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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542839/how-whales-used-to-filter-exceptionally-preserved-baleen-in-a-miocene-cetotheriid
#1
Felix G Marx, Alberto Collareta, Anna Gioncada, Klaas Post, Olivier Lambert, Elena Bonaccorsi, Mario Urbina, Giovanni Bianucci
Baleen is a comb-like structure that enables mysticete whales to bulk feed on vast quantities of small prey, and ultimately allowed them to become the largest animals on Earth. Because baleen rarely fossilises, extremely little is known about its evolution, structure and function outside the living families. Here we describe, for the first time, the exceptionally preserved baleen apparatus of an entirely extinct mysticete morphotype: the Late Miocene cetotheriid, Piscobalaena nana, from the Pisco Formation of Peru...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542468/alveoli-teeth-and-tooth-loss-understanding-the-homology-of-internal-mandibular-structures-in-mysticete-cetaceans
#2
Carlos Mauricio Peredo, Nicholas D Pyenson, Mark D Uhen, Christopher D Marshall
The evolution of filter feeding in baleen whales (Mysticeti) facilitated a wide range of ecological diversity and extreme gigantism. The innovation of filter feeding evolved in a shift from a mineralized upper and lower dentition in stem mysticetes to keratinous baleen plates that hang only from the roof of the mouth in extant species, which are all edentulous as adults. While all extant mysticetes are born with a mandible lacking a specialized feeding structure (i.e., baleen), the bony surface retains small foramina with elongated sulci that often merge together in what has been termed the alveolar gutter...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540612/clival-canal-and-clival-foramen-development-in-the-fetal-and-infant-basioccipital
#3
Matthew J Zdilla
PURPOSE: There is a paucity of research regarding both the development and the prevalence of the clival canal or clival foramen in fetuses. Reports that have examined child and adult populations have posited ideas for the development of the canal and foramen; however, they have done so in the absence of anatomical data from the fetal population. Therefore, the present study was performed to elucidate the development of the clival canal and foramen through the assessment of perinatal basioccipitals...
May 24, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512551/consensus-statements-and-clinical-recommendations-on-treatment-indications-surgical-procedures-prosthetic-protocols-and-complications-following-all-on-4-standard-treatment-9th-mozo-grau-ticare-conference-in-quintanilla-spain
#4
REVIEW
Miguel Penarrocha-Diago, María Penarrocha-Diago, Regino Zaragozí-Alonso, David Soto-Penaloza, Meeting On Behalf Of The Ticare Consensus
OBJECTIVES: The present consensus report critically evaluates the scientific evidence based on a comprehensive systematic review of the All-On-4 treatment concept, focusing primarily on the treatment indications, surgical procedures and prosthetic protocols, and secondarily on the mechanical and biological complications involved. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic review was made in advance of the meeting. Consensus statements, treatment guidelines and recommendations for future research were based on within-group as well as plenary debates and discussions of the systematic review...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493179/where-to-position-osteotomies-in-genioglossal-advancement-surgery-based-on-locations-of-the-mental-foramen-canine-lateral-incisor-central-incisor-and-genial-tubercle
#5
Joshua S Park, Christopher Lee, Jason M Rogers, Ho-Hyun Sun, Yuan F Liu, Jeffrey A Elo, Jared C Inman
PURPOSE: The study aimed to provide precise measurements of anterior mandibular structural anatomy and to explore potential osteotomies for genioglossal advancement. METHODS: Cone beam computed tomography was used to analyze 33 randomly selected patients undergoing surgery for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) between 2014 and 2016 at an academic surgical hospital. The locations of relevant mandibular structures were measured and statistical modeling was performed. RESULTS: Mean horizontal distances from midline to the mental foramina and the roots of the canine, lateral incisor, and central incisor were 22...
May 11, 2017: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491486/crest-calcinosis-affecting-the-lumbar-and-cervical-spine-and-the-use-of-minimally-invasive-surgery
#6
Kassem Faraj, Kristin Perez-Cruet, Mick Perez-Cruet
Calcinosis in CREST (calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia) syndrome can affect the spinal and paraspinal areas. We present the first case to our knowledge where a CREST syndrome patient required surgery for spinal calcinosis in both the cervical and lumbar areas. A 66-year-old female with a history of CREST syndrome presented with right-sided lower extremity radicular pain. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed bilateral lumbar masses (5.8 cm on the right, 3...
April 8, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474979/bone-deformities-as-a-complication-of-giant-thoracic-aortic-aneurysm
#7
Ahmet Aslan, Yiğitcan Kartal, Ercan Ayaz, Mine Aslan, Safiye Sanem Dereli Bulut, Mehmet Ali Ağırbaşlı, Aslıhan Semiz Oysu
The contained rupture of thoracic aortic aneurysm and related bone deformities is a rare condition. The diagnosis is critical due to potential and fatal complications. Radiologic evaluation is required to show the location, extension, and complications. Herein we present the X-ray radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance images of a giant dissected and contained rupture of the thoracic aortic aneurysm. The aneurysm destructed the adjacent vertebrae and rib, resulting in compression of dural sac and spinal cord, and obliteration of the neural foramina...
