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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919338/diagnostic-accuracy-of-xpert-mtb-rif-ultra-for-tuberculous-meningitis-in-hiv-infected-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Nathan C Bahr, Edwin Nuwagira, Emily E Evans, Fiona V Cresswell, Philip V Bystrom, Adolf Byamukama, Sarah C Bridge, Ananta S Bangdiwala, David B Meya, Claudia M Denkinger, Conrad Muzoora, David R Boulware
BACKGROUND: WHO recommends Xpert MTB/RIF as initial diagnostic testing for tuberculous meningitis. However, diagnosis remains difficult, with Xpert sensitivity of about 50-70% and culture sensitivity of about 60%. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the new Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) for tuberculous meningitis. METHODS: We prospectively obtained diagnostic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens during screening for a trial on the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in Mbarara, Uganda...
September 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911210/a20-an-essential-component-of-the-ubiquitin-editing-protein-complex-is-a-negative-regulator-of-inflammation-in-human-myometrium-and-foetal-membranes
#2
Martha Lappas
STUDY QUESTION: Does A20 regulate mediators involved in the terminal processes of human labour in primary myometrial and amnion cells? SUMMARY ANSWER: A20 is a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) responsive gene that acts as a negative regulator of NF-κB-induced expression of pro-labour mediators. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Inflammation is commonly implicated in spontaneous preterm birth and the processes involved in rupture of foetal membranes and uterine contractions...
September 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899450/joining-forces-to-prevent-dementia-the-international-research-network-on-dementia-prevention-irndp
#3
Kaarin J Anstey, Ruth Peters, Linda Clare, Nicola T Lautenschlager, Hiroko H Dodge, Deborah E Barnes, Suzana Shahar, Henry Brodaty, Glenn Rees
Dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder with global impact, with the largest proportion of cases occurring in low- and middle-income countries. It is estimated that there are 46.8 million cases globally with approximately 10 million new cases each year or a new case occurring every 3 sec (Prince et al., 2015). For comparison there are 36.7 million HIV cases with an estimated 2 million new cases each year (WHO, 2017). The rise in dementia prevalence is largely due to population ageing, with the oldest being at highest risk...
September 13, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890948/green-environment-and-incident-depression-in-south-africa-a-geospatial-analysis-and-mental-health-implications-in-a-resource-limited-setting
#4
Andrew Tomita, Alain M Vandormael, Diego Cuadros, Enrico Di Minin, Vuokko Heikinheimo, Frank Tanser, Rob Slotow, Jonathan K Burns
BACKGROUND: Unprecedented levels of habitat transformation and rapid urbanisation are changing the way individuals interrelate with the natural environment in developing countries with high economic disparities. Although the potential benefit of green environments for mental health has been recognised, population-level evidence to this effect is scarce. We investigated the effect of green living environment in potentially countering incident depression in a nationally representative survey in South Africa...
July 2017: The Lancet. Planetary health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860881/aviation-s-normal-operations-safety-audit-a-safety-management-and-educational-tool-for-health-care-results-of-a-small-scale-trial
#5
Simon A Bennett
BACKGROUND: A National Health Service (NHS) contingent liability for medical error claims of over £26 billion. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety management and educational benefits of adapting aviation's Normal Operations Safety Audit (NOSA) to health care. METHODS: In vivo research, a NOSA was performed by medical students at an English NHS Trust. After receiving training from the author, the students spent 6 days gathering data under his supervision...
