed by two radiologists. Mastoid foramen (MF) was defined on the 3 dimensional volume rendered (3DVR) images. The MF and mastoid emissary canal (MEC) were investigated in axial thin slices and the diameters of the largest MF and MEC were measured...
November 10, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830868/a-case-of-a-single-intracranial-vertebral-artery-and-cerebral-infarct
#18
Kaitlyn Blackburn, Leah Labranche, Jonathan Kalmey, Randy Joseph Kulesza
The vertebral arteries are commonly affected by anatomical variation. This variation ranges from slight asymmetry in arterial diameter between the right and left sides to complete absence of a vertebral artery on one side. Asymmetry in diameter is a common observation, although complete absence of the artery is rare. Herein, we report on a 79-year-old maleanatomical donor who, upon brain removal, was found to have a single intracranial vertebral artery which was the sole source of the basilar artery. During dissection of the neck, both right and left vertebral arteries were identified arising from the subclavian arteries...
November 10, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816860/unsupervised-boundary-delineation-of-spinal-neural-foramina-using-a-multi-feature-and-adaptive-spectral-segmentation
#19
Xiaoxu He, Heye Zhang, Mark Landis, Manas Sharma, James Warrington, Shuo Li
As a common disease in the elderly, neural foramina stenosis (NFS) brings a significantly negative impact on the quality of life due to its symptoms including pain, disability, fall risk and depression. Accurate boundary delineation is essential to the clinical diagnosis and treatment of NFS. However, existing clinical routine is extremely tedious and inefficient due to the requirement of physicians' intensively manual delineation. Automated delineation is highly needed but faces big challenges from the complexity and variability in neural foramina images...
October 29, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812625/prevalence-and-morphometric-analysis-of-three-rooted-mandibular-first-molars-in-a-brazilian-subpopulation
#20
Clarissa Teles Rodrigues, Christiano de Oliveira-Santos, Norberti Bernardineli, Marco Antonio Hungaro Duarte, Clovis Monteiro Bramante, Paloma Gagliardi Minotti-Bonfante, Ronald Ordinola-Zapata
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of three-rooted mandibular molars in a Brazilian population using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to analyze the anatomy of mandibular first molars with three roots through micro-CT. Material and Methods: CBCT images of 116 patients were reviewed to determine the prevalence of three-rooted first mandibular molars in a Brazilian subpopulation. Furthermore, with the use of micro-CT, 55 extracted three-rooted mandibular first molars were scanned and reconstructed to assess root length, distance between canal orifices, apical diameter, Vertucci's classification, presence of apical delta, number of foramina and furcations, lateral and accessory canals...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
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