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Jitka Rybová, Ladislav Kuchar, Helena Hulková, Befekadu Asfaw, Robert Dobrovolný, Jakub Sikora, Vladimír Havlícek, Ludovít Škultéty, Jana Ledvinová
Blood group B glycosphingolipids (B-GSLs) are substrates of the lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A (AGAL). Similar to its major substrate - globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer) - B-GSLs are not degraded and accumulate in the cells of patients affected by an inherited defect of AGAL activity (Fabry disease - FD).The pancreas is a secretory organ known to have high biosynthesis of blood group GSLs. Herein, we provide a comprehensive overview of the biochemical and structural abnormalities in pancreatic tissue from two male FD patients with blood group B...
March 14, 2018: Glycobiology
Kaitlin C Maguire, Douglas J Shinneman, Kevin M Potter, Valerie D Hipkins
Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America...
March 14, 2018: Systematic Biology
Antonella Sferra, Fabiana Fattori, Teresa Rizza, Elsabetta Flex, Emanuele Bellacchio, Alessandro Bruselles, Stefania Petrini, Serena Cecchetti, Massimo Teson, Fabrizia Restaldi, Andrea Ciolfi, Filippo M Santorelli, Ginevra Zanni, Sabina Barresi, Claudia Castiglioni, Marco Tartaglia, Enrico Bertini
Microtubules participate in fundamental cellular processes, including chromosomal segregation and cell division, migration, and intracellular trafficking. Their proper function is required for correct central nervous system development and operative preservation, and mutations in genes coding tubulins, the constituting units of microtubules, underlie a family of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, collectively known as "tubulinopathies", characterized by a wide range of neuronal defects resulting from defective proliferation, migration, and function...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Giorgio Vilardi, Thanasis Mpouras, Dimitris Dermatas, Nicola Verdone, Angeliki Polydera, Luca Di Palma
Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and nano Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) particles, as well as two nanocomposites based on these novel nanomaterials, were employed as nano-adsorbents for the removal of hexavalent chromium, selenium and cobalt, from aqueous solutions. Nanomaterials characterization included the determination of their point of zero charge and particle size distribution. CNTs were further analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy to determine their morphology and structural properties...
March 5, 2018: Chemosphere
X Bai, B Tie, J-H Schmitt, D Aubry
The correlation between ultrasonic wave propagation and polycrystalline microstructures has significant implications in nondestructive evaluation. An original numerical approach using the finite element method to quantify in both time and frequency domains the ultrasonic noise scattering due to the elastic heterogeneity of polycrystalline microstructures is presented. Based on the reciprocity theorem, it allows the scattering evaluation using mechanical data recorded only on the boundary of polycrystal instead of within its volume and is applicable to any polycrystalline aggregate regardless of its crystallographic or morphological characteristics...
February 14, 2018: Ultrasonics
Evgenii Tcyganov, Jerome Mastio, Eric Chen, Dmitry I Gabrilovich
In recent years, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have emerged as one of the major inhibitors of immune effector cell function in cancer. MDSC represent a heterogeneous population of largely immature myeloid cells that are characterized by a pathological state of activation and display potent immune suppressive activity. Two major subsets of MDSC have been identified: monocytic (M-MDSC) and polymorphonuclear (PMN-MDSC). PMN-MSDC share phenotypic and morphologic features with neutrophils, whereas M-MDSC are similar to monocytes and are characterized by high plasticity...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Qiushi Li, Jihui Wang, Xuteng Xing, Wenbin Hu
The corrosion behavior of X65 steel was investigated in the seawater inoculated with sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) under the aerobic environment by electrochemical impedance techniques and immersion tests. The corroded morphologies and the composition of the corrosion products were investigated. The variation of the solution parameters including the bacterium number, the pH value and the soluble iron concentration were also investigated. The results indicated that in the SRB-containing system, the impedance responses presented a depressed semi-circle in the initial period, which then turned into the blocked electrode characteristic during the later immersion...
March 11, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Nasir Mehmood, Ranim Alayoubi, Eric Husson, Cédric Jacquard, Jochen Büchs, Catherine Sarazin, Isabelle Gosselin
Imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) are promising solvents for lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) pretreatment and allow the achievement of higher ethanolic yields after enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanolic fermentation. However, residual ILs entrapped in pretreated biomass are often toxic for fermentative microorganisms, but interaction mechanisms between ILs and cells are still unknown. Here we studied the effects of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Emim][OAc] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylphosphonate [Emim][MeO(H)PO₂] on Kluyveromyces marxianus , a thermotolerant ethanologenic yeast...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Pan Pan, Hongmin Zhang, Longxiang Su, Xiaoting Wang, Dawei Liu
To explore the mechanism of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) mediating the protective of melatonin when septic cardiomyopathy. UCP2 knocked out mice and cardiomyocytes were used to study the effect of melatonin in response to LPS. Indicators of myocardial and mitochondria injury including mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial permeability transition pore, calcium loading, ROS, and ATP detection were assessed. In addition cell viability and apoptosis as well as autophagy-associated proteins were evaluated...
March 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Francesca Salamanna, Simona Cepollaro, Deyanira Contartese, Gianluca Giavaresi, Giovanni Barbanti Brodano, Cristiana Griffoni, Alessandro Gasbarrini, Milena Fini
STUDY DESIGN: Laboratory study. OBJECTIVE: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from whole bone marrow aspirate (BMA) and MSCs derived from density-gradient centrifugation were isolated from vertebral bodies and cultured under either hypoxic or normoxic conditions to evaluate their biological characteristics and HOX and TALE signature able to improve spinal surgery procedures. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The use of spinal fusion procedures has increased over the last decades; however, failed fusion still remains an important problem...