2017: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854728/a-second-dose-of-kisspeptin-54-improves-oocyte-maturation-in-women-at-high-risk-of-ovarian-hyperstimulation-syndrome-a-phase-2-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Ali Abbara, Sophie Clarke, Rumana Islam, Julia K Prague, Alexander N Comninos, Shakunthala Narayanaswamy, Deborah Papadopoulou, Rachel Roberts, Chioma Izzi-Engbeaya, Risheka Ratnasabapathy, Alexander Nesbitt, Sunitha Vimalesvaran, Rehan Salim, Stuart A Lavery, Stephen R Bloom, Les Huson, Geoffrey H Trew, Waljit S Dhillo
STUDY QUESTION: Can increasing the duration of LH-exposure with a second dose of kisspeptin-54 improve oocyte maturation in women at high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: A second dose of kisspeptin-54 at 10 h following the first improves oocyte yield in women at high risk of OHSS. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Kisspeptin acts at the hypothalamus to stimulate the release of an endogenous pool of GnRH from the hypothalamus...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854717/maternal-hyperglycemia-in-singleton-pregnancies-conceived-by-ivf-may-be-modified-by-first-trimester-bmi
#7
S Cai, P Natarajan, J K Y Chan, P C Wong, K H Tan, K M Godfrey, P D Gluckman, L P C Shek, F Yap, M S Kramer, S Y Chan, Y S Chong
STUDY QUESTION: Does IVF independently increase the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and is this increase in risk modified by maternal body mass index? SUMMARY ANSWER: IVF appears to be an independent risk factor for GDM and elevated blood glucose levels in overweight women (BMI > 25 kg/m2). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: IVF has been associated with increased risk of GDM, but most previous studies did not adequately assess confounding or effect modification by other risk factors...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851784/the-effects-of-vitamin-b12-supplementation-in-pregnancy-and-postpartum-on-growth-and-neurodevelopment-in-early-childhood-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#8
Ram K Chandyo, Manjeswori Ulak, Ingrid Kvestad, Merina Shrestha, Suman Ranjitkar, Sudha Basnet, Mari Hysing, Laxman Shrestha, Tor A Strand
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin B12 is crucial for normal cell division and differentiation, and necessary for the development and myelination of the central nervous system. Pregnant mothers in resource poor settings are at risk for poor vitamin B12 status. Poor vitamin B12 status in infancy is linked to poor growth and neurodevelopment. Brain development starts from conception, and pregnancy is a period of rapid growth and development for the brain. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study is an individually randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial in 800 pregnant Nepalese women randomised in a 1:1 ratio...
August 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846019/draft-of-iranian-national-guideline-for-cell-therapy-manufacturing
#9
Hamid Reza Aghayan, Babak Arjmand, Naser Ahmadbeigi, Yousof Gheisari, Mohammad Vasei
Cell therapy, a promising method for treatment of incurable diseases, has been moving fast from basic research laboratories to clinical practice in recent years. Defining clear and strict regulations for manufacturing of cell therapy products in clinical applications is the best way to give assurance to the public sector for safe usage, harmonizing research projects, and placing barriers for unqualified products from entering this market. To achieve this goal, the Iranian Council for Stem cell Science and Technologies sponsored a project in 2013 to develop a national cell therapy guideline for research and clinical trials...
August 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821408/is-late-life-dependency-increasing-or-not-a-comparison-of-the-cognitive-function-and-ageing-studies-cfas
#10
Andrew Kingston, Pia Wohland, Raphael Wittenberg, Louise Robinson, Carol Brayne, Fiona E Matthews, Carol Jagger
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how the proportions of dependency states have changed between generational cohorts of older people. We aimed to estimate years lived in different dependency states at age 65 years in 1991 and 2011, and new projections of future demand for care. METHODS: In this population-based study, we compared two Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies (CFAS I and CFAS II) of older people (aged ≥65 years) who were permanently registered with a general practice in three defined geographical areas (Cambridgeshire, Newcastle, and Nottingham; UK)...
August 14, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817429/the-rising-challenge-of-training-physician-scientists-recommendations-from-a-canadian-national-consensus-conference
#11
Michael J Strong, Nick Busing, Danika L Goosney, Ken A Harris, Tanya Horsley, Alexandra Kuzyk, Lorelei Lingard, Wendy V Norman, Norman D Rosenblum, Tina Saryeddine, Xin Wang
Physician-scientists are individuals who actively participate in patient care, have undergone additional research training, and devote the majority of their time to research. Physician-scientists are traditionally the primary catalysts in bridging the translational gap-that is, the failure to link fundamental new knowledge in the pathobiology of disease with advances in health care and health policy in a timely manner. However, there has been a shift away from training physician-scientists, and financial support for the physician-scientist is diminishing globally, causing the translational gap to grow...
