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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913600/the-evolution-of-jaw-protrusion-mechanics-has-been-tightly-coupled-to-bentho-pelagic-divergence-in-damselfishes-pomacentridae
#1
W James Cooper, Casey B Carter, Andrew J Conith, Aaron N Rice, Mark W Westneat
Most species-rich lineages of aquatic organisms have undergone divergence between forms that feed from the substrate (benthic feeding) and forms that feed from the water column (pelagic feeding). Changes in trophic niche are frequently accompanied by changes in skull mechanics, and multiple fish lineages have evolved highly specialized biomechanical configurations that allow them to protrude their upper jaws toward the prey during feeding. Damselfishes (family Pomacentridae) are an example of a species-rich lineage with multiple trophic morphologies and feeding ecologies...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913407/whole-brain-analysis-reveals-increased-neuroanatomical-asymmetries-in-dementia-for-hippocampus-and-amygdala
#2
Christian Wachinger, David H Salat, Michael Weiner, Martin Reuter
Structural magnetic resonance imaging data are frequently analysed to reveal morphological changes of the human brain in dementia. Most contemporary imaging biomarkers are scalar values, such as the volume of a structure, and may miss the localized morphological variation of early presymptomatic disease progression. Neuroanatomical shape descriptors, however, can represent complex geometric information of individual anatomical regions and may demonstrate increased sensitivity in association studies. Yet, they remain largely unexplored...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913200/pharyngeal-swallowing-mechanics-secondary-to-hemispheric-stroke
#3
Nelson H May, Jessica M Pisegna, Sarah Marchina, Susan E Langmore, Sandeep Kumar, William G Pearson
BACKGROUND: Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) is a method that utilizes multivariate shape change analysis to uncover covariant elements of pharyngeal swallowing mechanics associated with impairment using videofluoroscopic swallowing studies. The goals of this preliminary study were to (1) characterize swallowing mechanics underlying stroke-related dysphagia, (2) decipher the impact of left and right hemispheric strokes on pharyngeal swallowing mechanics, and (3) determine pharyngeal swallowing mechanics associated with penetration-aspiration status...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911379/rapid-acquisition-of-3d-images-using-high-resolution-episcopic-microscopy
#4
Haochuan Zhang, JunGang Huang, Xin Liu, Ping Zhu, Zhongrong Li, Xue Li
High-resolution episcopic microscopic (HREM) technology enables rapid acquisition of high-resolution digital volumetric and three-dimensional (3D) morphometric data. Here, we describe the detailed protocol to image the entire mouse embryo. The protocol consists of four major sections: sample preparation, embedding, image acquisition and finally, 3D visualization. The technology requires specimens to be stained with a fluorescent dye, which can be problematic for large or dense specimens. To overcome this limitation, we have improved the existing protocol to enhance tissue penetration of the dye by pretreating the specimen with a solution containing urea and sodium dodecyl sulfate...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911356/importance-rat-liver-morphology-and-vasculature-in-surgical-research
#5
Katarína Vdoviaková, Katarína Vdoviaková, Eva Petrovová, Lenka Krešáková, Marcela Maloveská, Jana Teleky, Janka Jenčová, Jozef Živčák, Andrej Jenča
BACKGROUND The laboratory rat is one of the most popular experimental models for the experimental surgery of the liver. The objective of this study was to investigate the morphometric parameters, physiological data, differences in configuration of liver lobes, biliary system, and vasculature (arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels) of the liver in laboratory rats. In addition, this study supports the anatomic literature and identified similarities and differences with human and other mammals. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty laboratory rats were dissected to prepare corrosion casts of vascular system specimens (n=20), determine the lymph vessels and lymph nodes (n=10), and for macroscopic anatomical dissection (n=10) of the rat liver...
December 2, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911134/split-face-histological-and-biochemical-evaluation-of-tightening-efficacy-using-temperature-and-impedance-controlled-continuous-non-invasive-radiofrequency-energy
#6
Sylvie Boisnic, Marc Divaris, Marie-Christine Branchet, Andrew Anthony Nelson
BACKGROUND: Bi-polar radiofrequency (RF) is capable of heating dermal collagen fibers and inducing skin tightening by collagen remodelling. OBJECTIVE: To substantiate safety and improvement of skin laxity following skin heating with a novel temperature and impedance controlled non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) device by histological and biochemical evaluations. METHODS: A split-face study was performed on 4 subjects that underwent 8 weekly RF sessions on one side of their face, leaving the other side an untreated control and then underwent face-lift procedure...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911099/nuclear-morphometric-findings-in-undetermined-cytology-a-possible-clue-for-prediction-of-braf-mutation-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinomas
#7
Sevdegul Mungan, Safak Ersoz, Ismail Saygin, Zeynep Sagnak, Umit Cobanoglu
PURPOSE: To investigate the possible relationship between the nuclear morphometric characteristics (nuclear perimeter, roundness, nuclear area, and nuclear shape) and BRAF mutation status in papillary thyroid carcinoma cases with a prior diagnosis of undetermined cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total thyroidectomy specimens obtained from 48 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with a prior diagnosis of undetermined cytology were included. Morphometric analysis under light microscopy included measurements of the perimeter, shape factor, nuclear area, and roundness of thyrocyte nuclei from the cytological smear preparations...
