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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550762/forensic-age-estimation-by-morphometric-analysis-of-the-manubrium-from-3d-mr-images
#1
Naira P Martínez Vera, Johannes Höller, Thomas Widek, Bernhard Neumayer, Thomas Ehammer, Martin Urschler
Forensic age estimation research based on skeletal structures focuses on patterns of growth and development using different bones. In this work, our aim was to study growth-related evolution of the manubrium in living adolescents and young adults using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is an image acquisition modality that does not involve ionizing radiation. In a first step, individual manubrium and subject features were correlated with age, which confirmed a statistically significant change of manubrium volume (Mvol:p<0...
May 12, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550719/morphometric-analysis-of-thalamic-volume-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-in-vivo-evidence-of-regionally-specific-bilateral-thalamic-atrophy
#2
Brian D Power, David Jakabek, Mitchell Hunter-Dickson, Fiona A Wilkes, Danielle van Westen, Alexander F Santillo, Mark Walterfang, Dennis Velakoulis, Christer Nilsson, Jeffrey C L Looi
We investigated whether differences were detectable in the volume and shape of the dorsal thalamus on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Manual segmentation of the left and right thalami on magnetic resonance imaging scans occurred in 22 patients with clinically diagnosed PSP and 23 healthy controls; thalamic volumes (left, right, total) were calculated. Between group differences were explored by multivariate analysis of co-variance, using age and intracranial volume as covariates...
May 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550630/the-effects-of-different-sewage-sludge-amendment-rates-on-the-heavy-metal-bioaccumulation-growth-and-biomass-of-cucumbers-cucumis-sativus-l
#3
Ebrahem M Eid, Sulaiman A Alrumman, Ahmed F El-Bebany, Abd El-Latif Hesham, Mostafa A Taher, Khaled F Fawy
When sewage sludge is incorrectly applied, it may adversely impact agro-system productivity. Thus, this study addresses the reaction of Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber) to different amendment rates (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g kg(-1)) of sewage sludge in a greenhouse pot experiment, in which the plant growth, heavy metal uptake and biomass were evaluated. A randomized complete block design with six treatments and six replications was used as the experimental design. The soil electrical conductivity, organic matter and Cr, Fe, Zn and Ni concentrations increased, but the soil pH decreased in response to the sewage sludge applications...
May 26, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550264/depressive-symptoms-are-associated-with-progression-to-dementia-in-patients-with-amyloid-positive-mild-cognitive-impairment
#4
Byungseung Moon, Seongheon Kim, Young Ho Park, Jae-Sung Lim, Young Chul Youn, Sang Yun Kim, Jae-Won Jang
BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms are prevalent in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and are considered to be a risk factor for progression to dementia. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether depressive symptoms in MCI promote disease progression in a manner related to amyloid status, and to determine the relationship between depressive symptoms and longitudinal cerebral structural changes. METHODS: Baseline data for 336 patients with MCI (75 with depression and 261 without) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study were analyzed...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549548/geometric-morphometric-and-traditional-methods-for-sex-assessment-using-the-posterior-ilium
#5
Rebeka Rmoutilová, Ján Dupej, Jana Velemínská, Jaroslav Brůžek
The human hip bone is generally accepted as the most reliable bone for sex estimation in forensic and bioarchaeological disciplines. However, it is seldom completely preserved. The best preserved region is typically around the sacroiliac joint and its auricular surface; it is therefore surprising that this surface has not been involved in standard sexing methods. The aim of this study was to explore the shape and size sexual dimorphism of the auricular surface in detail and to compare its sex estimation accuracy using the geometric morphometric (GM) and traditional methodological approach...
