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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330958/do-muscles-constrain-skull-shape-evolution-in-strepsirrhines
#1
Anne-Claire Fabre, Jonathan M G Perry, Adam Hartstone-Rose, AuróLien Lowie, Andy Boens, MaÏtena Dumont
Despite great interest and decades of research, the musculoskeletal relationships of the masticatory system in primates are still not fully understood. However, without a clear understanding of the interplay between muscles and bones it remains difficult to understand the functional significance of morphological traits of the skeleton. Here, we aim to study the impacts of the masticatory muscles on the shape of the cranium and the mandible as well as their co-variation in strepsirrhine primates. To do so, we use 3D geometric morphometric approaches to assess the shape of each bone of the skull of 20 species for which muscle data are available in the literature...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330414/partially-oxidized-polyvinyl-alcohol-conduitfor-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#2
Elena Stocco, Silvia Barbon, Lucia Lora, Francesca Grandi, Leonardo Sartore, Cesare Tiengo, Lucia Petrelli, Daniele Dalzoppo, Pier Paolo Parnigotto, Veronica Macchi, Raffaele De Caro, Andrea Porzionato, Claudio Grandi
Surgical reconstruction of peripheral nerves injuries with wide substance-loss is still a challenge. Many studies focused on the development of artificial nerve conduits made of synthetic or biological materials but the ideal device has not yet been identified. Here, we manufactured a conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration using a novel biodegradable hydrogel we patented that is oxidized polyvinyl alcohol (OxPVA). Thus, its characteristics were compared with neat polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and silk-fibroin (SF) conduits, through in vitro and in vivo analysis...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329741/sex-differences-of-hippocampal-structure-in-bipolar-disorder
#3
Jing Shi, Hua Guo, Fengmei Fan, Hongzhen Fan, Huimei An, Zhiren Wang, Shuping Tan, Fude Yang, Yunlong Tan
Although differential patterns in clinical characteristics have been consistently noted between male and female patients with bipolar disorder (BD), the effect of sex on the hippocampal structure remains unclear. To address this, the present study investigated the effects of BD and sex on the hippocampal structure, and the relationship between the hippocampal structure and cognitive performance. Morphometric and neurocognitive analyses were performed in 91 subjects (patients with BD: male/female = 33/19; normal controls: male/female = 22/17)...
December 1, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329619/hepatic-fibropoiesis-in-dogs-naturally-infected-with-leishmania-leishmania-infantum-treated-with-liposome-encapsulated-meglumine-antimoniate-and-allopurinol
#4
R S Castro, I F G de Amorim, R A Pereira, S M Silva, L J Pinheiro, A J W Pinto, E G Azevedo, C Demicheli, M M V Caliari, D M Mosser, M S M Michalick, Frédéric J G Frezard, Wagner L Tafuri
Hepatic fibropoiesis in canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) were evaluated by histological (morphometrical collagen deposition) and immunohistochemical assays characterizing alpha-actin (α-SMA), vimentin, calprotectin (L1 antigen), and TGF-β in 46 naturally infected dogs with Leishmania infantum treated with liposome-encapsulated meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol separately and in combination. Six treatment groups were defined: meglumine antimoniate encapsulated in nanometric liposomes (LMA), allopurinol (ALLOP); liposome-encapsulated meglumine antomoniate combined with allopurinol (LMA+ALLOP); empty liposomes (LEMP); empty liposomes combined with allopurinol (LEMP+ALLOP) and saline...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327647/afrina-sporoboliae-sp-n-nematoda-anguinidae-associated-with-sporobolus-cryptandrus-torr-a-gray-from-idaho-usa-phylogenetic-relationships-and-population-structure
#5
Bianca L Barrantes-Infante, Brenda K Schroeder, Sergei A Subbotin, Timothy D Murray
The dropseed gall-forming nematode, Afrina sporoboliae sp. n., is described from seed galls of Sporobolus cryptandrus (Poaceae: Chloridoideae: Sporobolinae) collected in Idaho, USA. This is the third report of an Afrina species in North America and the first report of this genus in a natural plant population on this continent. Morphological, morphometric, and molecular analyses placed this nematode in genus Afrina and demonstrated that it differs from Af. hyparrheniae and Af. spermophaga by having longer body and stylet lengths for females and males, and from Af...
