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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089709/objective-assessment-of-dietary-patterns-by-use-of-metabolic-phenotyping-a-randomised-controlled-crossover-trial
#1
Isabel Garcia-Perez, Joram M Posma, Rachel Gibson, Edward S Chambers, Tue H Hansen, Henrik Vestergaard, Torben Hansen, Manfred Beckmann, Oluf Pedersen, Paul Elliott, Jeremiah Stamler, Jeremy K Nicholson, John Draper, John C Mathers, Elaine Holmes, Gary Frost
BACKGROUND: Accurate monitoring of changes in dietary patterns in response to food policy implementation is challenging. Metabolic profiling allows simultaneous measurement of hundreds of metabolites in urine, the concentrations of which can be affected by food intake. We hypothesised that metabolic profiles of urine samples developed under controlled feeding conditions reflect dietary intake and can be used to model and classify dietary patterns of free-living populations. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled, crossover trial, we recruited healthy volunteers (aged 21-65 years, BMI 20-35 kg/m(2)) from a database of a clinical research unit in the UK...
January 12, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077414/implementation-of-a-consumer-focused-ehealth-intervention-for-people-with-moderate-to-high-cardiovascular-disease-risk-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-process-evaluation
#2
Genevieve M Coorey, Lis Neubeck, Timothy Usherwood, David Peiris, Sharon Parker, Annie Y S Lau, Clara Chow, Kathryn Panaretto, Mark Harris, Nicholas Zwar, Julie Redfern
INTRODUCTION: Technology-mediated strategies have potential to engage patients in modifying unhealthy behaviour and improving medication adherence to reduce morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Furthermore, electronic tools offer a medium by which consumers can more actively navigate personal healthcare information. Understanding how, why and among whom such strategies have an effect can help determine the requirements for implementing them at a scale. This paper aims to detail a process evaluation that will (1) assess implementation fidelity of a multicomponent eHealth intervention; (2) determine its effective features; (3) explore contextual factors influencing and maintaining user engagement; and (4) describe barriers, facilitators, preferences and acceptability of such interventions...
January 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063815/effect-of-immediate-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-risk-of-severe-bacterial-infections-in-hiv-positive-people-with-cd4-cell-counts-of-more-than-500-cells-per-%C3%AE-l-secondary-outcome-results-from-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Jemma O'Connor, Michael J Vjecha, Andrew N Phillips, Brian Angus, David Cooper, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Gustavo Lopardo, Satyajit Das, Robin Wood, Aimee Wilkin, Hartwig Klinker, Pacharee Kantipong, Karin L Klingman, David Jilich, Elbushra Herieka, Eileen Denning, Ibrahim Abubakar, Fred Gordin, Jens D Lundgren
BACKGROUND: The effects of antiretroviral therapy on risk of severe bacterial infections in people with high CD4 cell counts have not been well described. In this study, we aimed to quantify the effects of immediate versus deferred ART on the risk of severe bacterial infection in people with high CD4 cell counts in a preplanned analysis of the START trial. METHODS: The START trial was a randomised controlled trial in ART-naive HIV-positive patients with CD4 cell count of more than 500 cells per μL assigned to immediate ART or deferral until their CD4 cell counts were lower than 350 cells per μL...
January 4, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048525/we-ab-207a-11-respiratory-motion-guided-4dcbct-a-step-towards-controlling-4dcbct-image-quality
#4
R O'Brien, U Stankovic, P Keall, J Sonke
PURPOSE: We have developed a method, called respiratory motion guided 4DCBCT (RMG-4DCBCT), in which the gantry speed and projection frequency are varied in response to the patient's real-time respiratory signal to eliminate streaking artifacts and to suppress duplicate projections in 4DCBCT images. In 2015, we realized RMG-4DCBCT on an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator with a mechanical relay to suppress projections and a potentiometer to adjust the gantry speed in response to the patient's real-time respiratory signal...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047811/th-ab-bra-12-experimental-results-from-the-first-high-field-inline-mri-linac
#5
P Keall, B Dong, P Vial, A Walker, K Zhang, J Begg, R Rai, L Holloway, M Barton, S Crozier, G Liney
PURPOSE: The pursuit of real-time image guided radiotherapy using optimal tissue contrast has seen the development of several hybrid MRI-treatment systems, high field and low field, and inline and perpendicular configurations. As part of a new MRI-Linac program, an MRI scanner was integrated with a linear accelerator to enable investigations of a coupled inline MRI-Linac system. This work describes our experimental results from the first high-field inline MRI-Linac. METHODS: A 1...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047692/we-h-209-01-advances-in-ultrasound-therapy
#6
K Hynynen
: Focused ultrasound has been shown to be the only method that allows noninvasive thermal coagulation of tissues and recently this potential has been explored for image-guided drug delivery. In this presentation, the advances in ultrasound phased array technology for energy delivery, exposure monitoring and control will be discussed. Experimental results from novel multi-frequency transmit/receive arrays will be presented. In addition, the feasibility of fully electronically focused and steered high power arrays with many thousands of transducer elements will be discussed...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046536/we-h-209-00-carson-zagzebski-distinguished-lectureship-image-guided-ultrasound-therapy
#7
Thaddeus Wilson
: Focused ultrasound has been shown to be the only method that allows noninvasive thermal coagulation of tissues and recently this potential has been explored for image-guided drug delivery. In this presentation, the advances in ultrasound phased array technology for energy delivery, exposure monitoring and control will be discussed. Experimental results from novel multi-frequency transmit/receive arrays will be presented. In addition, the feasibility of fully electronically focused and steered high power arrays with many thousands of transducer elements will be discussed...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031324/overweight-and-obese-but-not-normal-weight-women-with-pcos-are-at-increased-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-prospective-population-based-cohort-study
#8
M-M E Ollila, S West, S Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, J Jokelainen, J Auvinen, K Puukka, A Ruokonen, M-R Järvelin, J S Tapanainen, S Franks, T T Piltonen, L C Morin-Papunen
STUDY QUESTION: What are the respective roles of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), long-term weight gain and obesity for the development of prediabetes or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by age 46 years? SUMMARY ANSWER: The risk of T2DM in women with PCOS is mainly due to overweight and obesity, although these two factors have a synergistic effect on the development of T2DM. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: PCOS is associated with an increased risk of prediabetes and T2DM...