December 2, 2016: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911098/siga-deficiency-in-individual-small-airways-is-associated-with-persistent-inflammation-and-remodeling
#8
Vasiliy V Polosukhin, Bradley W Richmond, Rui-Hong Du, Justin M Cates, Pingsheng Wu, Hui Nian, Pierre P Massion, Lorraine B Ware, Jae Woo Lee, Alexey V Kononov, William E Lawson, Timothy S Blackwell
RATIONALE: Maintenance of a surface immune barrier is important for homeostasis in organs with mucosal surfaces that interface with the external environment; however, the role of the mucosal immune system in chronic lung diseases is incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: We examined the relationship between secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) on the mucosal surface of small airways and parameters of inflammation and airway wall remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910869/multiparameter-mechanical-and-morphometric-screening-of-cells
#9
Mahdokht Masaeli, Dewal Gupta, Sean O'Byrne, Henry T K Tse, Daniel R Gossett, Peter Tseng, Andrew S Utada, Hea-Jin Jung, Stephen Young, Amander T Clark, Dino Di Carlo
We introduce a label-free method to rapidly phenotype and classify cells purely based on physical properties. We extract 15 biophysical parameters from cells as they deform in a microfluidic stretching flow field via high-speed microscopy and apply machine-learning approaches to discriminate different cell types and states. When employing the full 15 dimensional dataset, the technique robustly classifies individual cells based on their pluripotency, with accuracy above 95%. Rheological and morphological properties of cells while deforming were critical for this classification...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910733/a-comparative-morphologic-and-morphometric-study-about-geniculate-ganglion-development-in-man-and-in-rat
#10
Ana Sánchez-Del-Rey, José Maria Sánchez-Fernández, Arantza Ibargutxi, Agustin Martinez-Ibargüen, Francisco Santaolalla
CONCLUSIONS: Human-rat geniculate ganglion (GG) have multiple origins: (1) An initial proximity (20 μm) to the endocranial foramen of the IAM, suggests neural crest induction; and (2) The influence of epibranchial placodes: the tensor tympani muscle (TTM) and the otic apical coil. OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to determine the comparative development of human-rat GG. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A light microscopic study of the GG in human material obtained from spontaneous abortions at 9, 13, 14, 17, 18, and 30 weeks, and one neonate was done...
December 2, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909144/bone-area-provides-a-responsive-outcome-measure-for-bone-changes-in-short-term-knee-osteoarthritis-studies
#11
Michael A Bowes, Rose A Maciewicz, John C Waterton, David J Hunter, Philip G Conaghan
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the 3-D bone area from an osteoarthritis (OA) cohort demonstrating no change in cartilage thickness. METHODS: Twenty-seven women with painful medial knee OA had magnetic resonance images at 0, 3, and 6 months. Images were analyzed using active appearance models. RESULTS: At 3 and 6 months, the mean change in medial femoral bone area was 0.34% (95% CI 0.04-0.64) and 0.61% (95% CI 0.32-0.90), respectively. Forty-one percent of the subjects had progression greater than the smallest detectable difference at 6 months...
December 2016: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908444/clinical-application-of-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-mapping-in-voxel-based-morphometry-in-the-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
H Takahashi, K Ishii, N Kashiwagi, Y Watanabe, H Tanaka, T Murakami, N Tomiyama
AIM: To evaluate the performance of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping compared with voxel-based morphometry and to demonstrate the clinical usefulness of ADC mapping in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population comprised 31 patients with AD (group A) and 24 patients without dementia (group B) who underwent three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted imaging (WI) and two-dimensional (2D) echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3 T...
