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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645189/the-potential-role-of-retinoic-acid-receptor-%C3%AE-on-glomerulosclerosis-in-rats-and-podocytes-injury-is-associated-with-the-induction-of-mmp2-and-mmp9
#1
Xiuping Chen, Yuanhan Qin, Tianbiao Zhou, Ling Jiang, Fengying Lei, He Qin, Lei Zhang, Zhiqiang Zhou
Retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) plays a crucial role in kidney disease. However, the underlying mechanisms in glomerulosclerosis (GS) is still not clear. The roles of RARα in an adriamycin (ADR)-induced GS rat model and in ADR-induced podocyte injury in vitro were investigated. RARα was over-expressed in GS rats, and serum, urine and kidney samples were collected to detect the induction of the expression of the receptor. RARα expression was inhibited and/or over-expressed in cultured podocytes following injury, as demonstrated by morphometric assays, cell toxicity, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymatic activity...
June 22, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644726/cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-actions-of-casiopeina-iii-ea-cas-iii-ea-in-somatic-and-germ-cells-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
L M Vidal, E Pimentel, M P Cruces, S Hernández, L Ruiz-Azuara
Casiopeinas® are a group of newly synthesized drugs designed to treat cancer. These copper (Cu) complexes exhibit cytostatic, cytotoxic, genotoxic, and antineoplastic activities through different mechanisms of action. To evaluate the influence of these compounds, some in vivo studies were performed using predominantly somatic cells. The aim of the present study was to examine the cytotoxic and genotoxic actions of Casiopeina III-Ea (Cas III-Ea) in somatic as well as germ cells of Drosophila melanogaster. For cytotoxicity, the productivity and some morphometric parameters were measured and genotoxicity was assessed by means of the somatic mutation and recombination test assay in the wing...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644063/morphological-and-molecular-characterization-of-metacercaria-of-tylodelphys-digenea-diplostomidae-from-the-piscine-host-mystus-tengara-from-india
#3
Anshu Chaudhary, Shivi Gupta, Chandni Verma, Richa Tripathi, Hridaya Shanker Singh
The diversity and taxonomy of diplostomids infecting freshwater fishes of the Indian region are predominantly poorly known. Yet compared to other trematodes, identification and discrimination of diplostomid metacercaria are difficult using morphology and site of infection. The present study provides the first molecular study of Tylodelphys sp. from India. Specimens of Tylodelphys were collected from the vitreous humor of the eyes and from the brains of siluriform fish, Mystus tengara (Siluriformes: Bagridae) from Hastinapur, Meerut (U...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642973/estimating-the-magnitude-of-morphoscapes-how-to-measure-the-morphological-component-of-biodiversity-in-relation-to-habitats-using-geometric-morphometrics
#4
Diego Fontaneto, Martina Panisi, Mauro Mandrioli, Dario Montardi, Maurizio Pavesi, Andrea Cardini
Ecological indicators are currently developed to account for the different facets of loss of biological diversity due to direct or indirect effects of human activities. Most ecological indicators include species richness as a metric. Others, such as functional traits and phylogenetic diversity, account for differences in species, even when species richness is the same. Here, we describe and apply a different indicator, called morphoscape dimension, accounting for morphological variability across habitats in a geographical region...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642430/avian-egg-shape-form-function-and-evolution
#5
Mary Caswell Stoddard, Ee Hou Yong, Derya Akkaynak, Catherine Sheard, Joseph A Tobias, L Mahadevan
Avian egg shape is generally explained as an adaptation to life history, yet we currently lack a global synthesis of how egg-shape differences arise and evolve. Here, we apply morphometric, mechanistic, and macroevolutionary analyses to the egg shapes of 1400 bird species. We characterize egg-shape diversity in terms of two biologically relevant variables, asymmetry and ellipticity, allowing us to quantify the observed morphologies in a two-dimensional morphospace. We then propose a simple mechanical model that explains the observed egg-shape diversity based on geometric and material properties of the egg membrane...
June 23, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640393/malagasy-cichlids-differentially-limit-impacts-of-body-shape-evolution-on-oral-jaw-functional-morphology
#6
Christopher M Martinez, John S Sparks
Patterns of trait covariation, like integration and modularity, are vital factors that influence the evolution of vertebrate body plans. In functional systems, decoupling of morphological modules buffers functional change in one trait by reducing correlated variation with another. However, for complex morphologies with many-to-one mapping of form to function (MTOM), resistance to functional change may also be achieved by constraining morphological variation within a functionally stable region of morphospace...