May 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549088/quantitative-association-between-peripapillary-bruch-s-membrane-shape-and-intracranial-pressure
#6
Amulya Gampa, Gautam Vangipuram, Zainab Shirazi, Heather E Moss
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a quantitative relationship between chronic intracranial pressure (ICP) and peripapillary Bruch's membrane (pp-BM) shape and to determine whether change in pp-BM shape can be detected within 1 hour after ICP lowering by lumbar puncture (LP). Methods: In this study, 30° nasal-temporal optical coherence tomography B-scans were obtained within 1 hour before and after LP in 39 eyes from 20 patients (age = 23-86 years, 75% female, ICP [opening pressure] = 10-55 cm H2O)...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548109/morphometric-convergence-between-proterozoic-and-post-vegetation-rivers
#7
Alessandro Ielpi, Robert H Rainbird, Dario Ventra, Massimiliano Ghinassi
Proterozoic rivers flowed through barren landscapes, and lacked interactions with macroscopic organisms. It is widely held that, in the absence of vegetation, fluvial systems featured barely entrenched channels that promptly widened over floodplains during floods. This hypothesis has never been tested because of an enduring lack of Precambrian fluvial-channel morphometric data. Here we show, through remote sensing and outcrop sedimentology, that deep rivers were developed in the Proterozoic, and that morphometric parameters for large fluvial channels might have remained within a narrow range over almost 2 billion years...
May 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547123/anethole-reduces-inflammation-and-joint-damage-in-rats-with-adjuvant-induced-arthritis
#8
Alessandra Mileni Versuti Ritter, Luzmarina Hernandes, Bruno Ambrosio da Rocha, Camila Fernanda Estevão-Silva, Edirlene Sara Wisniewski-Rebecca, Joice Dos Santos Cezar, Silvana Martins Caparroz-Assef, Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman, Ciomar Aparecida Bersani-Amado
AIM: This study evaluated whether anethole attenuates the inflammatory response and joint damage in a model of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rats. METHODS: The animals were treated with 62.5-, 125-, or 250-mg/kg anethole daily for 21 days after AIA and necropsied on days 14 and 21 to evaluate the number of serum and synovial leukocytes (total and differential), serum cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, and TNF-α), and nitric oxide concentrations. Morphologic changes in the cartilage and bone of the femorotibial articulation in both left paw and right paw were studied in hematoxylin/eosin and Sirius Red-hematoxylin sections...
May 25, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545678/rapid-synaptogenesis-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-is-induced-by-a-single-cocaine-administration-and-stabilized-by-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-interacting-kinase-1-activity
#9
Marc Dos Santos, Marine Salery, Benoit Forget, Maria Alexandra Garcia Perez, Sandrine Betuing, Thomas Boudier, Peter Vanhoutte, Jocelyne Caboche, Nicolas Heck
BACKGROUND: Repeated cocaine exposure produces new spine formation in striatal projection neurons (SPNs) of the nucleus accumbens. However, an acute exposure to cocaine can trigger long-lasting synaptic plasticity in SPNs leading to behavioral alterations. This raises the intriguing question as to whether a single administration of cocaine could enduringly modify striatal connectivity. METHODS: A three-dimensional morphometric analysis of presynaptic glutamatergic boutons and dendritic spines was performed on SPNs 1 hour and 1 week after a single cocaine administration...
March 29, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545469/age-related-terminal-duct-lobular-unit-involution-in-benign-tissues-from-chinese-breast-cancer-patients-with-luminal-and-triple-negative-tumors
#10
Changyuan Guo, Hyuna Sung, Shan Zheng, Jennifer Guida, Erni Li, Jing Li, Nan Hu, Joseph Deng, Jonine D Figueroa, Mark E Sherman, Gretchen L Gierach, Ning Lu, Xiaohong R Yang
BACKGROUND: Terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) involution is a physiological process of breast tissue aging characterized by a reduction in the epithelial component. In studies of women with benign breast disease, researchers have found that age-matched women with lower levels of TDLU involution are at increased risk of developing breast cancer. We previously showed that breast cancer cases with core basal phenotype (CBP; estrogen receptor negative [ER(-)], progesterone receptor-negative [PR(-)], human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative [HER2(-)], cytokeratins (CK 5 or CK5/6)-positive [CK5/6(+)] and/or epidermal growth factor receptor-positive [EGFR(+)]) tumors had significantly reduced TDLU involution compared with cases with luminal A (ER(+) and/or PR(+), HER2(-), CK5/6(-), EGFR(-)) tumors from a population-based case-control study in Poland...
