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National health and medical research council

Paul B Perrin, Lillian F Stevens, Megan Sutter, Anthony H Lequerica, Denise Krch, Stephanie A Kolakowsky-Hayner, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla
OBJECTIVE: The research attempting to disentangle the directionality of relationships between mental health and functional outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is growing but has yielded equivocal findings or focused on isolated predictors or isolated outcomes. The purpose of the current study was to use cross-lagged panel and structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques to examine causality between comprehensive indices of mental health (depression, anxiety, and life satisfaction) and functional independence in a national sample of individuals with TBI over the first 2 years after injury...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Peter J Kelly, Gregory W Albers, Anastasios Chatzikonstantinou, Gian Marco De Marchis, Julia Ferrari, Paul George, Mira Katan, Michael Knoflach, Jong S Kim, Linxin Li, Eun-Jae Lee, Jean-Marc Olivot, Francisco Purroy, Nicolas Raposo, Peter M Rothwell, Vijay K Sharma, Bo Song, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Cathal Walsh, Yuming Xu, Aine Merwick
BACKGROUND: Identification of patients at highest risk of early stroke after transient ischaemic attack has been improved with imaging based scores. We aimed to compare the validity and prognostic utility of imaging-based stroke risk scores in patients after transient ischaemic attack. METHODS: We did a pooled analysis of published and unpublished individual-patient data from 16 cohort studies of transient ischaemic attack done in Asia, Europe, and the USA, with early brain and vascular imaging and follow up...
November 2016: Lancet Neurology
C L Roberts, C S Algert, J B Ford, T A Nippita, J M Morris
STUDY QUESTION: After an initial midtrimester loss, is the interval to the next conception associated with the risk of a recurrent loss? SUMMARY ANSWER: Among women who had a pregnancy loss at 14-19 weeks gestation, conception at least 3 months after this initial loss was associated with a reduced risk of a recurrent loss. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A short interpregnancy interval (IPI) has been thought to increase risk but recent studies of pregnancy after a loss have found no effect; however, these studies have been based almost entirely on an initial first trimester (<14 weeks) loss...
October 14, 2016: Human Reproduction
Robert W Aldridge, Dominik Zenner, Peter J White, Elizabeth J Williamson, Morris C Muzyamba, Poonam Dhavan, Davide Mosca, H Lucy Thomas, Maeve K Lalor, Ibrahim Abubakar, Andrew C Hayward
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis elimination in countries with a low incidence of the disease necessitates multiple interventions, including innovations in migrant screening. We examined a cohort of migrants screened for tuberculosis before entry to England, Wales, and Northern Ireland and tracked the development of disease in this group after arrival. METHODS: As part of a pilot pre-entry screening programme for tuberculosis in 15 countries with a high incidence of the disease, the International Organization for Migration screened all applicants for UK visas aged 11 years or older who intended to stay for more than 6 months...
October 10, 2016: Lancet
Gin S Malhi, Yulisha Byrow, Frederick Cassidy, Andrea Cipriani, Koen Demyttenaere, Mark A Frye, Michael Gitlin, Sidney H Kennedy, Terence A Ketter, Raymond W Lam, Rupert McShane, Alex J Mitchell, Michael J Ostacher, Sakina J Rizvi, Michael E Thase, Mauricio Tohen
SUMMARY: The appeal of ketamine - in promptly ameliorating depressive symptoms even in those with non-response - has led to a dramatic increase in its off-label use. Initial promising results await robust corroboration and key questions remain, particularly concerning its long-term administration. It is, therefore, timely to review the opinions of mood disorder experts worldwide pertaining to ketamine's potential as an option for treating depression and provide a synthesis of perspectives - derived from evidence and clinical experience - and to consider strategies for future investigations...