January 12, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325703/the-prevalence-and-morphometric-analysis-of-ossified-superior-transverse-scapular-ligaments-in-patients-with-rotator-cuff-tears
#6
Jung Youn Kim, Yong Girl Rhee
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of ossified superior transverse scapular ligaments (OSTSLs) in rotator cuff tears (RCTs) has not yet been determined. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of OSTSLs in RCTs and to investigate the correlation between OSTSL morphology and supraspinatus muscle atrophy. METHODS: We analyzed a total of 213 patients with RCTs for whom 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging were performed prior to arthroscopic procedures...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323201/landmark-detection-in-2d-bioimages-for-geometric-morphometrics-a-multi-resolution-tree-based-approach
#7
Rémy Vandaele, Jessica Aceto, Marc Muller, Frédérique Péronnet, Vincent Debat, Ching-Wei Wang, Cheng-Ta Huang, Sébastien Jodogne, Philippe Martinive, Pierre Geurts, Raphaël Marée
The detection of anatomical landmarks in bioimages is a necessary but tedious step for geometric morphometrics studies in many research domains. We propose variants of a multi-resolution tree-based approach to speed-up the detection of landmarks in bioimages. We extensively evaluate our method variants on three different datasets (cephalometric, zebrafish, and drosophila images). We identify the key method parameters (notably the multi-resolution) and report results with respect to human ground truths and existing methods...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323059/histological-and-morphometric-analysis-of-dilated-cardiomyopathy-with-special-reference-to-collagen-iv-expression
#8
Parul Jain, Sudheer Arava, Sandeep Seth, Sanjeev Lalwani, Ruma Ray
INTRODUCTION: Collagen distribution alterations are well known in dilated cardiomyopathy. There are also changes in microvasculature along with other histomorphorphological features. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the histomorphological features of DCM along with their quantitative correlation with LVEF. Alterations in collagen IV distribution pattern and microvasculature in DCM were also evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study includes 34 right ventricular endomyocardial biopsies, 7 explanted native hearts and 41 autopsy control hearts...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322857/morphometric-analysis-for-evaluating-the-relation-between-incisal-guidance-angle-occlusal-plane-angle-and-functional-temporomandibular-joint-shape-variation
#9
Seulgi Han, Sang Min Shin, Yong-Seok Choi, So Yeun Kim, Ching-Chang Ko, Yong-Il Kim
OBJECTIVE: The correlations between morphology of the temporomandibular joint structure, the anterior guidance angle, and occlusal plane were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cone beam computed tomography analysis was performed in 158 patients (86 women and 72 men). 3D software was employed to obtain the coordinates of the shape of the incisal guidance angle, occlusal guidance angle, articular fossa, and mandibular condyle. Generalized Procrustes analysis including principal components analysis (PCA) were performed and produced principal components (PCs) scores of each shape and their centroid size (CS)...
January 11, 2018: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322332/evaluation-of-age-dependent-morphometrics-of-the-meniscofemoral-ligaments-in-reference-to-the-posterior-cruciate-ligament-in-routine-mri
#10
Sebastian Röhrich, Franz Kainberger, Lena Hirtler
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the morphological correlation between the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and the meniscofemoral ligaments (MFLs), to propose normal ranges for different age populations, and to define guidelines for correct identification and differentiation of MFLs in routine MRI. METHODS: Three hundred forty-two subjects were included retrospectively and subdivided into five age groups. Morphometrics of the PCL and the MFLs were measured on standard MRI in the sagittal, coronal, and axial planes...
