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C L Roberts, C S Algert, J B Ford, T A Nippita, J M Morris
STUDY QUESTION: After an initial midtrimester loss, is the interval to the next conception associated with the risk of a recurrent loss? SUMMARY ANSWER: Among women who had a pregnancy loss at 14-19 weeks gestation, conception at least 3 months after this initial loss was associated with a reduced risk of a recurrent loss. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A short interpregnancy interval (IPI) has been thought to increase risk but recent studies of pregnancy after a loss have found no effect; however, these studies have been based almost entirely on an initial first trimester (<14 weeks) loss...
October 14, 2016: Human Reproduction
Philip J Batterham, John McGrath, Patrick D McGorry, Frances J Kay-Lambkin, Ian B Hickie, Helen Christensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
Ahmed El Nemr, Ghada F El-Said, Safaa Ragab, Azza Khaled, Amany El-Sikaily
Zn, Cu, Ni, V, Al, Pb, Cd, Hg, lipid and water contents were determined in the soft tissues of different shellfish species collected along the Red Sea shoreline. Metal contents showed a descending order of Zn > Cu > Ni > Al > V > Pb > Cd > Hg. The leachable concentrations found in the sediments gathered from the studied locations gave another descending order: Al > Zn > Ni > Pb > V > Cu > Cd. The determined leachable heavy metal contents in the sediment did not exceed the NOAA and CCME (Anonymous 1999) sediment quality guidelines...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Paul H Delfabbro, Helen R Winefield, Anthony H Winefield, Anne Hammarström
There is considerable public health interest in understanding what factors during adolescence predict longer-term drinking patterns in adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in the age 15 social and psychological predictors of less healthy drinking patterns in early adulthood. The study investigates the relative importance of internalising problems, other risky health behaviours, and peer relationships after controlling for family background characteristics. A sample of 812 young people who provided complete alcohol consumption data from the age of 15 to 20 years (5 measurement points) were drawn from South Australian secondary schools and given a detailed survey concerning their psychological and social wellbeing...
2016: Journal of Addiction
Britta Klein, Thomas Haggeney, Daniela Fietz, Sivanjah Indumathy, Kate L Loveland, Mark Hedger, Sabine Kliesch, Wolfgang Weidner, Martin Bergmann, Hans-Christian Schuppe
STUDY QUESTION: Which immune cells and cytokine profiles are characteristic for testicular germ cell neoplasia and what consequences does this have for the understanding of the related testicular immunopathology? SUMMARY ANSWER: The unique immune environment of testicular germ cell neoplasia comprises B cells and dendritic cells as well as high transcript levels of IL-6 and other B cell supporting or T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-driven cytokines and thus differs profoundly from normal testis or inflammatory lesions associated with hypospermatogenesis...
October 2016: Human Reproduction
Premila Paiva, Michelle G Lockhart, Jane E Girling, Moshe Olshansky, Nicole Woodrow, Jennifer L Marino, Martha Hickey, Peter A W Rogers
STUDY QUESTION: Does the changing molecular profile of the endometrium during menstruation correlate with the histological profile of menstruation. SUMMARY ANSWER: We identified several genes not previously associated with menstruation; on Day 2 of menstruation (early-menstruation), processes related to inflammation are predominantly up-regulated and on Day 4 (late-menstruation), the endometrium is predominantly repairing and regenerating. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Menstruation is induced by progesterone withdrawal at the end of the menstrual cycle and involves endometrial tissue breakdown, regeneration and repair...
September 8, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
Boris Novakovic, Christine E Napier, Regan Vryer, Eva Dimitriadis, Ursula Manuelpillai, Andrew Sharkey, Jeffrey M Craig, Roger R Reddel, Richard Saffery
STUDY QUESTION: What factors regulate elongated telomere length in the human placenta? SUMMARY ANSWER: Hypomethylation of TERRA promoters in the human placenta is associated with high expression TERRA genes, however, no clear mechanistic link between these phenomena and elongated telomere length in the human placenta was found. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Human placenta tissue and trophoblasts show longer telomere lengths compared to gestational age-matched somatic cells...
September 7, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
F J Schneuer, C Bower, A J A Holland, V Tasevski, S E Jamieson, A Barker, L Lee, J A Majzoub, N Nassar
STUDY QUESTION: Are maternal first trimester levels of serum free-beta hCG associated with the development of hypospadias or undescended testis (UDT) in boys? SUMMARY ANSWER: Overall, first trimester maternal levels of serum free-beta hCG are not associated with hypospadias or UDT. However, elevated levels were found in severe phenotypes (proximal hypospadias and bilateral UDT) suggesting an altered pathway of hormonal release in early pregnancy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Human chorionic gonadotrophin peaks in first trimester of pregnancy stimulating fetal testosterone production, which is key to normal male genital development...
August 2016: Human Reproduction
Claire Rickard
Claire Rickard Professor of Nursing, National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Centre of Research Excellence in Nursing, Griffith University, was awarded second place in the BJN Awards 2016 for IV Therapy Nurse of the Year. Here she talks about the she has done to be recognised in this field.
July 28, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
J R A Rigg
The aim of this paper is to link the history of the Multicentre Australian Study of Epidural Anaesthesia in high risk surgery, the MASTER Trial, the first National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) funded multicentre randomised clinical trial in Australia led by anaesthetist researchers, and the decision of The Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) to establish a clinical trials network, in 2003, to the success of contemporary researchers in Australia and New Zealand in anaesthesia and perioperative medicine...
July 2016: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Adriaan Louw, Ina Diener, César Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Emilio J Puentedura
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness of sham surgery in orthopedics by conducting a systematic review of literature. METHODS: Systematic searches were conducted on Biomed Central,, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, NLM Central Gateway, OVID, ProQuest (Digital Dissertations), PsycInfo, PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect and Web of Science. Secondary searching (PEARLing) was undertaken, whereby reference lists of the selected articles were reviewed for additional references not identified in the primary search...