August 16, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815982/bridge-the-gap-the-need-for-harmonized-regulatory-and-ethical-standards-for-postmarketing-observational-studies
#12
REVIEW
Hisashi Urushihara, Louise Parmenter, Shimon Tashiro, Kenji Matsui, Nancy Dreyer
Drug safety issues do not respect national borders. Hence, addressing a safety question may necessitate globally coordinated efforts between regulatory authorities and market authorization holders (MAHs) to draw reliable conclusions. Regulatory authorities have shared responsibility with MAHs sponsoring postmarketing nonintervention studies in determining study goals and design. Their shared accountabilities include what will be investigated and how the data will be retrieved to ensure appropriate study quality required for regulatory decision making...
August 16, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811801/pakistan-journal-of-medical-sciences-a-bibliometric-assessment-2001-2010
#13
Zameer Hussain Baladi, Loung V Umedani
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to measure the growth of scientific research, authors' productivity, affiliation with the institute and geographic locations published in the Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences during the period of 2001 - 2010. METHODS: This numerical analysis was conducted during mid-August 2016 to mid-October, 2016. The data for the study was downloaded from websites of e-journal of Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences (PJMS) and Pak Medi-Net Com...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796860/trends-in-visual-health-inequalities-in-childhood-through-associations-of-visual-function-with-sex-and-social-position-across-3-uk-birth-cohorts
#14
Vasiliki Bountziouka, Phillippa M Cumberland, Jugnoo S Rahi
Importance: Despite the existing country-specific strategies tackling social inequalities in visual health in adults, little is known about trends in visual function in childhood and its association with social position. Objective: To investigate the distribution of childhood visual function in the United Kingdom and associations with early-life social position between 1961 and 1986, a period of significant social change. Design, Setting, and Participants: Longitudinal cohort study using harmonized data sets from the British 1946, 1958, and 1970 national birth cohorts...
September 1, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792876/nad-deficiency-congenital-malformations-and-niacin-supplementation
#15
Hongjun Shi, Annabelle Enriquez, Melissa Rapadas, Ella M M A Martin, Roni Wang, Julie Moreau, Chai K Lim, Justin O Szot, Eddie Ip, James N Hughes, Kotaro Sugimoto, David T Humphreys, Aideen M McInerney-Leo, Paul J Leo, Ghassan J Maghzal, Jake Halliday, Janine Smith, Alison Colley, Paul R Mark, Felicity Collins, David O Sillence, David S Winlaw, Joshua W K Ho, Gilles J Guillemin, Matthew A Brown, Kazu Kikuchi, Paul Q Thomas, Roland Stocker, Eleni Giannoulatou, Gavin Chapman, Emma L Duncan, Duncan B Sparrow, Sally L Dunwoodie
BACKGROUND: Congenital malformations can be manifested as combinations of phenotypes that co-occur more often than expected by chance. In many such cases, it has proved difficult to identify a genetic cause. We sought the genetic cause of cardiac, vertebral, and renal defects, among others, in unrelated patients. METHODS: We used genomic sequencing to identify potentially pathogenic gene variants in families in which a person had multiple congenital malformations...
August 10, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780551/the-indigenous-counselling-and-nicotine-ican-quit-in-pregnancy-pilot-study-protocol-a-feasibility-step-wedge-cluster-randomised-trial-to-improve-health-providers-management-of-smoking-during-pregnancy
#16
Yael Bar-Zeev, Billie Bonevski, Michelle Bovill, Maree Gruppetta, Chris Oldmeadow, Kerrin Palazzi, Lou Atkins, Jennifer Reath, Gillian S Gould
INTRODUCTION: Indigenous women have the highest smoking prevalence during pregnancy (47%) in Australia. Health professionals report lack of knowledge, skills and confidence to effectively manage smoking among pregnant women in general. We developed a behaviour change intervention aimed to improve health professionals' management of smoking in Indigenous pregnant women-the Indigenous Counselling And Nicotine (ICAN) QUIT in Pregnancy. This intervention includes webinar training for health professionals, an educational resources package for health professionals and pregnant women, free oral nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for pregnant women, and audit and feedback on health professionals' performance...
