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Binit Sureka, Aliza Mittal, Mahesh K Mittal, Kanhaiya Agarwal, Mukul Sinha, Brij Bhushan Thukral
Background: Accurate and detailed measurements of spinal canal diameter (SCD) and transverse foraminal morphometry are essential for understanding spinal column-related diseases and for surgical planning, especially for transpedicular screw fixation. This is especially because lateral cervical radiographs do not provide accurate measurements. Aim: This study was conducted to measure the dimensions of the transverse foramen sagittal and transverse diameters (SFD, TFD), SCD, and the distance of spinal canal from the transverse foramina (dSC-TF) at C1-C7 level in the Indian population...
March 2018: Neurology India
Deborah J Bird, William J Murphy, Lester Fox-Rosales, Iman Hamid, Robert A Eagle, Blaire Van Valkenburgh
The evolution of mammalian olfaction is manifested in a remarkable diversity of gene repertoires, neuroanatomy and skull morphology across living species. Olfactory receptor genes (ORGs), which initiate the conversion of odorant molecules into odour perceptions and help an animal resolve the olfactory world, range in number from a mere handful to several thousand genes across species. Within the snout, each of these ORGs is exclusively expressed by a discrete population of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), suggesting that newly evolved ORGs may be coupled with new OSN populations in the nasal epithelium...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Konstantinos Natsis, Maria Piagkou, Nikolaos Lazaridis, Trifon Totlis, Nikolaos Anastasopoulos, Jannis Constantinidis
PURPOSE: The current study investigated the incidence, morphology and morphometry of the ossified ligaments expanding between petrous bone and posterior clinoid processes and in between the anterior, middle and posterior clinoid processes. Side symmetry, gender dimorphism and age influence were also studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 123 adult Greek dry skulls were observed. RESULTS: A caroticoclinoid bar (CCB) was found in 60.2%. Partial CCBs appeared more commonly (36...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Gesa Bakker, Joerg Hattingen, Hartmut Stuetzer, Joerg Isenberg
OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of insufficiency fractures of the sacrum in an elder population increases annually. Fractures show very different morphology. We aimed to classify sacral insufficiency fractures according to the position of cortical break and possible need for intervention. METHODS: Between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2014, all patients with a proven fracture of the sacrum following a low-energy or an even unnoticed trauma were prospectively registered : 117 females and 13 males...
March 2018: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
Reda Mohamed
The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric values of the skull and the mandible of the common opossum from the Caribbean island of Trinidad and Tobago. The skulls and mandibles were obtained from ten opossums captured for research purposes. The skulls and mandibles were prepared and cleaned using standard method. Some anatomical landmarks of the skulls and mandibles were identified and measured. The results were important for identification of the common opossum via comparison and discussion of our results with that of other marsupial species...
March 9, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Yue Deng, Yaping Xu, Huanhai Liu, Hu Peng, Qilei Tao, Hongyi Liu, Haibin Liu, Jian Wu, Xiaoping Chen, Jingping Fan
Objective To investigate the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on the nerve regeneration and functional recovery of facial expression muscles in facial nerve defect rats. Methods Sixty rats were surgically introduced with a 1-cm defect on the right facial nerves and evenly divided into the Surgery group (Group A, the main trunk of the right facial nerve was surgically cut-off with a 1.0 cm at the foramina stylomastoideum) and the Surgery + ES group (Group B). Twenty normal rats were as normal control group (without receiving surgery or ES)...
March 2018: Neurological Research
Kaan Yağmurlu, Michael A Mooney, Kaith K Almefty, Baran Bozkurt, Necmettin Tanriover, Andrew S Little, Mark C Preul
OBJECTIVE: To describe an endoscopic anterolateral surgical route to the lateral portion of Meckel's cave. METHODS: A sublabial transmaxillary transpterygoid approach was performed in 6 cadaveric heads (12 sides). A craniectomy was drilled between the foramen rotundum (FR) and foramen ovale (FO) with defined borders. Extradural dissection was performed up to the V2-V3 junction of the trigeminal ganglion. The working space was analyzed using anatomical measurements...
