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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432829/trabecular-mapping-leveraging-geometric-morphometrics-for-analyses-of-trabecular-structure
#1
Adam D Sylvester, Claire E Terhune
OBJECTIVES: Trabecular microstructure of limb bone epiphyses has been used to elucidate the relationship between skeletal form and behavior among mammals. Such studies have often relied on the analysis of a single volume of interest (VOI). Here we present a method for evaluating variation in bone microstructure across articular surfaces by leveraging sliding semilandmarks. METHODS: Two samples were used to demonstrate the proposed methodology and test the hypothesis that microstructural variables are homogeneously distributed: tali from two ape genera (Pan and Pongo, n = 9) and modern human distal femora (n = 10)...
April 22, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432692/functional-status-and-amount-of-hip-displacement-independently-affect-acetabular-dysplasia-in-cerebral-palsy
#2
Myung Ki Chung, Arif Zulkarnain, Jae Bong Lee, Byung Chae Cho, Chin Youb Chung, Kyoung Min Lee, Ki Hyuk Sung, Moon Seok Park
AIM: Acetabular dysplasia is the one of main causes of hip displacement in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). Although several studies have shown a relationship between hip displacement and acetabular dysplasia, relatively few have evaluated the association between quantitative acetabular dysplasia and related factors, such as Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level. METHOD: We performed a morphometric analysis of the acetabulum in patients with CP using multiplanar reformation of computed tomography data...
April 22, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431433/experimental-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy-in-diabetic-mice-exhibited-severe-retinal-swelling-associated-with-vegf-elevation
#3
Ming-Hui Sun, Mohammad Ali Shariati, Yaping Joyce Liao
Purpose: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most important risk factors for nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION). In this study, we investigated for the first time the impact of experimental AION in a DM model. Methods: We induced a photochemical thrombosis model of AION after streptozotocin-induced DM and performed serial optical coherence tomography (OCT), morphometric analyses, and VEGF levels in the retina and sera. Results: Compared with non-DM animals, experimental AION in DM mice led to significantly greater retinal swelling on day 1 and worse thinning at week 3 on OCT measurements...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431146/response-of-broiler-chickens-fed-wheat-based-diets-to-xylanase-supplementation
#4
G Gonzalez-Ortiz, D Sola-Oriol, M Martinez-Mora, J F Perez, M R Bedford
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of xylanase supplementation on performance, footpad score (FPS), nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphometry in broiler chickens. Two-hundred-eighty-eight Ross 308 broiler chicks (one d old) were placed in one of 3 experimental treatments: positive control (PC), negative control (NC) (-150 kcal/kg), and XYL (NC supplemented with xylanase). Each treatment had 8 replicates with 12 animals each. Starter (zero to 21 d) and grower (21 to 42 d) diets, based on wheat and soy-bean meal, were available ad libitum...
April 18, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429852/anti-inflammatory-and-retinal-protective-effects-of-capsaicin-on-ischemia-induced-injuries-through-the-release-of-endogenous-somatostatin
#5
Jun Wang, Wenke Tian, Shuaiwei Wang, Wenqiang Wei, Dongdong Wu, Honggang Wang, Li Wang, Ruisheng Yang, Ailing Ji, Yanzhang Li
The mechanisms regarding the retinal protective and anti-inflammatory effects of capsaicin (CAP) remain unclear. Somatostatin is contained in CAP-sensitive sensory neurons, including nerve terminals, from which it can be released by capsaicin. The present study provides a novel neurohumoral regulatory mechanism for CAP-induced-endogenous somatostatin in a retinal ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) mouse model. CAP (0.5 mg kg(-1) ) was injected subcutaneously 5 min after I/R. A selective somatostatin-depleting agent, cysteamine, was applied subcutaneously 4 hours before the experiment to examine the effects of endogenous somatostatin...
April 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429640/spinal-alterations-of-reil-insula-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Foivos E Petrides, Ioannis A Mavroudis, Martha Spilioti, Fotios G Chatzinikolaou, Vasiliki G Costa, Stavros J Baloyannis
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that involves numerous cellular and biochemical mechanisms resulting in synaptic alterations and extensive neuronal loss. It is primarily characterized by impairment of memory, associated frequently with mood disorders. Continuous studies have shown that insula may be an important target of AD, but neuropathological alterations have not been described extensively. In the present study, we attempted to describe the morphometric and morphological changes of the spines of Reil insula in AD in comparison with normal aging using a silver impregnation technique...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429193/effect-of-non-coherent-infrared-light-led-%C3%AE-945%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-20%C3%A2-nm-on-bone-repair-in-diabetic-rats-morphometric-and-spectral-analyses
#7
Alexandre Greca Diamantino, Renata Amadei Nicolau, Davidson Ribeiro Costa, Alessandra Paes de Barros Almeida, Danila Xênia de Miranda Mato, Marco Antonio de Oliveira, Ana Maria do Espírito Santo
Phototherapy using coherent light (lasers) and non-coherent light (light-emitting diodes (LEDs)) has been investigated for the purpose of biomodulation in biological tissues. Several effects can be expected, including pain moderation, biostimulation of cellular tropism, anti-inflammatory effects, regular circulatory stimulation, and tissue repair. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LED (λ945 ± 20 nm, 48 mW) therapy on the regeneration process in femoral lesions of rats (Wistar). Seven irradiation sessions were held, with a 48-h interval between sessions...