May 2016: BJPsych Open
Sarah P Loughran, Md Shahriar Al Hossain, Alan Bentvelzen, Mark Elwood, John Finnie, Joseph Horvat, Steve Iskra, Elena P Ivanova, Jim Manavis, Chathuranga Keerawella Mudiyanselage, Alireza Lajevardipour, Boris Martinac, Robert McIntosh, Raymond McKenzie, Mislav Mustapic, Yoshitaka Nakayama, Elena Pirogova, M Harunur Rashid, Nigel A Taylor, Nevena Todorova, Peter M Wiedemann, Robert Vink, Andrew Wood, Irene Yarovsky, Rodney J Croft
Mobile phone subscriptions continue to increase across the world, with the electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by these devices, as well as by related technologies such as Wi-Fi and smart meters, now ubiquitous. This increase in use and consequent exposure to mobile communication (MC)-related EMF has led to concern about possible health effects that could arise from this exposure. Although much research has been conducted since the introduction of these technologies, uncertainty about the impact on health remains...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jayant S Vaidya, Frederik Wenz, Max Bulsara, Jeffrey S Tobias, David J Joseph, Christobel Saunders, Chris Brew-Graves, Ingrid Potyka, Stephen Morris, Hrisheekesh J Vaidya, Norman R Williams, Michael Baum
BACKGROUND: Based on our laboratory work and clinical trials we hypothesised that radiotherapy after lumpectomy for breast cancer could be restricted to the tumour bed. In collaboration with the industry we developed a new radiotherapy device and a new surgical operation for delivering single-dose radiation to the tumour bed - the tissues at highest risk of local recurrence. We named it TARGeted Intraoperative radioTherapy (TARGIT). From 1998 we confirmed its feasibility and safety in pilot studies...
September 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
W Mazzucco, R Pastorino, T Lagerberg, M Colotto, E d'Andrea, C Marotta, C Marzuillo, P Villari, A Federici, W Ricciardi, S Boccia
BACKGROUND: A need for a governance of genomics in healthcare among European Union (EU) countries arose during an international meeting of experts on public health genomics (PHG). We have conducted a survey on existing national genomic policies in healthcare among Chief Medical Officers (CMOs) of the 28 EU member states, plus Norway. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to CMOs after a meeting on the policy implications of PHG held during the Italian presidency of the Council of EU in 2014...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
Brigitta G Baumert, Monika E Hegi, Martin J van den Bent, Andreas von Deimling, Thierry Gorlia, Khê Hoang-Xuan, Alba A Brandes, Guy Kantor, Martin J B Taphoorn, Mohamed Ben Hassel, Christian Hartmann, Gail Ryan, David Capper, Johan M Kros, Sebastian Kurscheid, Wolfgang Wick, Roelien Enting, Michele Reni, Brian Thiessen, Frederic Dhermain, Jacoline E Bromberg, Loic Feuvret, Jaap C Reijneveld, Olivier Chinot, Johanna M M Gijtenbeek, John P Rossiter, Nicolas Dif, Carmen Balana, Jose Bravo-Marques, Paul M Clement, Christine Marosi, Tzahala Tzuk-Shina, Robert A Nordal, Jeremy Rees, Denis Lacombe, Warren P Mason, Roger Stupp
BACKGROUND: Outcome of low-grade glioma (WHO grade II) is highly variable, reflecting molecular heterogeneity of the disease. We compared two different, single-modality treatment strategies of standard radiotherapy versus primary temozolomide chemotherapy in patients with low-grade glioma, and assessed progression-free survival outcomes and identified predictive molecular factors. METHODS: For this randomised, open-label, phase 3 intergroup study (EORTC 22033-26033), undertaken in 78 clinical centres in 19 countries, we included patients aged 18 years or older who had a low-grade (WHO grade II) glioma (astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, or oligodendroglioma) with at least one high-risk feature (aged >40 years, progressive disease, tumour size >5 cm, tumour crossing the midline, or neurological symptoms), and without known HIV infection, chronic hepatitis B or C virus infection, or any condition that could interfere with oral drug administration...