March 3, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Gulzar Gupta, Rajveer Garg, Chetan Wadhwa, Hanish Bansal, Rakesh Kumar Kaushal
Lipomas and lipoblastomas are benign tumors of mesenchymal origin in contrast to liposarcoma that is a malignant tumor. Atypical lipomatous lesion arising from embryonal fat cells is termed as lipoblastoma. In the present case report 9-month-old male presented to us with painless, rapidly progressing mass over back, power was normal in all four limbs, fine needle aspiration cytology was suggestive of cellular tissue, magnetic resonance imaging suggestive of well-defined enhancing mass in paravertebral location, extending from D3 to D10 vertebrae with intraspinal extension, communicating through neural foramina at level of D7...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Chunan Zhang, Longfei Zhuang, Linfeng Fan, Jiaji Mo, Zhuoli Huang, Yingxin Gu
The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of 3 kinds of mandibular lingual foramina through cone beam computed tomography images to analyze its diameter, frequency, location and its correlation with age in southeast Chinese mainland population. Lingual foramina in 299 patients were grouped into midline lingual foramina (MLF), lateral lingual foramina (LLF), and nutrient foramina (NF) with diameters and frequency measured. Vertical distances from foramina to mandibular inferior border were recorded as Hinf...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Paul J Choi, Joe Iwanaga, R Shane Tubbs
A sternal foramen (SF), which arises from the incomplete fusion of the cartilaginous neonatal sternum, is a relatively common anatomical variation found in 2.5% to 13.8 % of all individuals. SFs are usually located at the lower third of the sternal body and their average diameter is 6.5 mm. An SF is subclinical; however, its close proximity to the thoracic organs, i.e., the heart and lungs, entails a risk of serious complications from blinded sternal interventions. Moreover, its presence can lead to misinterpretation of radiological and postmortem findings...
December 8, 2017: Curēus
Aristeidis Zibis, Vasileios Mitrousias, Nikolaos Galanakis, Nikoletta Chalampalaki, Dimitrios Arvanitis, Apostolos Karantanas
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to examine variations of the foramen transversarium and the vertebral artery in computed tomography angiographies (CTa) of the cervical spine, investigate their coexistence, and present possible considerations regarding such variations in spine surgical procedures. METHODS: Fifty CTa of the neck were retrospectively reviewed. Transverse and anteroposterior diameter of the foramen and diameter of the vertebral artery were measured...
February 17, 2018: European Spine Journal
Tamir Tawfik, Joe Iwanaga, Emre Yilmaz, Paul Choi, Charlotte Wilson, Emily Simonds, Jared J Marks, Haynes L Harkey, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
OBJECTIVE: Pedicle screws placed into C2 necessitate a thorough understanding of this bone's unique anatomy. Although multiple landmarks and measurements have been used by surgeons, these are often varied in the literature with no consensus. Herein, we studied one recently proposed landmark using the nutrient foramina of the posterior aspect of C2 for pedicle screw placement. METHODS: On 19 (38 sides) C2 dry bone specimens, the presence, size, location, and distance from the midline of the nutrient foramina found at the junction between the isthmus and lamina were documented and measured...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Zhongyi Han, Benzheng Wei, Stephanie Leung, Ilanit Ben Nachum, David Laidley, Shuo Li
Pathogenesis-based diagnosis is a key step to prevent and control lumbar neural foraminal stenosis (LNFS). It conducts both early diagnosis and comprehensive assessment by drawing crucial pathological links between pathogenic factors and LNFS. Automated pathogenesis-based diagnosis would simultaneously localize and grade multiple spinal organs (neural foramina, vertebrae, intervertebral discs) to diagnose LNFS and discover pathogenic factors. The automated way facilitates planning optimal therapeutic schedules and relieving clinicians from laborious workloads...