May 25, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545147/chromosome-divergence-during-evolution-of-the-tetraploid-clawed-frogs-xenopus-mellotropicalis-and-xenopus-epitropicalis-as-revealed-by-zoo-fish
#11
Martin Knytl, Ondřej Smolík, Svatava Kubíčková, Tereza Tlapáková, Ben J Evans, Vladimír Krylov
Whole genome duplication (WGD) generates new species and genomic redundancy. In African clawed frogs of the genus Xenopus, this phenomenon has been especially important in that (i) all but one extant species are polyploid and (ii) whole genome sequences of some species provide an evidence for genomic rearrangements prior to or after WGD. Within Xenopus in the subgenus Silurana, at least one allotetraploidization event gave rise to three extant tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40) species-Xenopus mellotropicalis, X. epitropicalis, and X...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544986/morphometric-characteristics-of-neutrophils-stimulated-by-adhesion-and-hypochlorite
#12
Tatsiana Kuznetsova, Tatsiana Kulahava, Ivan Zholnerevich, Nadezda Amaegberi, Galina Semenkova, Oleg Shadyro, Juergen Arnhold
The aim of this work was to compare cell form, size and volume as well as the locomotor activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) stimulated by adhesion to glass and exposed to hypochlorous acid at non-toxic dose. After 20min of adhesion to a glass surface, volume, cell surface area and projection area of PMNLs were equaled to 143.1±21.4μm(3), 288.8±28.8μm(2) and 248.3±32.3μm(2), respectively. Projection area of PMNLs exposed to NaOCl was noticeably enlarged as compared with control samples. The cell volume of 20min adherent cells exposed to NaOCl was enlarged in comparison with both control cells and 5min adhered exposed to NaOCl cells...
May 22, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543689/mild-cognitive-impairment-and-structural-brain-abnormalities-in-a-sexagenarian-with-a-history-of-childhood-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
John Darrell Van Horn, Andrei Irimia, Carinna M Torgerson, Avnish Bhattrai, Zachary Jacokes, Paul M Vespa
In this report, we present a case study involving an older, female patient with a history of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging volumes were acquired from the volunteer in question, her brain volumetrics and morphometrics were extracted, and these were then systematically compared against corresponding metrics obtained from a large sample of older healthy control (HC) subjects as well as from subjects in various stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD)...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542781/morphological-variation-in-brain-through-domestication-of-fowl
#14
Soichiro Kawabe, Naoki Tsunekawa, Kohei Kudo, Chanin Tirawattanawanich, Fumihito Akishinonomiya, Hideki Endo
Great variations in the size, shape, color, feather structure and behavior are observed among fowl breeds. Because many types of domestic fowls have been bred for various purposes, they are ideal to assess the relationship between brain morphology and avian biology. However, little is known about changes in brain shape that may have occurred during fowl domestication. We analyzed the brains of red jungle fowl and domestic fowl to clarify differences in the brain shape between these breeds, as well as the shape changes associated with size enlargement using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542570/evolutionary-morphology-in-shape-and-size-of-haptoral-anchors-in-14-ligophorus-spp-monogenea-dactylogyridae
#15
Abril Rodríguez-González, Volodimir Sarabeev, Juan Antonio Balbuena
The search for phylogenetic signal in morphological traits using geometric morphometrics represents a powerful approach to estimate the relative weights of convergence and shared evolutionary history in shaping organismal form. We assessed phylogenetic signal in the form of ventral and dorsal haptoral anchors of 14 species of Ligophorus occurring on grey mullets (Osteichthyes: Mugilidae) from the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The phylogenetic relationships among these species were mapped onto the morphospaces of shape and size of dorsal and ventral anchors and two different tests were applied to establish whether the spatial positions in the morphospace were dictated by chance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542305/patterns-of-change-and-continuity-in-ochre-use-during-the-late-middle-stone-age-of-the-horn-of-africa-the-porc-epic-cave-record
#16
Daniela Eugenia Rosso, Francesco d'Errico, Alain Queffelec
