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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775648/towards-a-quantitative-model-to-predict-the-toxicity-pathogenicity-potential-of-mineral-fibers
#1
Alessandro F Gualtieri
A number of mineral fibers represent a health hazard because they are classified as cancer-causing chemical/physical toxicants upon (chronic) dust inhalation. Although in the last decades they have been the subject of intensive multidisciplinary investigations, the mechanisms by which mineral fibers induce toxic and pathogenic adverse effects on human health and environment are not yet fully understood. The major intricacy of the biological approach that prevents the design of a conclusive shared model of behavior of mineral fibers in a biological system stems from their very nature with intrinsic variability in chemical, molecular, structural and morphometric parameters, biodurability and surface reactivity...
May 15, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774402/subtrochanteric-and-diaphyseal-femoral-fractures-in-hypophosphatasia-not-atypical-at-all
#2
F Genest, L Seefried
Risk for subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures is considered increased in patients with hypophosphatasia (HPP). Evaluating a large cohort of HPP patients, we could for the first time quantify the prevalcence and identify both morphometric features as well as predisposing factors for this complication of severe HPP. INTRODUCTION: Subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures have been associated with both, long-term antiresorptive treatment and metabolic bone disorders, specifically Hypophosphatasia (HPP)...
May 17, 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772841/the-effect-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-wharton-s-jelly-in-spinal-cord-injury-treatment-is-dose-dependent-and-can-be-facilitated-by-repeated-application
#3
Petr Krupa, Irena Vackova, Jiri Ruzicka, Kristyna Zaviskova, Jana Dubisova, Zuzana Koci, Karolina Turnovcova, Lucia Machova Urdzikova, Sarka Kubinova, Svatopluk Rehak, Pavla Jendelova
Human mesenchymal stem cells derived from Wharton's jelly (WJ-MSCs) were used for the treatment of the ischemic-compression model of spinal cord injury in rats. To assess the effectivity of the treatment, different dosages (0.5 or 1.5 million cells) and repeated applications were compared. Cells or saline were applied intrathecally by lumbar puncture for one week only, or in three consecutive weeks after injury. Rats were assessed for locomotor skills (BBB, rotarod, flat beam) for 9 weeks. Spinal cord tissue was morphometrically analyzed for axonal sprouting, sparing of gray and white matter and astrogliosis...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770337/-chlamydia-pneumoniae-infection-exacerbates-atherosclerosis-in-apob100only-ldlr-mouse-strain
#4
Ildikó Lantos, Valéria Endrész, Dezső Péter Virok, Andrea Szabó, Xinjie Lu, Tímea Mosolygó, Katalin Burián
Aims: Hyperlipidaemia model animals have been used to elucidate the role of Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) infection in atherosclerosis. The aims of this study were to investigate the proatherogenic effect of multiple Cpn infections in ApoB100only/LDLR-/- mice which based on lipid profile can be regarded as the most suitable mouse model of human hypercholesterolemia and to compare the lesion development to that in a major atherosclerosis model ApoE-/- mice. Methods and Results: Aorta samples of ApoB100only/LDLR-/- mice infected three times with Cpn were subjected to morphometric analyses...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769098/wing-morphometrics-of-aedes-ochlerotatus-albifasciatus-macquart-1838-diptera-culicidae-from-different-climatic-regions-of-argentina
#5
Maximiliano J Garzón, Nicolás Schweigmann
BACKGROUND: Gene flow restrictions between populations of Aedes albifasciatus, the vector of Western equine encephalitis and Dirophilaria immitis, have been described in the central region of Argentina. Genetic and eco-physiological variations usually result in local forms reflecting the climatic regions. Mosquito wings and their different parts have ecological functions in flight and communication. Therefore, wing shape could be considered an aspect of sexual dimorphism, and its eco-physiological responses can be expressed as morphological changes induced by the environment...
May 16, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768572/ontogenetic-shape-changes-and-sexual-dimorphism-in-aegla-marginata-bond-buckup-and-buckup-1994
#6
Carolina L Adam, Murilo Z Marochi, Setuko Masunari
A study on relative growth, sexual dimorphism and ontogenetic trajectory was carried out in a population of the aeglidAegla marginata coming from Barrinha River, Iguape River Basin, Tunas do Paraná, Paraná State, Brazil. The size the of morphological sexual maturity was estimated for males and females. The analysis of sexual dimorphism and ontogenetic trajectory were performed using geometric morphometric technique. Males reach maturity with 10.58 mm of carapace length (CL) and females with 10.38 mm CL. Sexual size dimorphism was only visible among adults, with males reaching larger sizes...