January 10, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322264/cerebral-gray-matter-volume-in-patients-with-chronic-migraine-correlations-with-clinical-features
#11
Gianluca Coppola, Barbara Petolicchio, Antonio Di Renzo, Emanuele Tinelli, Cherubino Di Lorenzo, Vincenzo Parisi, Mariano Serrao, Valentina Calistri, Stefano Tardioli, Gaia Cartocci, Anna Ambrosini, Francesca Caramia, Vittorio Di Piero, Francesco Pierelli
BACKGROUND: To date, few MRI studies have been performed in patients affected by chronic migraine (CM), especially in those without medication overuse. Here, we performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses to investigate the gray matter (GM) volume of the whole brain in patients affected by CM. Our aim was to investigate whether fluctuations in the GM volumes were related to the clinical features of CM. METHODS: Twenty untreated patients with CM without a past medical history of medication overuse underwent 3-Tesla MRI scans and were compared to a group of 20 healthy controls (HCs)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321913/egg-size-and-emergence-timing-affect-morphology-and-behavior-in-juvenile-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha
#12
Karen M Cogliati, Julia R Unrein, Heather A Stewart, Carl B Schreck, David L G Noakes
Variation in early life history traits often leads to differentially expressed morphological and behavioral phenotypes. We investigated whether variation in egg size and emergence timing influence subsequent morphology associated with migration timing in juvenile spring Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Based on evidence for a positive relationship between growth rate and migration timing, we predicted that fish from small eggs and fish that emerged earlier would have similar morphology to fall migrants, while fish from large eggs and individuals that emerged later would be more similar to older spring yearling migrants...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320573/an-evaluation-of-three-dimensional-photogrammetric-and-morphometric-techniques-for-estimating-volume-and-mass-in-weddell-seals-leptonychotes-weddellii
#13
Roxanne S Beltran, Brandi Ruscher-Hill, Amy L Kirkham, Jennifer M Burns
Body mass dynamics of animals can indicate critical associations between extrinsic factors and population vital rates. Photogrammetry can be used to estimate mass of individuals in species whose life histories make it logistically difficult to obtain direct body mass measurements. Such studies typically use equations to relate volume estimates from photogrammetry to mass; however, most fail to identify the sources of error between the estimated and actual mass. Our objective was to identify the sources of error that prevent photogrammetric mass estimation from directly predicting actual mass, and develop a methodology to correct this issue...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319353/cut-off-values-for-normal-sperm-morphology-and-toxicology-for-automated-analysis-of-rat-sperm-morphology-and-morphometry
#14
G van der Horst, B Skosana, A Legendre, P Oyeyipo, S S du Plessis
We used automated sperm morphology analysis to investigate rat sperm morphometry and morphology in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats in three research centers to develop normal baseline values for sperm morphometry and to quantify the percentage of morphologically normal sperm in healthy rats. The participating centers were IRSN in Paris, France (Sprague-Dawley rats), University of the Western Cape, South Africa (Wistar rats) and Stellenbosch University (Wistar rats), South Africa. All three centers used identical sperm isolation techniques from the cauda epididymis, the same staining protocols, identical computer-aided sperm morphometry analysis (CASMA) software and microscopes with similar optics...
January 10, 2018: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318988/morphometric-and-molecular-study-of-fasciola-isolates-from-ruminants-in-iran
#15
Elham Akhlaghi, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Naser Ziaali, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Saeid Nasibi, Hossein Kamyabi, Sima Rostami, Majid Fasihi Harandi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was morphometric and molecular characterization of Fasciola isolates from ruminants in Iran. METHODS: Flukes were collected from the livers of 54 naturally infected sheep and cattle. The proportion of body length to width (L/W) of each fresh fluke was measured using a digital caliper. We employed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to explore the reliability of L/W for differentiating the two species...
