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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538993/fefsem-neuronal-response-during-combined-volitional-and-reflexive-pursuit
#1
Leah Bakst, Jérome Fleuriet, Michael J Mustari
Although much is known about volitional and reflexive smooth eye movements individually, much less is known about how they are coordinated. It is hypothesized that separate cortico-ponto-cerebellar loops subserve these different types of smooth eye movements. Specifically, the MT-MST-DLPN pathway is thought to be critical for ocular following eye movements, whereas the FEF-NRTP pathway is understood to be vital for volitional smooth pursuit. However, the role that these loops play in combined volitional and reflexive behavior is unknown...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515977/establishing-normative-change-values-in-visual-acuity-loss-during-the-dynamic-visual-acuity-test
#2
Chris Marquez, Monica Lininger, Scot Raab
BACKGROUND: Baseline visual acuity (VA) loss from static to dynamic head conditions assessed using the Dynamic Visual Acuity Testing (DVAT) have not been established in NCAA football players. DVAT assesses the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR) which is measured in Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR). Decreased VA beyond baseline measures may detect VOR impairment and impact treatment protocols and assist in return to play decisions post-concussion. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: To establish normative VA mean scores during a static head posture as well as dynamically during the DVAT with a head speed of 150 deg/s in the pitch (vertical) and yaw (horizontal) planes rotating 20 degrees in each direction...
April 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515637/ultrasound-biomicroscopy-value-in-evaluation-of-restoration-of-ciliary-muscles-contractility-after-cataract-extraction
#3
Ayser Abd El-Hameed Fayed
PURPOSE: To assess the changes in the contractility of the ciliary muscle in eyes with presbyopia before and after phacoemulsification and intracapsular lens implantation using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective study included 50 eyes of 30 consecutive subjects operated at the Department of Ophthalmology. Patients with any ocular disorder affecting visual acuity, corneal surface irregularities, had posterior capsular perforation or intensive postoperative corneal edema, or were <35 years of age, were excluded...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500752/which-ante-mortem-clinical-features-predict-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-pathology
#4
Gesine Respondek, Carolin Kurz, Thomas Arzberger, Yaroslau Compta, Elisabet Englund, Leslie W Ferguson, Ellen Gelpi, Armin Giese, David J Irwin, Wassilios G Meissner, Christer Nilsson, Alexander Pantelyat, Alex Rajput, John C van Swieten, Claire Troakes, Keith A Josephs, Anthony E Lang, Brit Mollenhauer, Ulrich Müller, Jennifer L Whitwell, Angelo Antonini, Kailash P Bhatia, Yvette Bordelon, Jean-Christophe Corvol, Carlo Colosimo, Richard Dodel, Murray Grossman, Jan Kassubek, Florian Krismer, Johannes Levin, Stefan Lorenzl, Huw Morris, Peter Nestor, Wolfgang H Oertel, Gil D Rabinovici, James B Rowe, Thilo van Eimeren, Gregor K Wenning, Adam Boxer, Lawrence I Golbe, Irene Litvan, Maria Stamelou, Günter U Höglinger
BACKGROUND: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neuropathologically defined disease presenting with a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes. OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical features and investigations that predict or exclude PSP pathology during life, aiming at an optimization of the clinical diagnostic criteria for PSP. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature published since 1996 to identify clinical features and investigations that may predict or exclude PSP pathology...
May 13, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495637/veridical-stimulus-localization-is-linked-to-human-area-v5-mt-activity
#5
Anna K Bonkhoff, Eckart Zimmermann, Gereon R Fink
How the brain represents visual space is an unsolved mystery. Spatial localization becomes particularly challenging when visual information processing is briefly disrupted, as in the case of saccadic eye movements, blinks, or visual masks. As we have recently reported, a compression of visual space, illustrated by displacements of shortly flashed stimuli, can be observed in the temporal vicinity of masking stimuli during ocular fixation (Zimmermann et al., 2013). We here aimed at investigating the neural mechanisms underlying these displacements using functional magnetic resonance imaging...