May 14, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768469/misidentification-of-sex-for-lampsilis-teres-yellow-sandshell-and-its-implications-for-mussel-conservation-and-wildlife-management
#7
Megan C Hess, Kentaro Inoue, Eric T Tsakiris, Michael Hart, Jennifer Morton, Jack Dudding, Clinton R Robertson, Charles R Randklev
Correct identification of sex is an important component of wildlife management because changes in sex ratios can affect population viability. Identification of sex often relies on external morphology, which can be biased by intermediate or nondistinctive morphotypes and observer experience. For unionid mussels, research has demonstrated that species misidentification is common but less attention has been given to the reliability of sex identification. To evaluate whether this is an issue, we surveyed 117 researchers on their ability to correctly identify sex of Lampsilis teres (Yellow Sandshell), a wide ranging, sexually dimorphic species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767109/nutrient-density-of-prestarter-diets-from-1-to-10-days-of-age-affects-intestinal-morphometry-enzyme-activity-serum-indices-and-performance-of-broiler-chickens
#8
Ficinine V Ivanovich, Ocmanyan A Karlovich, Reza Mahdavi, Egorov I Afanasyevich
A total of 480 day-old Cobb 500 broilers were used to investigate the effects of different levels of digestible amino acids (DAA; 100%, 107% and 114% of Cobb recommendations) and ME (3,000 or 2,900 kcal/kg) of prestarter diet on mixed sex broilers performance, enzyme activity, small intestine morphology, and serum metabolites. Broilers were randomly allotted to 6 treatments, where each treatment applied to 4 pens with 20 birds in each. The birds were subjected to their respective treatment diets from 1 to 10 days of age...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766489/phenotypic-disparity-of-the-elbow-joint-in-domestic-dogs-and-wild-carnivores
#9
Borja Figueirido
In this article, I use geometric morphometrics in 2D from a sample of 366 elbow joints to quantify phenotypic disparity in domestic dog breeds, in wild canids, and across the order Carnivora. The elbow joint is a well-established morphological indicator of forearm motion and, by extension, of functional adaptations towards locomotor or predatory behavior in living carnivores. The study of the elbow joint in domestic dogs allows the exploration of potential convergences between (i) pursuit predators and fast-running dogs, and (ii) ambush predators and fighting breeds...
May 16, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765665/morphometric-assessment-of-pterosaur-jaw-disparity
#10
Charlie A Navarro, Elizabeth Martin-Silverstone, Thomas L Stubbs
Pterosaurs were a successful group of Mesozoic flying reptiles. They were the first vertebrate group to achieve powered flight and varied enormously in morphology and ecology, occupying a variety of niches and developing specialized feeding strategies. Ecomorphological principles suggest this variation should be reflected by great morphological diversity in the lower jaw, given that the mandible served as the primary apparatus for prey acquisition. Here we present the first study of mandibular shape disparity in pterosaurs and aim to characterize major aspects of variation...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764734/can-the-contralateral-limb-be-used-as-a-control-during-the-growing-period-in-a-rodent-model
#11
Tanvir Mustafy, Irène Londono, Isabelle Villemure
The contralateral limb is often used as a control in various clinical, forensic and anthropological studies. However, no studies have been performed to determine if the contra-lateral limb is a suitable control during the bone development period. The aim of this study was to determine the bilateral symmetry of growing rat tibiae in terms of geometric shape, mechanical strength and bone morphological parameters with developmental stages. Left and right tibias of 18 male Sprague-Dawley rats at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of age were scanned with micro-CT for bone-morphometric evaluation and for 3D deviation analysis to quantify the geometric shape variations between left and right tibiae...
May 12, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763635/cortical-thickness-and-gyrification-patterns-in-patients-with-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures
#12
Marco Mcsweeney, Markus Reuber, Nigel Hoggard, Liat Levita
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are often viewed as manifestations of altered motor and sensory function resulting from psychological responses to adverse experiences. Yet many patients and non-expert healthcare professionals find it difficult to understand how severe disturbances in normal neurological functioning can solely result from underlying psychological mechanisms to the exclusion of other physical causes. Perhaps importantly, recent advances using neuroimaging techniques point to possible structural and functional correlates in PNES...