January 1, 2017: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462042/agerinia-marandati-sp-nov-a-new-early-eocene-primate-from-the-iberian-peninsula-sheds-new-light-on-the-evolution-of-the-genus-agerinia
#8
Joan Femenias-Gual, Raef Minwer-Barakat, Judit Marigó, Miquel Poyatos-Moré, Salvador Moyà-Solà
BACKGROUND: The Eocene was the warmest epoch of the Cenozoic and recorded the appearance of several orders of modern mammals, including the first occurrence of Euprimates. During the Eocene, Euprimates were mainly represented by two groups, adapiforms and omomyiforms, which reached great abundance and diversity in the Northern Hemisphere. Despite this relative abundance, the record of early Eocene primates from the European continent is still scarce and poorly known, preventing the observation of clear morphological trends in the evolution of the group and the establishment of phylogenetic relationships among different lineages...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439161/three-dimensional-analysis-of-the-anatomical-characteristics-and-dimensions-of-the-nasopalatine-canal-using-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#9
Nikhil V Jain, Affaf A Gharatkar, Bandish A Parekh, Smita I Musani, Umang Deepak Shah
AIM: Placement of implants in the maxillary anterior region needs to be preceded by careful analysis of the area as in addition to the functional aspect the esthetic outcome is of prime importance. This descriptive study evaluated anatomical characteristics and dimensions of the nasopalatine canal (NC) from coronal, sagittal and axial aspects using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) giving it a three dimensional analytical approach. Also the dimensions of the corresponding buccal bone plate (BBP) of the alveolar process were evaluated...
June 2017: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413736/targeted-intraspinal-radiofrequency-ablation-for-lumbar-spinal-stenosis
#10
Robert E Jacobson, Michelle Granville, Jesse Hatgis DO
INTRODUCTION: By using a combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) of the lumbar spine, it is possible to distinguish between spinal stenosis caused by bone compression and specific soft tissue epidural intraspinal lesions that cause localized spinal canal stenosis and neural compression. Examples include facet cysts and yellow ligament hypertrophy. Many of these patients are elderly with medical comorbidities that make open surgery problematic. MATERIALS & METHODS: This is a study of patients with predominantly soft tissue stenosis being treated with targeted intraspinal radiofrequency (RF) heat ablation...
March 10, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413581/robotic-assisted-inferior-vena-cava-filter-retrieval
#11
Shahin Owji, Tony Lu, Thomas M Loh, Adeline Schwein, Alan B Lumsden, Jean Bismuth
Although anticoagulation remains the mainstay of therapy for patients with venous thromboembolism, guidelines recommend the use of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters in those who fail anticoagulation or have contraindications to its use. Short-term use of filters has proven effective in reducing the rate of pulmonary embolism. However, their extended use is associated with a variety of complications such as thrombosis, filter migration, or caval perforation, thus making a case for timely filter retrieval. This is the case of a 68-year-old female with a history of chronic oral anticoagulation use for multiple deep venous thrombi (DVT) and pulmonary emboli (PE) who required cervical and thoracic spinal intervention for spondylosis and foramina stenosis...
January 2017: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389810/perineural-spread-susceptible-structures-a-non-pathological-evaluation-of-the-skull-base
#12
Francisco J Barrera-Flores, Natalia Villarreal-Del Bosque, Alejandro Díaz González-Colmenero, Carolina Garza-González, Rodolfo Morales-Ávalos, Ricardo Pinales-Razo, Guillermo Elizondo-Riojas, Santos Guzmán-López, Rodrigo E Elizondo-Omaña
Perineural spread adenoid cystic carcinoma can alter the dimension of foramina and canals of the skull base. The objective of this study was to determine the range of normal variation of the foramina and canals of both hemicranium. We analyzed 200 individuals with no alterations of the skull base in a retrospective manner using high-resolution computed tomography. We measured the short and long axis diameters of the foramen rotundum (FR), foramen ovale (FO), stylomastoid foramen (SMF), pterygoid canal (PTC), internal auditory canal (IAC), and the facial nerve canal in its labyrinthine portion (LPFC) to calculate the area in each hemicranium, compare them and obtain the normal range of asymmetry...
April 7, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377148/anatomic-comparison-of-contralateral-premolars
#13
Gaute Floer Johnsen, Sazan Dara, Sameenah Asjad, Pia Titterud Sunde, Håvard Jostein Haugen
INTRODUCTION: The comparative anatomy of contralateral premolars has not been previously studied. The purpose of this micro-computed tomography investigation was to qualitatively and quantitatively assess and compare the morphology of contralateral premolars in terms of length, canal width, dentinal thicknesses, accessory canals, root canal configurations, isthmi, C-shapes, root canal orifices, and apical foramina. The null hypothesis (H0) is that contralateral premolars are more morphologically similar than randomly assigned pairs for simple morphometric measurements (lengths, canal widths, and dentinal thickness)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369018/anatomical-description-of-zygomatic-foramina-in-african-american-skulls
#14
Yue Zhao, Rao V Chundury, Alexander D Blandford, Julian D Perry
PURPOSE: The zygomaticofacial/temporal/orbital nerve is a terminal branch of the zygomatic nerve and exits the orbit through zygomatic foramina. The nomenclature in the literature varies with some studies identifying all 3 foramina on the malar surface of the zygoma, while others describe each along different aspects of the zygoma. In this study, foramen on the malar surface of the zygoma is termed zygomatic foramen, and the authors describe anatomical variations in the position and number of these foramina in an African American population...