December 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318746/pigmented-macrophages-and-related-aggregates-in-the-spleen-of-european-sea-bass-dosed-with-heavy-metals-ultrastructure-and-explorative-morphometric-analysis
#16
Maurizio Manera, Bahram Sayyaf Dezfuli, Joseph A DePasquale, Luisa Giari
The ultrastructure and morphometrics of pigmented macrophages (PMs) were assessed in the spleen of European sea bass experimentally dosed with Cd and Hg. PMs occurred either as solitary cells or as variably structured aggregations, defined as macrophage aggregates (MAs). Light microscopy revealed a high degree of morphological heterogeneity amongst MAs of all experimental groups. At the ultrastructural level, MAs showed a heterogeneous pigment content that was not influenced by the treatment. Cytoplasm rarefaction/vacuolation and euchromatic nuclei, were observed in PMs of dosed fish...
January 10, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318649/treatment-related-changes-in-bone-turnover-and-fracture-risk-reduction-in-clinical-trials-of-anti-resorptive-drugs-a-meta-regression
#17
Douglas C Bauer, Dennis M Black, Mary L Bouxsein, Li-Yung Lui, Jane A Cauley, Anne E de Papp, Andreas Grauer, Sundeep Khosla, Charles E McCulloch, Richard Eastell
Few pooled analyses of antiresorptive (AR) treatment trials relate short-term changes in bone turnover markers (BTMs) to subsequent fracture reduction. Such information would be useful to assess new ARs or novel dosing regimens. In the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) Bone Quality project, we analyzed individual-level data from 28,000 participants enrolled in 11 bisphosphonate (BP) and three selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) placebo-controlled fracture endpoint trials. Using BTM results for two bone formation markers (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase [bone ALP] and pro-collagen I N-propeptide [PINP]) and two bone resorption markers (N-terminal and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen) and incident fracture outcome data, we performed a meta-regression relating the mean net effect of treatment on change in bone turnover (active minus placebo % difference after 3 to 12 months) to the log of study-wide fracture risk reduction, and used linear regression to plot the best fitting line...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316597/radiographic-classification-systems-for-osteonecrosis-of-the-knee-a-review-of-literature
#18
Assem A Sultan, William A Cantrell, Morad Chughtai, Prem N Ramkumar, Anton Khlopas, Jared M Newman, Nipun Sodhi, Suela Lamaj, Timothy C Wagner, Linsen T Samuel, Michael A Mont
Knee osteonecrosis is a rare, yet debilitating disease that can lead to knee joint destruction and can be associated with significant pain and disability. Various imaging modalities have different roles in the diagnosis, staging, management, and determination of the prognosis in knee osteonecrosis. Plain radiographic images can show gross joint destruction and secondary arthritic changes. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the gold-standard imaging modality to diagnose osteonecrosis. Multiple classification systems have been developed for knee osteonecrosis based on these imaging modalities...
December 22, 2017: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315701/histological-and-quantitative-analyzes-of-the-stromal-and-acinar-components-of-normal-human-prostate-zones
#19
Edilaine F Alves, Bruno Leonardo M de Freitas Ribeiro, Waldemar S Costa, Carla B M Gallo, Francisco J B Sampaio
BACKGROUND: McNeal divided the human prostate into three major anatomical areas: the peripheral zone (PZ), the central zone (CZ), and the transition zone (TZ). Each of these areas is biologically and histologically distinct. The PZ and TZ have clinical significance and are associated with prostate cancer (PC) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), respectively. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the parenchymal and stromal components that constitute the different prostate zones...
January 8, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315551/the-impact-of-artificial-selection-on-morphological-integration-in-the-appendicular-skeleton-of-domestic-horses
#20
Pauline Hanot, Anthony Herrel, Claude Guintard, Raphaël Cornette
The relationships between the different component parts of organisms, such as the sharing of common development or function, produce a coordinated variation between the different traits. This morphological integration contributes to drive or constrain morphological variation and thus impacts phenotypic diversification. Artificial selection is known to contribute significantly to phenotypic diversification of domestic species. However, little attention has been paid to its potential impact on integration patterns...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
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