June 22, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639281/resolving-relationships-between-several-neolithic-and-mesolithic-populations-in-northern-eurasia-using-geometric-morphometrics
#7
Ekaterina Stansfield Bulygina, Anna Rasskasova, Natalia Berezina, Andrei D Soficaru
OBJECTIVES: Remains from several Eastern European and Siberian Mesolithic and Neolithic sites are analysed to clarify their biological relationships. We assume that groups' geographical distances correlate with genetic and, therefore, morphological distances between them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Material includes complete male crania from several Mesolithic and Neolithic burial sites across Northern Eurasia and from several modern populations. Geometric morphometrics and multivariate statistical techniques are applied to explore morphological trends, group distances, and correlations with their geographical position, climate, and the time of origin...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639083/tumor-vascularization-and-clinicopathologic-parameters-as-prognostic-factors-in-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#8
A Bob, F Nielen, J Krediet, J Schmitter, D Freundt, D Terhorst, J Röwert-Huber, J Kanitakis, E Stockfleth, Ch Ulrich, M Weichenthal, F Egberts, B Lange-Asschenfeldt
PURPOSE: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin with an increasing incidence. The clinical course is variable and reliable prognostic factors are scarce. Tumor angiogenesis has been shown to have prognostic impact in different types of cancer. The aim of our study was to determine potential prognostic factors, including tumor vascularization, for clinical outcome of MCC. METHODS: The medical records of 46 patients with MCC diagnosed between 1997 and 2010 were analyzed retrospectively...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639048/evaluating-anorexia-related-brain-atrophy-using-mp2rage-based-morphometry
#9
José Boto, Georgios Gkinis, Alexis Roche, Tobias Kober, Bénédicte Maréchal, Nadia Ortiz, Karl-Olof Lövblad, François Lazeyras, Maria Isabel Vargas
AIM: To evaluate brain atrophy in anorexic patients by automated cerebral segmentation with the magnetization-prepared 2 rapid acquisition gradient echo (MP2RAGE) MRI sequence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty patients (female; mean age, 27.9 years), presenting consecutively for brain MRI between August 2014-December 2016 with clinical suspicion of anorexia nervosa and BMI<18.5 kg/m(2) were included. Controls were ten healthy females (mean age, 26.5 years). Automated brain morphometry was performed based on MP2RAGE...
June 21, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638180/in-situ-cytokine-expression-and-morphometric-evaluation-of-total-collagen-and-collagens-type-i-and-type-iii-in-keloid-scars
#10
Isabela Rios da Silva, Luciana Colombo Rodrigues da Cunha Tiveron, Marcos Vinicius da Silva, Alberto Borges Peixoto, Carla Aparecida Xavier Carneiro, M A Dos Reis, Pedro Carvalho Furtado, Bárbara Rocha Rodrigues, Virmondes Rodrigues, Denise Bertulucci Rocha Rodrigues
Keloids are characterized by excessive collagen deposition and growth beyond the edges of the initial injury, and cytokines may be related to their formation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the collagen fibers, analyze in situ expression of cytokines in keloid lesions, and compare to the control group. Results showed that there was a predominance of women and nonwhite and direct black ancestry. Keloid showed a significant increase in total and type III collagen. Significantly, the expression of mRNA for TGF-β in keloid was increased, the expressions of IFN-γ, IFN-γR1, and IL-10 were lower, and IFN-γR1 and TNF-α had no statistical difference...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638109/voxel-based-morphometric-brain-comparison-between-healthy-subjects-and-major-depressive-disorder-patients-in-japanese-with-the-s-s-genotype-of-5-httlpr
#11
Natsuki Igata, Shingo Kakeda, Keita Watanabe, Satoru Ide, Taro Kishi, Osamu Abe, Ryouhei Igata, Asuka Katsuki, Nakao Iwata, Reiji Yoshimura, Yukunori Korogi
Individuals with s/s genotype of serotonin transporter gene-linked promotor region (5-HTTLPR), which appear with a high frequency in Japanese, exhibit more diagnosable depression in relation to stressful life events than those with the s/l or l/l genotype. We prospectively investigated the brain volume changes in first-episode and medication naïve major depression disorder patients (MDD) with the s/s genotype in Japanese. We assessed the differences between 27 MDD with the s/s genotype and 44 healthy subjects (HS) with the same genotype using a whole-brain voxel-by-voxel statistical analysis of MRI...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637996/the-localization-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-the-human-trigeminal-ganglion-and-masseter-muscle
#12
Yuri Azuma, Iwao Sato
The localization of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is similar to that of a neurotransmitter which indicates masticatory muscle pain in the area of the masseter fascia. CGRP is released from the trigeminal ganglion (TG). The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of CGRP in the fascia of the masseter muscle (FMM) and TG in a morphometric manner, with respect to the location and density of CGRP-immunopositive reaction fiber (CGRP-IRF). A higher number of the CGRP-IRF were mainly found located around elongated blood vessels and small nerves on the origin side of the middle zone FMM in the O group (presented with occlusion)...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636875/effects-of-prenatal-binge-like-ethanol-exposure-and-maternal-stress-on-postnatal-morphological-development-of-hippocampal-neurons-in-rats
#13
Ewa Jakubowska-Dogru, Birsen Elibol, Ilknur Dursun, Sinan Yürüker
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is one of the most commonly used drugs of abuse negatively affecting human health and it is known as a potent teratogen responsible for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is characterized by cognitive deficits especially pronounced in juveniles but ameliorating in adults. Searching for the potential morphological correlates of these effects, in this study, we compared the course of developmental changes in the morphology of principal hippocampal neurons in fetal-alcohol (A group), intubated control (IC group), and intact control male rats (C group) over a protracted period of the first two postnatal months...