April 20, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429108/phenetic-and-phylogenetic-relationships-among-aceria-spp-acari-eriophyoidea-inhabiting-species-within-the-family-brassicaceae-in-serbia
#8
Zlata Živković, Biljana Vidović, Vida Jojić, Tatjana Cvrković, Radmila Petanović
We examined morphological and genetic differences among Aceria spp. inhabiting six Brassicaceae species in Serbia. Five of them have been already mentioned in the literature as original or alternate hosts of Aceria spp. (Berteroa incana (L.) DC., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Cardamine hirsuta L., Lepidium draba L. and Sisymbrium orientale L.), whereas Aurinia petraea (Ard.) Schur was registered here for the first time as a host for Aceria sp. Results of morphometric analyses indicated clear differentiation of Aceria spp...
April 20, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427841/localized-shape-abnormalities-in-the-thalamus-and-pallidum-are-associated-with-secondarily-generalized-seizures-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#9
Linglin Yang, Hong Li, Lujia Zhu, Xinfeng Yu, Bo Jin, Cong Chen, Shan Wang, Meiping Ding, Minming Zhang, Zhong Chen, Shuang Wang
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a common type of drug-resistant epilepsy and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures (sGTCS) have devastating consequences for patients' safety and quality of life. To probe the mechanism underlying the genesis of sGTCS, we investigated the structural differences between patients with and without sGTCS in a cohort of mTLE with radiologically defined unilateral hippocampal sclerosis. We performed voxel-based morphometric analysis of cortex and vertex-wise shape analysis of subcortical structures (the basal ganglia and thalamus) on MRI of 39 patients (21 with and 18 without sGTCS)...
April 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426947/structural-neuroplasticity-of-the-superior-temporal-plane-in-early-and-late-blindness
#10
Hicret Atilgan, Olivier Collignon, Uri Hasson
Blindness is associated with well-documented changes to the morphometry and function of the occipital cortex. By comparison, its impact on the perisylvian regions in the superior temporal plane (STP) is poorly understood, with many studies reporting null findings on this issue. Here we re-approach this question using a morphometric analysis that relied on fine-scale, manual annotation of 13 sub-regions within the STP and that quantified both univariate and multivariate differences in morphometry. We applied these analyses to both cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) data from congenitally and late blind, as compared to two matched sighted control groups...
April 17, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426626/parapapillary-gamma-and-delta-zones-in-high-myopia
#11
Jost B Jonas, Yuxin Fang, Pascal Weber, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
PURPOSE: To examine parapapillary zones gamma and delta in highly myopic eyes. METHODS: The retrospective observational study included patients attending the Tokyo high myopia clinics. Fundus photographs were morphometrically examined. RESULTS: The study population included 600 eyes (304 individuals) with a mean age of 62.7 ± 14.3 years (range: 13-90 years) and mean axial length of 29.6 ± 2.2 mm (range: 23.2-35.4 mm). In multivariate analysis (regression coefficient r:0...
April 19, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426261/a-morphological-study-of-uterine-alterations-in-mice-due-to-exposure-to-cadmium
#12
M Sapmaz-Metin, Y Topcu-Tarladacalisir, I Kurt-Omurlu, B Karaoz Weller, S Unsal-Atan
We investigated the morphologic and molecular effects of exposure to cadmium (Cd) for 30 and 60 days on the uteri of mice. We assessed uterine morphometric measurements, eosinophilia, mast cell numbers, endometrial apoptosis, proliferation and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) immunoreactivity. We examined vaginal smears that reflected the hormonal alterations in the female reproductive tract. Because the female reproductive tract exhibits different morphology at each stage of the estrous cycle, we sacrificed all animals at estrus to make appropriate comparisons...
April 20, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426184/alterations-in-mandibular-morphology-associated-with-glypican-1-and-glypican-3-gene-mutations
#13
M Mian, S Ranjitkar, G C Townsend, P J Anderson
OBJECTIVES: Glypican 1 (GPC1) and glypican 3 (GPC3) are bone co-regulators that act downstream in many of the signalling pathways associated with craniosynostosis. Morphometric data from GPC-knockout mice were analysed to determine whether elimination of GPC1 and GPC3 genes would alter mandibular morphology. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: The murine model included five male and five female mandibles in each of GPC1-knockout, GPC1/GPC3-knockout and wild-type (control) groups...