May 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492464/validity-of-forced-eyelid-closure-test-a-novel-clinical-screening-test-for-ocular-myasthenia-gravis
#6
Supanut Apinyawasisuk, Xinkai Zhou, Jack J Tian, Giancarlo A Garcia, Rustum Karanjia, Alfredo A Sadun
BACKGROUND: Forced eyelid closure test (FECT) is a clinical screening test developed from the original Cogan lid twitch (CLT) sign to assist in the diagnosis of ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG), We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of FECT compared with CLT and benchmarked to standard diagnostic tests. METHODS: This study was a retrospective chart review of 48 patients using electronic medical records of those that presented with ptosis and/or diplopia at Doheny Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles between February 2015 and April 2016...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471705/individualized-management-of-facial-synkinesis-based-on-facial-function
#7
Cecilia Montalban Maria, Jin Kim
OBJECTIVES: The researchers analyzed facial patterns in subjects with facial synkinesis after facial paralysis and evaluated the involved muscles to aid in the development of effective treatments for facial synkinesis. METHODS: A total of 142 subjects were included in the study, the primary measure for synkinesis was determined by video analysis involving the strongest combination of two muscle groups that contributed to facial expression. The secondary measure of synkinesis was the analysis of its severity using the SB grading system, while observing the number of facial synkinetic movements...
May 4, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467028/clinical-diagnosis-of-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-the-movement-disorder-society-criteria
#8
Günter U Höglinger, Gesine Respondek, Maria Stamelou, Carolin Kurz, Keith A Josephs, Anthony E Lang, Brit Mollenhauer, Ulrich Müller, Christer Nilsson, Jennifer L Whitwell, Thomas Arzberger, Elisabet Englund, Ellen Gelpi, Armin Giese, David J Irwin, Wassilios G Meissner, Alexander Pantelyat, Alex Rajput, John C van Swieten, Claire Troakes, Angelo Antonini, Kailash P Bhatia, Yvette Bordelon, Yaroslau Compta, Jean-Christophe Corvol, Carlo Colosimo, Dennis W Dickson, Richard Dodel, Leslie Ferguson, Murray Grossman, Jan Kassubek, Florian Krismer, Johannes Levin, Stefan Lorenzl, Huw R Morris, Peter Nestor, Wolfgang H Oertel, Werner Poewe, Gil Rabinovici, James B Rowe, Gerard D Schellenberg, Klaus Seppi, Thilo van Eimeren, Gregor K Wenning, Adam L Boxer, Lawrence I Golbe, Irene Litvan
BACKGROUND: PSP is a neuropathologically defined disease entity. Clinical diagnostic criteria, published in 1996 by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke/Society for PSP, have excellent specificity, but their sensitivity is limited for variant PSP syndromes with presentations other than Richardson's syndrome. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to provide an evidence- and consensus-based revision of the clinical diagnostic criteria for PSP. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Cochrane, Medline, and PSYCInfo databases for articles published in English since 1996, using postmortem diagnosis or highly specific clinical criteria as the diagnostic standard...
May 3, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466444/a-pilot-study-on-geometrical-uncertainties-for-intra-ocular-cancers-in-radiotherapy
#9
Rachitha Antony, Alan Herschtal, Stephen Todd, Claire Phillips, Annette Haworth
A system for stabilising and monitoring eye movements for linac-based stereotactic radiotherapy associated with the mobile eye, the Eye Tracker, was developed. Whilst the Eye Tracker design is based on a previously reported system, the purpose of this study was to confirm that the modified version can be used with clinically acceptable treatment margins. We report the estimates of the margin required to account for inter- and intra-fraction eye motion based on data from 12 consecutive patients treated with the Eye Tracker system in place...