March 31, 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366688/a-novel-diagnostic-parameter-foraminal-stenotic-ratio-using-3d-mri-as-a-discriminator-for-surgery-in-symptomatic-lumbar-foraminal-stenosis
#15
Kentaro Yamada, Yuichiro Abe, Shigenobu Satoh, Yasushi Yanagibashi, Takahiko Hyakumachi, Takeshi Masuda
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: No previous studies have reported the radiological features of patients requiring surgery in symptomatic lumbar foraminal stenosis. PURPOSE: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of a novel technique, foraminal stenotic ratio (FSR), using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D-MRI) for lumbar foraminal stenosis at L5-S by comparing patients requiring surgery, those with successful conservative treatment, and asymptomatic patients. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective radiologic comparative study...
March 30, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366198/another-look-at-the-foramen-magnum-in-bipedal-mammals
#16
Gabrielle A Russo, E Christopher Kirk
A more anteriorly positioned foramen magnum evolved in concert with bipedalism at least four times within Mammalia: once in macropodid marsupials, once in heteromyid rodents, once in dipodid rodents, and once in hominoid primates. Here, we expand upon previous research on the factors influencing mammalian foramen magnum position (FMP) and angle with four new analyses. First, we quantify FMP using a metric (basioccipital ratio) not previously examined in a broad comparative sample of mammals. Second, we evaluate the potential influence of relative brain size on both FMP and foramen magnum angle (FMA)...
April 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353306/anatomical-variations-of-the-sternal-angle-and-anomalies-of-adult-human-sterna-from-the-galloway-osteological-collection-at-makerere-university-anatomy-department
#17
Gonzaga Gonza Kirum, Ian Munabi, John Kukiriza, Gerald Tumusiime, Mesach Kange, Charles Ibingira, William Buwembo
BACKGROUND: Anatomical variations of the sternal angle and anomalies of the sternum are unique happenings of major clinical significance.It is known that misplaced sternal angles may lead to inaccurate counting of ribs and create challenges with intercostal nerve blocks and needle thoracostomies. Sternal foramina may pose a great hazard during sternal puncture, due to inadvertent cardiac or great vessel injury. These sternal variations and anomalies are rarely reported among Africans...
March 29, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352498/traumatic-cervical-nerve-root-avulsion-with-pseudomeningocele-formation
#18
Ali S Haider, Ian T Watson, Suraj Sulhan, Dean Leonard, Eliel N Arrey, Umair Khan, Phu Nguyen, Kennith F Layton
Cervical nerve root avulsion is a well-documented result of motor vehicle collision (MVC), especially when occurring at high velocities. These avulsions are commonly traction injuries of nerve roots that may be accompanied by a tear in the meninges through the vertebral foramina with associated collections of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), thereby resulting in a pseudomeningocele. We present a case of a 19-year-old male who experienced an MVC and was brought to the emergency department (ED) with right arm paralysis and other injuries...
February 14, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343254/dynamic-measurements-of-cervical-neural-foramina-during-neck-movements-in-asymptomatic-young-volunteers
#19
Victor Chang, Azam Basheer, Timothy Baumer, Daniel Oravec, Colin P McDonald, Michael J Bey, Stephen Bartol, Yener N Yeni
PURPOSE: Neural foraminal dimensions are considered important in nerve root compression and development of cervical radiculopathy, but baseline data regarding their range during normal motion are not available. An in vivo study of cervical foraminal motion was conducted to characterize normal 3D dynamic foraminal dimensions during physiological neck motion and compare between different tasks and intervertebral segments. METHODS: Biplane X-ray imaging and computed tomography-based markerless tracking were used to measure foraminal height (FH) and width (FW) from five asymptomatic subjects during neck axial rotation and extension...
March 25, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340174/application-of-virtual-navigation-with-multimodality-image-fusion-in-foramen-ovale-cannulation
#20
Xixiong Qiu, Weizong Liu, Mingdong Zhang, Hengzhou Lin, Shoujun Zhou, Yi Lei, Jun Xia
Objective. : Idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (ITN) can be effectively treated with radiofrequency thermocoagulation. However, this procedure requires cannulation of the foramen ovale, and conventional cannulation methods are associated with high failure rates. Multimodality imaging can improve the accuracy of cannulation because each imaging method can compensate for the drawbacks of the other. We aim to determine the feasibility and accuracy of percutaneous foramen ovale cannulation under the guidance of virtual navigation with multimodality image fusion in a self-designed anatomical model of human cadaveric heads...
March 6, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
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