Ochre is found at numerous Middle Stone Age (MSA) sites and plays a key role in early modern human archaeology. Here we analyse the largest known East African MSA ochre assemblage, comprising 40 kg of ochre, found at Porc-Epic Cave, Ethiopia, spanning a period of at least 4,500 years. Visual characterisation of ochre types, microscopic identification of traces of modification, morphological and morphometric analysis of ochre pieces and modified areas, experimental reproduction of grinding processes, surface texture analysis of archaeological and experimentally ground ochre facets, laser granulometry of ochre powder produced experimentally on different grindstones and by Hamar and Ovahimba women from Ethiopia and Namibia respectively, were, for the first time, combined to explore diachronic shifts in ochre processing technology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540501/morphometric-characterization-of-rat-and-human-alveolar-macrophage-cell-models-and-their-response-to-amiodarone-using-high-content-image-analysis
#17
Ewelina Hoffman, Aateka Patel, Doug Ball, Jan Klapwijk, Val Millar, Abhinav Kumar, Abigail Martin, Rhamiya Mahendran, Lea Ann Dailey, Ben Forbes, Victoria Hutter
PURPOSE: Progress to the clinic may be delayed or prevented when vacuolated or "foamy" alveolar macrophages are observed during non-clinical inhalation toxicology assessment. The first step in developing methods to study this response in vitro is to characterize macrophage cell lines and their response to drug exposures. METHODS: Human (U937) and rat (NR8383) cell lines and primary rat alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage were characterized using high content fluorescence imaging analysis quantification of cell viability, morphometry, and phospholipid and neutral lipid accumulation...
May 24, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539836/dual-delivery-of-ngf-and-bfgf-coacervater-ameliorates-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-via-inhibiting-schwann-cells-apoptosis
#18
Rui Li, Jianfeng Ma, Yanqing Wu, Matthew Nangle, Shuang Zou, Yiyang Li, Jiayu Yin, Yingzheng Zhao, Helin Xu, Hongyu Zhang, Xiaokun Li, Qing Song Ye, Jian Wang, Jian Xiao
Diabetic neuropathy is a kind of insidious complications that impairs neural and vascular function and ultimately leads to somatic and visceral denervation. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are important neurotrophic factors for stimulating angiogenesis and improving peripheral nerve function. Administrating a single factor has good therapeutic effect on diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). However, the short half-life and rapid diffusion of growth factors under physiological conditions limits its clinical applications...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539333/endothelial-markers-expressing-stromal-cells-are-critical-for-kidney-formation
#19
Elina Mukherjee, Katherine Virginia Maringer, Emily Papke, Daniel S Bushnell, Caitlin M Schaefer, Rafael Kramann, Jacqueline Ho, Benjamin D Humphreys, Carlton M Bates, Sunder Sims-Lucas
Kidneys are highly vascularized and contain many distinct vascular beds. However, the origins and roles of developing renal endothelial cells in the formation of the kidney are unclear. We have shown that the Foxd1-positive renal stroma gives rise to endothelial marker expressing progenitors that are incorporated within a subset of peritubular capillaries; however, the significance of these cells is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether deletion of Flk1 in the Foxd1 stroma was important for renal development...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538362/statistical-analysis-of-organ-morphometric-parameters-and-weights-in-south-iranian-adult-autopsies
#20
Saeid Gholamzadeh, Mohammad Zarenezhad, Mahmoud Montazeri, Marzieh Zareikordshooli, Ghazaleh Sadeghi, Abdorrasoul Malekpour, Sanaz Hoseni, Mohammadreza Bahrani, Razieh Hajatmand
Organ weight is one important indicator to discern normal from abnormal condition in forensic pathology as well as in clinical medicine. The present study aimed to investigate morphometric parameters and organ weights of southern Iranian adults, which can be fundamental sources to be compared to abnormal cases.Morphometric parameters and weights of 6 organs (heart, liver, kidney, spleen, appendix, and brain), which were harvested from 501 southern Iranian adults (385 males and 116 females) during ordinary postmortem examination, were measured...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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