May 2, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460589/expanding-the-phenotypic-spectrum-of-gabrg2-variants-a-recurrent-gabrg2-missense-variant-associated-with-a-severe-phenotype
#10
Fanggeng Zou, Kirsty McWalter, Lindsay Schmidt, Amy Decker, Jonathan D Picker, Sharyn Lincoln, David A Sweetser, Lauren C Briere, Chellamani Harini, Eric Marsh, Livija Medne, Raymond Y Wang, Karen Leydiker, Andrew Mower, Gepke Visser, Inge Cuppen, Koen L van Gassen, Jasper van der Smagt, Adeel Yousaf, Michael Tennison, Anita Shanmugham, Elizabeth Butler, Gabriele Richard, Dianalee McKnight
Pathogenic missense and truncating variants in the GABRG2 gene cause a spectrum of epilepsies, from Dravet syndrome to milder simple febrile seizures. In most cases, pathogenic missense variants in the GABRG2 gene segregate with a febrile seizure phenotype. In this case series, we report a recurrent, de novo missense variant (c0.316 G > A; p.A106T) in the GABRG2 gene that was identified in five unrelated individuals. These patients were described to have a more severe phenotype than previously reported for GABRG2 missense variants...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459979/ocular-congenital-cranial-dysinnervation-disorders-ccdds-insights-into-axon-growth-and-guidance
#11
Mary C Whitman, Elizabeth C Engle
Unraveling the genetics of the paralytic strabismus syndromes known as congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs) is both informing physicians and their patients and broadening our understanding of development of the ocular motor system. Genetic mutations underlying ocular CCDDs alter either motor neuron specification or motor nerve development, and highlight the importance of modulations of cell signaling, cytoskeletal transport, and microtubule dynamics for axon growth and guidance. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of two CCDDs, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) and Duane retraction syndrome (DRS), and discuss what they have taught us about mechanisms of axon guidance and selective vulnerability...
April 28, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455389/the-neurology-of-ageing-what-is-normal
#12
REVIEW
Jonathan M Schott
Ageing is associated with changes in the nervous system with consequent alterations in some neurological examination findings: understanding what is 'normal' at different ages is essential when evaluating patients. In seminal papers published in 1931, Dr MacDonald Critchley summarised his observations and the prevailing evidence on the effects of ageing on, among others, sensation, reflexes, ocular function, olfaction, movement and cognition. In this review, these observations are re-evaluated in light of contemporary evidence...
April 28, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448671/disrupted-eye-movements-in-preperimetric-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#13
Raymond P Najjar, Sourabh Sharma, Morgane Drouet, Stephanie Leruez, Mani Baskaran, Monisha E Nongpiur, Tin Aung, Joanne Fielding, Owen White, Michael J Girard, Cédric Lamirel, Dan Milea
Purpose: Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) can be associated with abnormal ocular motor behavior, possibly as a compensatory strategy following visual field loss. The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of saccadic eye movements in patients with early-stage POAG without any detectable glaucomatous visual field loss (i.e., preperimetric POAG). Methods: Binocular eye movements were explored in 16 patients with bilateral preperimetric POAG and 16 age-matched healthy controls in a cross-sectional, observational study...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447848/spatial-biases-in-motion-extrapolation-for-manual-interception
#14
Sinéad A Reid, Joost C Dessing
The exact mechanisms by which humans control the manual interception of moving targets are currently unknown. Here, the authors explored the behaviors associated with the spatial control for manual interception. The examined task required controlling a cursor to intercept moving targets on a touch screen. They explored the effects of target motion direction, curvature and occlusion on manual interception. They observed occlusion-dependent spatial errors and arrival times for curved and diagonal trajectories (larger errors and earlier arrival of the finger at its final position with longer occlusion)...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444617/computational-theory-underlying-acute-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-motor-learning-with-cerebellar-long-term-depression-and-long-term-potentiation
#15
Keiichiro Inagaki, Yutaka Hirata
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) can be viewed as an adaptive control system that maintains compensatory eye movements during head motion. As the cerebellar flocculus is intimately involved in this adaptive motor control of the VOR, the VOR has been a popular model system for investigating cerebellar motor learning. Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses are considered to play major roles in cerebellar motor learning. A recent study using mutant mice demonstrated cerebellar motor learning with hampered LTD; the study concluded that the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell LTD is not essential...