July 11, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Paul Moran, Helena Romaniuk, Carolyn Coffey, Andrew Chanen, Louisa Degenhardt, Rohan Borschmann, George C Patton
BACKGROUND: Existing knowledge about the consequences of personality disorders is substantially derived from the study of clinical populations. To gain a fuller understanding of the disease burden associated with personality disorders, we report their long-term mental health and social consequences in a large population-based sample of young adults. METHODS: We used data from a population-based, ten-wave cohort study of a stratified random sample of non-treatment-seeking young adults recruited from Victoria, Australia, between Aug 20, 1992, and March 3, 2014...
July 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Arthur Yin Fan, Kehua Zhou, Sherman Gu, Yong Ming Li
Context • In the October 2014 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Hinman et al published the results of an Australian clinical trial on acupuncture in a paper entitled "Acupuncture for Chronic Knee Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial" (JAMA report), in which they concluded that neither acupuncture nor laser acupuncture had any greater effects than sham laser acupuncture for pain or function for patients aged 50 y and older with moderate-to-severe knee pain. That study has been criticized extensively by international scholars for its validity because serious methodological flaws existed throughout the study's design, implementation, and conclusions...
March 2016: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
Mohammad Khalesi, Mary Waterhouse, David C Whiteman, Richard Johns, Cliff Rosendahl, Timothy Hackett, Thomas Pollak, Michael G Kimlin, Elke Hacker, Rachel E Neale
BACKGROUND: There is some evidence that basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) arising on different anatomic sites and developing to different histological subtypes differ in their pathophysiology. The expression of a number of proteins, including PTCH1, COX-2, p53, and Ki-67, is frequently altered in BCC development. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether protein expression differs between BCCs at different anatomic sites and of different histological subtypes...
October 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
Elizabeth J M Pearson, Meg E Morris, Carol E McKinstry
PURPOSE: There is inconsistent management of cancer-related fatigue (CRF) by health professionals worldwide. This research aims to identify the most appropriate guidelines for the management of cancer-related fatigue. METHODS: A systematic search of international literature identified evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for CRF. Four reviewers independently appraised the highest quality guidelines using the AGREE-II instrument and National Heath and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guideline standards...
September 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Kelly-Anne Phillips, Ian M Collins, Roger L Milne, Sue Anne McLachlan, Michael Friedlander, Martha Hickey, Catharyn Stern, John L Hopper, Richard Fisher, Gordon Kannemeyer, Sandra Picken, Charmaine D Smith, Thomas W Kelsey, Richard A Anderson
STUDY QUESTION: Do women with ITALIC! BRCA1 or ITALIC! BRCA2 mutations have reduced ovarian reserve, as measured by circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration? SUMMARY ANSWER: Women with a germline mutation in ITALIC! BRCA1 have reduced ovarian reserve as measured by AMH. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The DNA repair enzymes encoded by ITALIC! BRCA1 and ITALIC! BRCA2 are implicated in reproductive aging. Circulating AMH is a biomarker of ovarian reserve and hence reproductive lifespan...
May 2016: Human Reproduction
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Genetic determinants of stroke, the leading neurological cause of death and disability, are poorly understood and have seldom been explored in the general population. Our aim was to identify additional loci for stroke by doing a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. METHODS: For the discovery sample, we did a genome-wide analysis of common genetic variants associated with incident stroke risk in 18 population-based cohorts comprising 84 961 participants, of whom 4348 had stroke...
June 2016: Lancet Neurology
Roger Newman, Natàlia Vilardell, Pere Clavé, Renée Speyer
BACKGROUND: Fluid thickening is a well-established management strategy for oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD). However, the effects of thickening agents on the physiology of impaired swallow responses are not fully understood, and there is no agreement on the degree of bolus thickening. AIM: To review the literature and to produce a white paper of the European Society for Swallowing Disorders (ESSD) describing the evidence in the literature on the effect that bolus modification has upon the physiology, efficacy and safety of swallowing in adults with OD...
April 2016: Dysphagia
Sarah J Holdsworth-Carson, Jenny N Fung, Hien T T Luong, Yadav Sapkota, Lisa M Bowdler, Leanne Wallace, Wan Tinn Teh, Joseph E Powell, Jane E Girling, Martin Healey, Grant W Montgomery, Peter A W Rogers
STUDY QUESTION: Do endometriosis risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found at the 12q22 locus have effects on vezatin ( ITALIC! VEZT) expression? SUMMARY ANSWER: The original genome-wide association study (GWAS) SNP (rs10859871), and other newly identified association signals, demonstrate strong evidence for ITALIC! cis-expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) effects on ITALIC! VEZT expression. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: GWAS have identified several disease-risk loci (SNPs) associated with endometriosis...
May 2016: Human Reproduction
Christopher M Doran, Rod Ling, Andrew Searles, Peter Hill
Objective The Indigenous Burden of Disease (IBoD) report is the most comprehensive assessment of Indigenous disease burden in Australia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effect of the IBoD report on Australian Indigenous health policy, service expenditure and research funding. Findings have significance for understanding factors that may influence Indigenous health policy.Methods The potential effect of the IBoD report was considered by: (1) conducting a text search of pertinent documents published by the federal government, Council of Australian Governments and the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC) and observing the quantity and quality of references to IBoD; (2) examining data on government Indigenous healthcare expenditure for trends consistent with the findings and policy implications of the IBoD report; and (3) examining NHMRC Indigenous grant allocation trends consistent with the findings and policy implications of the IBoD report...
March 3, 2016: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
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