December 28, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027540/state-institution-%C3%A2-national-research-center-for-radiation-medicine-of-the-national-academy-of-medical-sciences-of-ukraine%C3%A2-research-activities-and-scientific-advance-in-2015
#9
D Bazyka, V Sushko, A Chumak, V Buzunov, V Talko, L Yanovych
Research activities and scientific advance achieved in 2014 at the State Institution «National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine» (NRCRM) concerning medical problems of the Chornobyl disaster, radiation medicine, radiobiology, radiation hygiene and epidemiology in collaboration with the WHO network of medical preparedness and assistance in radiation accidents are outlined in the annual report.The report presents the results of fundamental and applied research works of the study of radiation effects and health effects of the Chornobyl accident; fulfillment of tasks of «State social program for improving safety, occupational health and working environment in 2014-2018 years»...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027337/association-of-albumin-levels-with-outcome-in-intravenous-immunoglobulin-treated-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#10
Willem-Jan R Fokkink, Christa Walgaard, Krista Kuitwaard, Anne P Tio-Gillen, Pieter A van Doorn, Bart C Jacobs
Importance: There is an urgent need for biomarkers to monitor treatment efficacy and anticipate outcome in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Objective: To assess whether there is an association between serum albumin levels, a widely used and relatively easily measurable biomarker of health and inflammation, and the clinical course and outcome of GBS in patients treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Design, Setting, and Participants: We used serum samples derived from a cohort of patients with GBS admitted to hospitals across the Netherlands participating in national GBS studies from May 5, 1986, through August 2, 2000...
December 27, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027166/ncrp-vision-for-the-future-and-program-area-committee-activities
#11
John D Boice
The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) believes that the most critical need for the nation in radiation protection is to train, engage, and retain radiation professionals for the future. Not only is the pipeline shrinking, but for some areas there is no longer a pipe! When the call comes to respond, there may be no one to answer the phone! The NCRP "Where are the Radiation Professionals?" initiative, Council Committee (CC) 2, and this year's annual meeting are to focus our efforts to find solutions and not just reiterate the problems...
February 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025919/amcp-partnership-forum-enabling-the-exchange-of-clinical-and-economic-information-pre-fda-approval
#12
(no author information available yet)
: Current federal laws and FDA regulations have significantly restricted the sharing of clinical and health economic information on biopharmaceuticals that have yet to receive FDA approval. Over the past several years, organizations that make health care coverage decisions, including those that set copayments, premiums, and formulary placement, have expressed a need for receiving this information before approval, as long as appropriate safeguards exist to prevent this information from reaching unintended entities...
January 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968867/development-of-the-theory-based-chinese-primary-school-children-physical-activity-and-dietary-behaviour-changes-intervention-chirpy-dragon-development-of-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Bai Li, Wei Jia Liu, Kar Keung Cheng, Miranda Pallan, Kalar Hemming, Emma Frew, Rong Lin, Wei Liu, Peymane Adab
BACKGROUND: The rate of increase in prevalence of childhood obesity in mainland China exceeds the trends observed in other countries. Effective, culturally appropriate prevention interventions are urgently needed to control the epidemic. However, previous programmes lacked rigorous development and evaluation. Using the framework set out by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC), we developed a complex childhood obesity prevention intervention for Chinese primary school children. METHODS: Several different methodologies were employed and iteratively combined in the development process...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965840/a-collaborative-process-for-developing-a-weight-management-toolkit-for-general-practitioners-in-australia-an-intervention-development-study-using-the-knowledge-to-action-framework
#14
Elizabeth Ann Sturgiss, Kirsty Douglas
BACKGROUND: Obesity is commonly seen in the Australian general practice population; however, few resources are specifically targeted at GPs working with these patients. The National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia) guideline for managing patients who are overweight and obese supports the involvement of a regular health professional. As 85 % of the population visit a GP annually, resources to support GPs working with this patient population are needed. This study describes the collaborative process used to develop an obesity management programme based on current Australian guidelines for GPs and their patients to be used in primary care...