April 25, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424655/sustained-and-transient-vestibular-systems-a-physiological-basis-for-interpreting-vestibular-function
#16
REVIEW
Ian S Curthoys, Hamish G MacDougall, Pierre-Paul Vidal, Catherine de Waele
Otolithic afferents with regular resting discharge respond to gravity or low-frequency linear accelerations, and we term these the static or sustained otolithic system. However, in the otolithic sense organs, there is anatomical differentiation across the maculae and corresponding physiological differentiation. A specialized band of receptors called the striola consists of mainly type I receptors whose hair bundles are weakly tethered to the overlying otolithic membrane. The afferent neurons, which form calyx synapses on type I striolar receptors, have irregular resting discharge and have low thresholds to high frequency (e...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418222/modified-loop-myopexy-technique-for-severe-high-myopic-strabismus-fixus
#17
Leilei Zou, Shuai Liu, Rui Liu, Jing Yao, Yan Liu, Jing Lin, Hong Liu
IMPORTANCE: This study introduces a modified loop myopexy technique for severe high myopic strabismus fixus. BACKGROUND: This study aims to evaluate the surgical results of loop myopexy with or without medial rectus recession for the treatment of patients with myopic strabismus fixus. DESIGN: This is a retrospective study in a Chinese teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Data was collected from 25 myopic strabismus fixus patients (33 eyes) with restriction in both abduction and sursumduction...
April 18, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414059/a-mouse-ocular-explant-model-that-enables-the-study-of-living-optic-nerve-head-events-after-acute-and-chronic-intraocular-pressure-elevation-focusing-on-retinal-ganglion-cell-axons-and-mitochondria
#18
Elizabeth C Kimball, Mary E Pease, Matthew R Steinhart, Ericka N Oglesby, Ian Pitha, Cathy Nguyen, Harry A Quigley
We developed an explant model of the mouse eye and optic nerve that facilitates the study of retinal ganglion cell axons and mitochondria in the living optic nerve head (ONH) in an ex vivo environment. Two transgenic mouse strains were used, one expressing yellow fluorescent protein in selected axons and a second strain expressing cyan fluorescent protein in all mitochondria. We viewed an explanted mouse eye and optic nerve by laser scanning microscopy at and behind the ONH, the site of glaucoma injury. Explants from previously untreated mice were studied with the intraocular pressure (IOP) set artificially at normal or elevated levels for several hours...
April 14, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410563/wernicke-s-encephalopathy-following-reduced-food-intake-due-to-depressive-disorders
#19
Donato Melchionda, Tommaso Martino, Elena Carapelle, Alessandra Lalla, Daniela Cologno, Carlo Avolio
Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is an unexpected common neurological disorder caused by thiamine deficiency often due to alcohol abuse, but WE-not alcohol related is also frequent. A prolonged reduction of food intake can cause WE. This condition can arise in depression disorders, especially in the early stages of these psychiatric syndromes. WE is characterized by the triad of signs: ataxia, ocular dysfunctions and confusional state. However, they rarely appear together and this makes the diagnosis particularly difficult, especially when there is not a history of alcohol abuse...
April 14, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409282/motor-neuron-vulnerability-and-resistance-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#20
REVIEW
Jik Nijssen, Laura H Comley, Eva Hedlund
In the fatal disease-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-upper (corticospinal) motor neurons (MNs) and lower somatic MNs, which innervate voluntary muscles, degenerate. Importantly, certain lower MN subgroups are relatively resistant to degeneration, even though pathogenic proteins are typically ubiquitously expressed. Ocular MNs (OMNs), including the oculomotor, trochlear and abducens nuclei (CNIII, IV and VI), which regulate eye movement, persist throughout the disease. Consequently, eye-tracking devices are used to enable paralysed ALS patients (who can no longer speak) to communicate...
June 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
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