March 15, 2018: Spine
Anung Riapanitra, Yusuke Asakura, Wenbin Cao, Yasuto Noda, Shu Yin
Fluorine-doped VOsub>2</sub>(M) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized using the hydrothermal method at a supercritical temperature of 490°C. The pristine VO<sub>2</sub>(M) has the critical phase transformation temperature of 64°C. The morphology and homogeneity of the monoclinic structure VO<sub>2</sub>(M) were adopted by the fluorine-doped system. The crystallinity and particle size were reduced the bigger the concentration of fluorine doping...
March 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
Amber D Tripodi, James P Strange
Mermithid nematodes (Nematoda: Mermithida: Mermithidae) parasitize a wide range of both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrate hosts, yet are recorded in bumble bees (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus) only six times historically. Little is known about the specific identity of these parasites. In a single-season nationwide survey of internal parasites of 3646 bumble bees, we encountered six additional instances of mermithid parasitism in four bumble bee species and genetically characterized them using two regions of 18S to identify the specific host-parasite relationships...
March 16, 2018: Parasitology
Hadas Urca, Frida Ben-Ami
The microsporidian parasite Hamiltosporidium tvaerminnensis can infect Daphnia magna both horizontally (through environmental spores) and vertically (through parthenogenetic and sexually produced eggs). The spores of H. tvaerminnensis come in three distinguishable morphologies, which are thought to have different roles in the transmission of the parasite. In this study, we examined the role of the two most common spore morphologies (i.e. oval-shaped spores and pear-shaped spores) in horizontal transmission of H...
March 16, 2018: Parasitology
Daniela Calzia, Greta Garbarino, Federico Caicci, Mario Pestarino, Lucia Manni, Carlo Enrico Traverso, Isabella Panfoli, Simona Candiani
Previous studies on purified bovine rod outer segments (OS) disks pointed to Oxidative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS) as being the most likely mechanism involved in ATP production, as yet not fully understood, to support the first phototransduction steps. Bovine and murine rod OS disks, devoid of mitochondria, would house respiratory chain complexes I to IV and ATP synthase, similar to mitochondria. Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is a well-suited animal model to study vertebrate embryogenesis as well as the retina, morphologically and functionally similar to its human counterpart...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
Yizhi Zhuo, Verner Håkonsen, Zhiwei He, Senbo Xiao, Jianying He, Zhiliang Zhang
Ice accretion presents a severe risk for human safety. Despite great efforts for developing icephobic surfaces (the surface with an ice adhesion strength below 100 kPa) have been devoted, expanding the lifetime of state-of-the-art icephobic surfaces still remains as a critical unsolved issue. Herein, a novel icephobic material is designed by integrating interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) into autonomous self-healing elastomer, and applied in anti-icing for enhancing mechanical durability. The molecular structure, surface morphology, mechanical properties and durable icephobicity of the material were studied...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Matthieu Fumagalli, Julien Berriot, Benoit de Gaudemaris, Anne Veyland, Jean-Luc Putaux, Sonia Molina-Boisseau, Laurent Heux
Rubber materials with well-dispersed fillers and large mechanical reinforcement have been obtained by melt-processing a diene elastomer matrix and tailored nanocellulose powders having both a high specific surface area and a modified interface. Such filler powders with a specific surface area of 180 m2 g-1 and 100 m2 g-1 have been obtained by freeze-drying suspensions of short needle-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and entangled networks of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in tert-butanol/water, respectively...
March 16, 2018: Soft Matter
Kirti Gupta, Chirag K Ahuja, Awadh K Pandit, Manisha Biswal, M R Shivaprakash
While neurological manifestations in scrub typhus have been well described both in clinical and radiological reports in the literature, neuropathological features are rarely reported. They range from subtle "typhus nodules" to more widespread capillaritis. Familiarity with pathological features is essential for correct interpretation. We describe the clinical, imaging, and histological findings in an autopsy case of scrub typhus, which was pre-terminally superimposed by fungal meningoencephalitis...
March 2018: Neurology India
Maud Martin, Alexandra Veloso, Jingchao Wu, Eugene A Katrukha, Anna Akhmanova
Microtubules control different aspects of cell polarization. In cells with a radial microtubule system, a pivotal role in setting up asymmetry is attributed to the relative positioning of the centrosome and the nucleus. Here, we show that centrosome loss had no effect on the ability of endothelial cells to polarize and move in 2D and 3D environments. In contrast, non-centrosomal microtubules stabilized by the microtubule minus-end-binding protein CAMSAP2 were required for directional migration on 2D substrates and for the establishment of polarized cell morphology in soft 3D matrices...
March 16, 2018: ELife
Shinji Horie, Yasunobu Sawaji, Kenji Endo, Hidekazu Suzuki, Yuji Matsuoka, Hirosuke Nishimura, Takeshi Seki, Kengo Yamamoto
INTRODUCTION: Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) are both characterized as ossification in paravertebral ligaments and sometimes present simultaneously, however, the bone metabolism in patients with cervical OPLL accompanying/not accompanying DISH has not well been studied. Thus, a retrospective analysis was performed to understand any differences in bone metabolism in these patients. METHODS: Male patients who underwent surgery for OPLL were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of DISH (OD and O group, respectively)...
2018: SICOT-J
Xiao-Mei Fang, Jing-Lin Bai, Jing Su, Li-Li Zhao, Hong-Yu Liu, Bai-Ping Ma, Yu-Qin Zhang, Li-Yan Yu
Three actinomycete strains originating from the surface-sterilized roots of Paris polyphylla were characterized by using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that they formed a deep, monophyletic branch in the genus Glycomyces, and were most closely related to the type strains of the species Glycomyces harbinensis and Glycomycesscopariae. Morphological and chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of strains CPCC 204357T , CPCC 204354 and CPCC 204355 to the genus Glycomyces...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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