August 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765854/psa-testing-for-men-at-average-risk-of-prostate-cancer
#17
Bruce K Armstrong, Michael J Barry, Mark Frydenberg, Robert A Gardiner, Ian Haines, Stacy M Carter
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing of men at normal risk of prostate cancer is one of the most contested issues in cancer screening. There is no formal screening program, but testing is common - arguably a practice that ran ahead of the evidence. Public and professional communication about PSA screening has been highly varied and potentially confusing for practitioners and patients alike. There has been much research and policy activity relating to PSA testing in recent years. Landmark randomised controlled trials have been reported; authorities - including the 2013 Prostate Cancer World Congress, the Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia, Cancer Council Australia, and the National Health and Medical Research Council - have made or endorsed public statements and/or issued clinical practice guidelines; and the US Preventive Services Task Force is revising its recommendations...
July 26, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760403/health-related-quality-of-life-for-immediate-versus-delayed-androgen-deprivation-therapy-in-patients-with-asymptomatic-non-curable-prostate-cancer-trog-03-06-and-vcog-pr-01-03-toad-a-randomised-multicentre-non-blinded-phase-3-trial
#18
Gillian M Duchesne, Henry H Woo, Madeleine King, Steven J Bowe, Martin R Stockler, Alice Ames, Catherine D'Este, Mark Frydenberg, Andrew Loblaw, Shawn Malone, Jeremy Millar, Keen Hun Tai, Sandra Turner
BACKGROUND: Androgen-deprivation therapy in patients with prostate cancer who have relapsed with rising prostate-specific antigen concentration only (PSA-only relapse), or with non-curable but asymptomatic disease at diagnosis, could adversely affect quality of life at a time when the disease itself does not. We aimed to compare the effect of immediate versus delayed androgen-deprivation therapy on health-related quality of life over 5 years in men enrolled in the TOAD (Timing of Androgen Deprivation) trial...
July 28, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750823/major-depressive-disorder-suicidal-thoughts-and-behaviours-and-cannabis-involvement-in-discordant-twins-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Arpana Agrawal, Elliot C Nelson, Kathleen K Bucholz, Rebecca Tillman, Richard A Grucza, Dixie J Statham, Pamela Af Madden, Nicholas G Martin, Andrew C Heath, Michael T Lynskey
BACKGROUND: Early and frequent cannabis use are associated with an increased likelihood of major depressive disorder (MDD) as well as suicidal thoughts and behaviours. We identify associations between aspects of cannabis use, MDD, and suicidal thoughts and behaviours and examine whether such associations persist after accounting for those predisposing factors, including genetic liability and early family environment, that are shared by identical twins who are discordant for cannabis exposure...
September 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745986/ventilation-in-extremely-preterm-infants-and-respiratory-function-at-8-years
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Lex W Doyle, Elizabeth Carse, Anne-Marie Adams, Sarath Ranganathan, Gillian Opie, Jeanie L Y Cheong
BACKGROUND: Assisted ventilation for extremely preterm infants (<28 weeks of gestation) has become less invasive, but it is unclear whether such developments in care are associated with improvements in short-term or long-term lung function. We compared changes over time in the use of assisted ventilation and oxygen therapy during the newborn period and in lung function at 8 years of age in children whose birth was extremely premature. METHODS: We conducted longitudinal follow-up of all survivors of extremely preterm birth who were born in Victoria, Australia, in three periods - the years 1991 and 1992 (225 infants), 1997 (151 infants), and 2005 (170 infants)...
July 27, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
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