May 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762319/comparison-of-bone-grafts-from-various-donor-sites-in-human-bone-specimens
#13
Mohammad Kamal, Felix Gremse, Stefanie Rosenhain, Alexander K Bartella, Frank Hölzle, Peter Kessler, Bernd Lethaus
The objective of the current study was to compare the three-dimensional (3D) morphometric microstructure in human cadaveric bone specimens taken from various commonly utilized donor sites for autogenous bone grafting. Autogenous bone grafts can be harvested from various anatomic sites and express heterogeneous bone quality with a specific 3D microstructure for each site. The long-term structural integrity and susceptibility to resorption of the graft depend on the selected donor bone. Micro-computed tomography generates high-resolution datasets of bone structures and calcifications making this modality versatile for microarchitecture analysis and quantification of the bone...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761487/the-phytoestrogen-genistein-prevents-trabecular-bone-loss-and-affects-thyroid-follicular-cells-in-a-male-rat-model-of-osteoporosis
#14
Branko Filipović, Branka Šošić-Jurjević, Vladimir Ajdžanović, Jasmina Živanović, Milica Manojlović-Stojanoski, Nataša Nestorović, Nataša Ristić, Svetlana Trifunović, Verica Milošević
As a major phytoestrogen of soy, genistein effectively prevents bone loss in both humans and rat models of osteoporosis. However, although the bone-sparing effects of genistein are achieved directly through estrogen receptors, its mode of action on bone by modulation of other endocrine functions is not entirely clear. Thus, thyroid hormones and calcitonin (CT) have an essential influence on bone metabolism. Besides its action on bones, in this study we examined the effect of genistein on the activity of two different endocrine cell populations, thyroid follicular and C-cells...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760906/shaperotator-an-r-tool-for-standardized-rigid-rotations-of-articulated-three-dimensional-structures-with-application-for-geometric-morphometrics
#15
Marta Vidal-García, Lashi Bandara, J Scott Keogh
The quantification of complex morphological patterns typically involves comprehensive shape and size analyses, usually obtained by gathering morphological data from all the structures that capture the phenotypic diversity of an organism or object. Articulated structures are a critical component of overall phenotypic diversity, but data gathered from these structures are difficult to incorporate into modern analyses because of the complexities associated with jointly quantifying 3D shape in multiple structures...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760903/function-related-drivers-of-skull-morphometric-variation-and-sexual-size-dimorphism-in-a-subterranean-rodent-plateau-zokor-eospalax-baileyi
#16
Junhu Su, Ibrahim M Hegab, Weihong Ji, Zhibiao Nan
Sexual dimorphism is prevalent in most living organisms. The difference in size between sexes of a given species is generally known as sexual size dimorphism (SSD). The magnitude of the SSD is determined by Rensch's rule where size dimorphism increases with increasing body size when the male is the larger sex and decreases with increasing average body size when the female is the larger sex. The unique underground environment that zokors ( Eospalax baileyi ) live under in the severe habitat of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) could create SSD selection pressures that may or may not be supported by Rensch's rule, making this scientific question worthy of investigation...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760888/adaptive-phenotypic-plasticity-in-a-clonal-invader
#17
Gerlien Verhaegen, Kyle E McElroy, Laura Bankers, Maurine Neiman, Martin Haase
Organisms featuring wide trait variability and occurring in a wide range of habitats, such as the ovoviviparous New Zealand freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum , are ideal models to study adaptation. Since the mid-19th century, P. antipodarum , characterized by extremely variable shell morphology, has successfully invaded aquatic areas on four continents. Because these obligately and wholly asexual invasive populations harbor low genetic diversity compared to mixed sexual/asexual populations in the native range, we hypothesized that (1) this phenotypic variation in the invasive range might be adaptive with respect to colonization of novel habitats, and (2) that at least some of the variation might be caused by phenotypic plasticity...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758447/experimental-sharp-force-injuries-to-ribs-multimodal-morphological-and-geometric-morphometric-analyses-using-micro-ct-macro-photography-and-sem
#18
Larissa Komo, Martin Grassberger
Tool marks on bones induced by knife blades can be analysed morphometrically in order to enable an allocation of the suspected "inflicting weapon" to the particular morphology of the bone lesions. Until now, geometric morphometrics has not been used to analyse the morphology of knife lesions on fleshed bones in detail. By using twelve experimental knives and a drop weight tower, stab/cut injuries were inflicted on untreated pig ribs. The morphology of the experimentally produced lesions was subsequently recorded with three imaging techniques (μCT, macro photography and SEM) and analysed with different morphometric software (Amira, tps and Morpheus)...
May 1, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755360/healthy-lung-vessel-morphology-derived-from-thoracic-computed-tomography
#19
Michael Pienn, Caroline Burgard, Christian Payer, Alexander Avian, Martin Urschler, Rudolf Stollberger, Andrea Olschewski, Horst Olschewski, Thorsten Johnson, Felix G Meinel, Zoltán Bálint
Knowledge of the lung vessel morphology in healthy subjects is necessary to improve our understanding about the functional network of the lung and to recognize pathologic deviations beyond the normal inter-subject variation. Established values of normal lung morphology have been derived from necropsy material of only very few subjects. In order to determine morphologic readouts from a large number of healthy subjects, computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) datasets, negative for pulmonary embolism, and other thoracic pathologies, were analyzed using a fully-automatic, in-house developed artery/vein separation algorithm...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755236/posterior-identification-and-exposure-of-the-v3-segment-of-the-vertebral-artery
#20
Ali Nourbakhsh, Nicholas W Wiegers, Francis H Shen
Objective: The purpose of this study was to define the anatomy of the V3 segment of the vertebral artery (VA) from the posterior approach. Methods: Ten formalin-fixed cadavers were carefully dissected bilaterally using landmark features to identify and safely expose the VA from the posterior. Measurements regarding morphometric characteristics of landmark features and feasible resection quantifications were obtained and analyzed. The C2 pars was resected completely in all cadavers, averaging 15...
January 2018: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
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