November 28, 2016: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908430/evaluation-of-tissue-metal-and-trace-element-content-in-a-rat-model-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-using-icp-drc-ms
#13
Eugenia R Gatiatulina, Elizaveta V Popova, Valentina S Polyakova, Anastasia A Skalnaya, Eduard F Agletdinov, Alexandr A Nikonorov, Anatoly V Skalny, Alexey A Tinkov
The primary objective of the study was to assess the level of metals and trace elements in liver, serum, and hair of rats with diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometer (ICP-DRC-MS). 56 female 3-months-old Wistar rats divided into two equal groups were fed either standard (10% calories from fat) or high-fat high-carbohydrate diet (60% calories from fat in chow and 10% sucrose solution) for 6 weeks. Serum was examined for insulin resistance markers, lipid profile, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906846/computed-tomographic-analysis-the-effects-of-frontal-recess-morphology-and-the-presence-of-anatomical-variations-on-frontal-sinus-pneumatization
#14
Nesibe Gül Yüksel Aslier, Nuri Karabay, Gülşah Zeybek, Pembe Keskinoğlu, Amaç Kiray, Semih Sütay, Mustafa Cenk Ecevit
The aim of this study is to describe the morphology of frontal recess area with its anatomical variations and to reveal if frontal recess morphology and the anatomical variations related to that region have effects on the pneumatization of the frontal sinuses. The frontal sinus and recess morphometry of 136 sides of 68 dry skulls were evaluated on multislice high-resolution computed tomography. The relationships between frontal sinus and frontal recess measurements were analyzed by correlation and linear regression analysis...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905886/multi-locus-phylogeny-using-topotype-specimens-sheds-light-on-the-systematics-of-niviventer-rodentia-muridae-in-china
#15
Bin Zhang, Kai He, Tao Wan, Peng Chen, Guozheng Sun, Shaoying Liu, Truong Son Nguyen, Liangkong Lin, Xuelong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Niviventer is a genus of white-bellied rats that are among the most common rodents in the Indo-Sundaic region. The taxonomy of the genus has undergone extensive revisions and remains controversial. The current phylogeny is unresolved and was developed primarily on the basis of mitochondrial genes. Identification is extremely difficult, and a large number of GenBank sequences seem to be problematic. We extensively sampled specimens of Niviventer in China and neighboring northern Vietnam, including topotypes of the most reported species (n = 6), subspecies (n = 8), and synonyms (n = 4)...
December 1, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904215/morphometry-of-distal-end-radius-in-the-indian-population-a-radiological-study
#16
Pankaj Kumar Mishra, Manoj Nagar, Suresh Chandra Gaur, Anuj Gupta
INTRODUCTION: The morphometry of distal end radius (DER) comprises the four necessary parameters: radial inclination, palmer tilt, radial height, and ulnar variance. The unblemished intellect about the morphometry is urged for the management of fracture of DER. The goal of our study was to determine the values of morphometric parameters of the DER from the adult Indian. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a single hospital- based observational cross-sectional, prospective study...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903877/assessing-the-manipulative-potentials-of-monkeys-apes-and-humans-from-hand-proportions-implications-for-hand-evolution
#17
Ming-Jin Liu, Cai-Hua Xiong, Di Hu
The hand structure possesses a greater potential for performing manipulative skills than is typically observed, whether in humans or non-human anthropoids. However, a precise assessment of the potential manipulative skills of hands has been challenging, which hampers our understanding of the evolution of manipulative abilities in anthropoid hands. Here, we establish a functional model to quantitatively infer the manipulative potentials of anthropoid hands based on hand proportions. Our results reveal a large disparity of manipulative potentials among anthropoid hands...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903875/slow-and-steady-the-evolution-of-cranial-disparity-in-fossil-and-recent-turtles
#18
Christian Foth, Walter G Joyce
Turtles (Testudinata) are a diverse group of amniotes that have a rich fossil record that extends back to the Late Triassic, but little is known about global patterns of disparity through time. We here investigate the cranial disparity of 172 representatives of the turtle lineage and their ancestors grouped into 20 time bins ranging from the Late Triassic until the Recent using two-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Three evolutionary phases are apparent in all three anatomical views investigated. In the first phase, disparity increases gradually from the Late Triassic to the Palaeogene with only a minor perturbation at the K/T extinct event...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903587/changes-in-mitochondrial-morphology-and-organisation-can-enhance-energy-supply-from-mitochondrial-oxidative-phosphorylation-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#19
Jan Jarosz, Shouryadipta Ghosh, Lea M D Delbridge, Amorita Volschenk, Anthony Jr Hickey, Edmund J Crampin, Eric Hanssen, Vijay Rajagopal
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is accompanied by metabolic and ultrastructural alterations, but the impact of the structural changes on metabolism itself is yet to be determined. Morphometric analysis of mitochondrial shape and spatial organisation within transverse sections of cardiomyocytes from control and streptozotocin induced type I diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats revealed that mitochondria are 20% smaller in size while their spatial density increases by 53% in diabetic cells relative to control myocytes. Diabetic cells formed larger clusters of mitochondria (60% more mitochondria per cluster) and the effective surface to volume ratio of these clusters increased by 22...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903094/effects-of-self-complementarity-codon-optimization-transgene-and-dose-on-liver-transduction-with-aav8
#20
Peter Bell, Lili Wang, Shu-Jen Chen, Hongwei Yu, Yanqing Zhu, Mohamad Nayal, Zhenning He, John White, Deborah Lebel-Hagan, James M Wilson
Numerous methods of vector design and delivery have been employed in an attempt to increase transgene expression following AAV-based gene therapy. Here, we conducted a gene transfer study in mice to compare the effects of vector self-complementarity (double- or single-stranded DNA), codon optimization of the transgene, and vector dose on transgene expression levels in liver. Two different reporter genes were used: human ornithine transcarbamylase (hOTC) detected by immunofluorescence, and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) detected by direct fluorescence...
November 30, 2016: Human Gene Therapy Methods
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