June 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636805/a-hybrid-phantom-system-for-patient-skin-and-organ-dosimetry-in-fluoroscopically-guided-interventions
#14
David Borrego, Daniel Siragusa, Stephen Balter, Wesley E Bolch
To investigate calibrations for improved estimates of skin dose and to develop software for computing absorbed organ doses for fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGIs) with the use of radiation dose structured reports (RDSR) and the UF/NCI family of hybrid computational phantoms METHODS AND MATERIALS: Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study in which ten RDSRs were selected for their high cumulative reference air kerma values. Skin doses were computed using the University of Florida's rapid in-clinic peak skin dose algorithm (or UF-RIPSA)...
June 21, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634717/morphological-diversification-among-island-populations-of-intertidal-mites-acari-oribatida-fortuyniidae-from-the-gal%C3%A3-pagos-archipelago
#15
Tobias Pfingstl, Julia Baumann
The intertidal oribatid mite species Alismobates galapagoensis and Litoribates caelestis occur on the archipelago of Galápagos. To test for morphological variation between populations of different islands, a comprehensive morphometric study was performed. Four A. galapagoensis populations from the islands Bartolomé, Isabela, Santa Cruz and San Cristobal, as well as two L. caelestis populations from Bartolomé and Santa Cruz were investigated. The L. caelestis populations did not show any significant differences whereas the A...
June 20, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634680/stability-of-upper-face-sexual-dimorphism-in-central-european-populations-czech-republic-during-the-modern-age
#16
Šárka Bejdová, Ján Dupej, Václav Krajíček, Jana Velemínská, Petr Velemínský
One of the most fundamental issues in forensic anthropology is the determination of sex and population affinity based on various skeletal elements. Therefore, we compared the sexual dimorphism of the upper facial skeleton from a recent Czech population (twenty-first century) with that of a population from Early Modern Age Bohemia (sixteenth to eighteenth centuries). Methods of geometric morphometrics were applied. According to the results, sexual dimorphism in terms of size, shape, and form was statistically significant in both populations...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633959/characterization-of-the-superior-olivary-complex-of-canis-lupus-domesticus
#17
Tatiana Fech, Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Randy J Kulesza
The superior olivary complex (SOC) is a collection of brainstem auditory nuclei which play essential roles in the localization of sound sources, temporal coding of vocalizations and descending modulation of the cochlea. Notwithstanding, the SOC nuclei vary considerably between species in accordance with the auditory needs of the animal. The canine SOC was subjected to anatomical and physiological examination nearly 50 years ago and was then virtually forgotten. Herein, we aimed to characterize the nuclei of the canine SOC using quantitative morphometrics, estimation of neuronal number, histochemistry for perineuronal nets and immunofluorescence for the calcium binding proteins calbindin and calretinin...
June 15, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631633/significance-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-and-cd31-and-morphometric-analysis-of-microvessel-density-by-cd31-receptor-expression-as-an-adjuvant-tool-in-diagnosis-of-psoriatic-lesions-of-skin
#18
Nitika Chawla, Sant Prakash Kataria, Kamal Aggarwal, Pardeep Chauhan, Dinesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Pathogenesis of psoriasis is a debated issue. Several mechanisms have been proposed to identify the etiology and pathogenesis so that specific treatments can be given to patients with psoriasis. AIMS: (1) To compare pattern and distribution of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD31 in patients with psoriasis and other psoriasiform lesions of skin. (2) To study the correlation between VEGF and CD31 expression, clinical severity, and histopathology of psoriasiform lesions of skin...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631354/cross-population-myelination-covariance-of-human-cerebral-cortex
#19
Zhiwei Ma, Nanyin Zhang
Cross-population covariance of brain morphometric quantities provides a measure of interareal connectivity, as it is believed to be determined by the coordinated neurodevelopment of connected brain regions. Although useful, structural covariance analysis predominantly employed bulky morphological measures with mixed compartments, whereas studies of the structural covariance of any specific subdivisions such as myelin are rare. Characterizing myelination covariance is of interest, as it will reveal connectivity patterns determined by coordinated development of myeloarchitecture between brain regions...
June 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630745/correlation-between-hox-code-and-vertebral-morphology-in-the-mouse-towards-a-universal-model-for-synapsida
#20
Christine Böhmer
BACKGROUND: The importance of the cervical vertebrae as part of the skull-neck system in facilitating the success and diversity of tetrapods is clear. The reconstruction of its evolution, however, is problematic because of the variation in the number of vertebrae, making it difficult to identify homologous elements. Quantification of the morphological differentiation in the neck of diverse archosaurs established homologous units of vertebrae (i.e. modules) resulting from Hox gene expression patterns within the cervical vertebral column...
2017: Zoological Letters
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