April 20, 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424392/-the-role-of-brodmann-area-12-taste-social-cognition-and-mental-time
#14
Mitsuru Kawamura
Broadman area 12, together with area 11, is located in the orbitofrontal area. A voxel-based morphometric (VBM) study revealed the association between bilateral brodmann areas 12/47 and taste disturbance in individuals with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). In our VBM study in patients with Parkinson's disease, decision-making impairments were associated with atrophy of the bilateral Brodmann area 12, indicating that this area may play an important role in social cognitive function. Our recent study also demonstrated that this area may serve as time order judgement or mental time travel...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423237/assessment-of-vascular-response-to-bioss-lim-c-%C3%A2-stents-vs-orsiro-%C3%A2-stents-in-the-porcine-coronary-artery-model
#15
Jacek Bil, Robert J Gil, Tomasz Pawlowski, Krzysztof P Milewski
AIMS: The optimal treatment strategy for coronary bifurcation lesions is still unknown. The aim of the study was to assess applicability of the new cobalt-chromium version of the sirolimus-eluting dedicated bifurcation BiOSS(®) LIM C stent in comparison with regular sirolimus-eluting Orsiro(®)  stent in a porcine coronary model. METHODS: A total of 13 BiOSS(®) LIM C stents and 6 Orsiro(®) stents were implanted in normal non-atherosclerotic porcine straight coronary arteries of six animals using 1...
April 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419344/a-place-to-grow-host-choice-and-larval-performance-of-microplitis-similis-hymenoptera-braconidae-in-the-host-spodoptera-litura-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#16
Xu-Yang Chen, R J Hopkins, Yi-Pei Zhao, Guo-Hua Huang
Host selection is a key stage in the lifecycle of parasitoids, and is critical to both their function in control and to the maintenance of their population. The solitary endoparasitoid Microplitis similis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a potential biological control agent of Spodoptera litura (F.) larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In this study, we examined the preference M. similis exhibits for different instars of the host, host instar effects on parasitoid development, and the weight gain and food consumption of different instars of parasitized larvae...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418355/-morphometric-features-of-cardiomyocytes-in-the-ventricular-septum-of-patients-with-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#17
I F Egorova, R A Serov, L A Bockeria
AIM: to determine the diameter and length of cardiomyocytes (CMC) in the ventricular septum (VS) of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and to analyze correlations of a change in CMC sizes with the anatomical features of the heart in the patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Longitudinal sections of intraoperative myocardial biopsy specimens taken from 23 patients aged 15-59 years with HCM were treated using immunohistochemical detection of connexin 43; the sizes of 50 CMCs were measured; a 4-point scale was used to assess the degree of myofibril loss (MFL) in these cells...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418277/geographical-variation-in-the-skeletal-morphology-of-red-jungle-fowl
#18
H Endo, N Tsunekawa, M Sonoe, T Sasaki, H Ogawa, T Amano, N T Son, V Phimphachanhvongsod, K Kudo, T Yonezawa, F Akishinonomiya
1. The skulls and postcranial skeletons of the red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) were compared osteometrically between the populations from North and South Vietnam, North and Central Laos and Southeast Bangladesh. The populations include the three subspecies of G. g. spadiceus, G. g. gallus and G. g. murghi and were sampled to reveal the geographical morphological variations among populations in G. gallus. 2. The morphometric characteristics of subspecies murghi could be clearly distinguished from those of the other subspecies using a canonical discriminant analysis...
April 18, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417049/morphometric-study-of-tensor-of-vastus-intermedius-in-south-indian-population
#19
Raveendranath Veeramani, Dhivyalakshmi Gnanasekaran
Tensor of vastus intermedius is a newly discovered muscle located between vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detailed morphology of tensor of vastus intermedius, specifically to provide data pertaining to the attachments, innervations, variation in the types and its morphometry in South Indian population. The tensor of vastus intermedius was studied in thirty six cadaveric lower limbs using macrodissection techniques. The origin of the muscle was from upper part of intertrochanteric line and anterior part of greater trochanter of femur inserted to medial aspect of upper border of patella...
March 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414057/non-invasive-assessment-of-liver-fibrosis-in-patients-with-hbv-related-chronic-liver-disease-undergoing-antiviral-treatment-a-preliminary-study
#20
Cristina Stasi, Elena Salomoni, Umberto Arena, Giampaolo Corti, Paolo Montalto, Filippo Bartalesi, Fabio Marra, Giacomo Laffi, Stefano Milani, Anna Linda Zignego, Massimo Pinzani
In chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, fibrosis assessment during antiviral treatment is a key step in the clinical management. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of elastography in assessing fibrosis stage in CHB before and after two years of nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NUC) treatment in comparison with indirect serum markers. CHB diagnosis was made according to standard criteria. A clinical and virological evaluation was performed at baseline and again at 3, 6, 9, 12 18, and 24 months during treatment...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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