February 15, 2018: Neuroinformatics
Doug M Boyer, Arianna R Harrington
Supplying the central nervous system with oxygen and glucose for metabolic activities is a critical function for all animals at physiologic, anatomical, and behavioral levels. A relatively proximate challenge to nourishing the brain is maintaining adequate blood flow. Euarchontans (primates, dermopterans and treeshrews) display a diversity of solutions to this challenge. Although the vertebral artery is a major encephalic vessel, previous research has questioned its importance for irrigating the cerebrum. This presents a puzzling scenario for certain strepsirrhine primates (non-cheirogaleid lemuriforms) that have reduced promontorial branches of the internal carotid artery and no apparent alternative encephalic vascular route except for the vertebral artery...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Susanth Subramanian, Gandham Edmond Jonathan, Bimal Patel, Krishna Prabhu
INTRODUCTION: Synovial sarcoma is a rare mesenchymal malignant neoplasm that accounts for less than 10% of soft tissue sarcomas. About 95% of the sarcomas occur in the extremities. Primary synovial sarcomas of the spine are a rare tumor arising from the paravertebral regions, paraspinal muscles or epidural spaces. PURPOSE: To report an atypical radiological presentation of synovial sarcoma of the thoracic spine mimicking a nerve sheath tumor in an elderly adult and describe the management with review of the literature...
February 15, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
J Rajkohila, Priyanka Daniel, Sakunthala Ambikaipakan, Suganthy Rabi
Background: Mental foramen (MF) is an important landmark for administration of local anesthesia in surgical procedures involving the mandible. Additional mental foramina, called accessory mental foramina (AMF) transmitting branches of mental nerve, have been reported. Detection of AMFs in presurgical imaging may reduce postoperative pain in dental surgical procedures. Aim: The aim of the study was to study the incidence and morphometric analysis of accessory MF in the dry human mandibles of South Indian population...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Nyer Firdoose Chintamani Subhan
The normal flexibility in morphology and topography of body structures may be termed as an anatomical variation. This manuscript, aims to present a unique discovery of 'coronoid foramina' bilaterally along with bilateral accessory foramina over the 'lateral aspect of the ramus of the mandible' which has never been seen or documented in the literature so far in a live patient. It is noteworthy to realize a trait of phylogenetic context in these discoveries.
February 8, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Lika'a Fasih Y Al-Kzayer, Shamil Naji Sarsam, Nagham Younus Alhur, Tingting Liu, Yozo Nakazawa
Goldenhar´s syndrome (GS) also known as oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) is a relatively rare condition. GS is of multifactorial etiology that includes environmental and/or genetic factors, in addition to teratogens that disturb the blastogenesis. A 5-year-old girl from Saudi Arabia, was a member of dizygotic twins conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART), and born with features of GS. She had asymmetrical face, cleft lip and palate, right microphthalmia and microtia. Radiological imaging showed right maxillary and mandibular bone hypoplasia, asymmetrically enlarged parietal foramina, a persistent midline occipital foramen, abnormal bone arising from occipital bone, extending along tentorium cerebelli, and a lipoma at the right tentorium cerebelli...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Adel M Badawy, Eman A Eshra
OBJECTIVE: Description of an ultrasound (US)-guided technique for retrobulbar nerve blockade in dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) cadavers. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective experimental cadaveric study that was carried out in three phases: phase I: anatomical dissection and development of US-guided technique; phase II: methylene blue (MB) injection; phase III: contrast medium (CM), US-guided injections with computed tomography (CT) control. ANIMALS: A total of 36 orbits from 18 heads were obtained from 18 dromedary cadavers...
November 7, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Matthew J Zdilla, Aaron W Koons, Michelle L Russell, Kelsey R Mangus, Kaitlyn N Bliss
Identification of the infraorbital foramen is important in infraorbital nerve block and the prevention of iatrogenic injury of the infraorbital nerve in maxillofacial surgeries. This study assessed the location of 887 infraorbital foramina from 518 adult crania of varied sex and population. The study assessed the midpoint of a line segment spanning from nasospinale to jugale (NS-J) relative to the infraorbital foramen. The mean distance of the NS-J midpoint from the infraorbital foramen was 2.1 ± 1.9 mm (mean ± SD) with a mode of 0 mm (266:887; 30%)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
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