2016: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964869/relapse-to-opioid-use-in-opioid-dependent-individuals-released-from-compulsory-drug-detention-centres-compared-with-those-from-voluntary-methadone-treatment-centres-in-malaysia-a-two-arm-prospective-observational-study
#15
Martin P Wegman, Frederick L Altice, Sangeeth Kaur, Vanesa Rajandaran, Sutayut Osornprasop, David Wilson, David P Wilson, Adeeba Kamarulzaman
BACKGROUND: Detention of people who use drugs into compulsory drug detention centres (CDDCs) is common throughout East and Southeast Asia. Evidence-based pharmacological therapies for treating substance use disorders, such as opioid agonist treatments with methadone, are generally unavailable in these settings. We used a unique opportunity where CDDCs coexisted with voluntary drug treatment centres (VTCs) providing methadone in Malaysia to compare the timing and occurrence of opioid relapse (measured using urine drug testing) in individuals transitioning from CDDCs versus methadone maintenance in VTCs...
December 7, 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942799/interrupting-prolonged-sitting-in-type-2-diabetes-nocturnal-persistence-of-improved-glycaemic-control
#16
Paddy C Dempsey, Jennifer M Blankenship, Robyn N Larsen, Julian W Sacre, Parneet Sethi, Nora E Straznicky, Neale D Cohen, Ester Cerin, Gavin W Lambert, Neville Owen, Bronwyn A Kingwell, David W Dunstan
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to examine the effect of interrupting 7 h prolonged sitting with brief bouts of walking or resistance activities on 22 h glucose homeostasis (including nocturnal-to-following morning hyperglycaemia) in adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This study is an extension of a previously published randomised crossover trial, which included 24 inactive overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes (14 men; 62 ± 6 years) who completed three 7 h laboratory conditions, separated by 6-14 day washout periods: SIT: (1) prolonged sitting (control); (2) light-intensity walking (LW): sitting plus 3 min bouts of light-intensity walking at 3...
December 9, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938697/noninvasive-caries-risk-based-management-in-private-practice-settings-may-lead-to-reduced-caries-experience-over-time
#17
Margherita Fontana, Carlos González-Cabezas
ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: The Caries Management System: are preventive effects sustained postclinical trial? Evans RW, Clark P, Jia N. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2016;44(2):188-97. SOURCES OF FUNDING: Foundation: Oral Health Foundation, University of Sydney; and the Australian Dental Research Foundation; government: National Health and Medical Research Council; other: Dental Board of New South Wales TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: The original 3-year study was a multicenter cluster randomized controlled clinical trial...
December 2016: Journal of Evidence-based Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932549/proteolytic-degradation-of-heat-shock-protein-a2-occurs-in-response-to-oxidative-stress-in-male-germ-cells-of-the-mouse
#18
Elizabeth G Bromfield, R John Aitken, Eileen A McLaughlin, Brett Nixon
STUDY QUESTION: Does oxidative stress compromise the protein expression of heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2) in the developing germ cells of the mouse testis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Oxidative stress leads to the modification of HSPA2 by the lipid aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) and initiates its degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous work has revealed a deficiency in HSPA2 protein expression within the spermatozoa of infertile men that have failed fertilization in a clinical setting...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907900/insulin-resistance-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic-clamp-studies
#19
Samantha Cassar, Marie L Misso, William G Hopkins, Christopher S Shaw, Helena J Teede, Nigel K Stepto
STUDY QUESTION: What is the degree of intrinsic insulin resistance (IR) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the relative contribution of BMI to overall IR based on meta-analysis of gold standard insulin clamp studies? SUMMARY ANSWER: We report an inherent reduction (-27%) of insulin sensitivity (IS) in PCOS patients, which was independent of BMI. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: PCOS is prevalent, complex and underpinned by IR but controversies surround the degree of intrinsic IR in PCOS, the effect of BMI and the impact of the different diagnostic criteria (NIH versus Rotterdam) in PCOS...
November 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906918/newborn-vitamin-k-prophylaxis-an-analysis-of-information-resources-for-parents-and-professionals
#20
Hayleigh Miller, Benjamin Wheeler, Nikki Kerruish
AIMS: Vitamin K prophylaxis represents one of the first healthcare decisions families make for their newborn. Information resources are an important component of this process. This study aimed to identify and analyse written information about vitamin K. METHODS: Resources concerning vitamin K prophylaxis for both parents and health professionals were accessed through tertiary hospitals in New Zealand and Australia, midwives associated with Queen Mary Maternity Centre (Dunedin, New Zealand), antenatal class providers in the Dunedin, New Zealand area, and an online search of Australian and New Zealand government and hospital websites, as well as the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) in the US...
December 2, 2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
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