September 26, 2016: Lancet Oncology
Jaap C Reijneveld, Martin J B Taphoorn, Corneel Coens, Jacoline E C Bromberg, Warren P Mason, Khê Hoang-Xuan, Gail Ryan, Mohamed Ben Hassel, Roelien H Enting, Alba A Brandes, Antje Wick, Olivier Chinot, Michele Reni, Guy Kantor, Brian Thiessen, Martin Klein, Eugenie Verger, Christian Borchers, Peter Hau, Michael Back, Anja Smits, Vassilis Golfinopoulos, Thierry Gorlia, Andrew Bottomley, Roger Stupp, Brigitta G Baumert
BACKGROUND: Temozolomide chemotherapy versus radiotherapy in patients with a high-risk low-grade glioma has been shown to have no significant effect on progression-free survival. If these treatments have a different effect on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), it might affect the choice of therapy. We postulated that temozolomide compromises HRQOL and global cognitive functioning to a lesser extent than does radiotherapy. METHODS: We did a prospective, phase 3, randomised controlled trial at 78 medical centres and large hospitals in 19 countries...
September 26, 2016: Lancet Oncology
C Raina MacIntyre, Robert Menzies, Elizabeth Kpozehouen, Michael Chapman, Joanne Travaglia, Michael Woodward, Lisa Jackson Pulver, Christopher J Poulos, David Gronow, Timothy Adair
On the 20th June, 2014 the National Health and Medical Research Council's Centre for Research Excellence in Population Health "Immunisation in under Studied and Special Risk Populations", in collaboration with the Public Health Association of Australia, hosted a workshop "Equity in disease prevention: vaccines for the older adults". The workshop featured international and national speakers on ageing and vaccinology. The workshop was attended by health service providers, stakeholders in immunisation, ageing, primary care, researchers, government and non-government organisations, community representatives, and advocacy groups...
September 26, 2016: Vaccine
Adam Lustig, Michael Ogden, Robert W Brenner, Jerry Penso, Kimberly D Westrich, Robert W Dubois
BACKGROUND: In 2013, it was reported that about 1 of every 3 U.S. adults has hypertension. Of these 70 million individuals, approximately 50% have their blood pressure under control. Achieving hypertension control, especially in at-risk populations, requires a multipronged approach that includes lifestyle modifications and pharmacological treatment. As provider groups, hospital systems, and integrated delivery networks optimize their care processes to promote population health activities in support of the accountable care organization (ACO) model of care, managing hypertension and other chronic diseases will be essential to their success...
October 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Louisa Degenhardt, Fiona Charlson, Jeff Stanaway, Sarah Larney, Lily T Alexander, Matthew Hickman, Benjamin Cowie, Wayne D Hall, John Strang, Harvey Whiteford, Theo Vos
BACKGROUND: Previous estimates of the burden of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among people who inject drugs have not included estimates of the burden attributable to the consequences of past injecting. We aimed to provide these estimates as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2013. METHODS: We modelled the burden of HBV and HCV (including cirrhosis and liver cancer burden) and HIV at the country, regional, and global level...
September 21, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Sharmila Chatterjee, Amit Chattopadhyay, Surendra Nath Senapati, Dipti Rani Samanta, Leslie Elliott, Dana Loomis, Lesly Mery, Pinaki Panigrahi
Cancer registration, an important component of cancer surveillance, is essential to a uni ed, scienti c and public health approach to cancer prevention and control. India has one of the highest cancer incidence and mortality rates in the world. A good surveillance system in the form of cancer registries is important for planning and evaluating cancer-control activities. Cancer registration in India was initiated in 1964 and expanded since 1982, through initiation of the National Cancer Registry Program (NCRP) by the Indian Council of Medical Research...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Teri A Manolio
Increasing knowledge about the influence of genetic variation on human health and growing availability of reliable, cost-effective genetic testing have spurred the implementation of genomic medicine in the clinic. As defined by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), genomic medicine uses an individual's genetic information in his or her clinical care, and has begun to be applied effectively in areas such as cancer genomics, pharmacogenomics, and rare and undiagnosed diseases. In 2011 NHGRI published its strategic vision for the future of genomic research, including an ambitious research agenda to facilitate and promote the implementation of genomic medicine...
October 2016: Atherosclerosis
David J Sharkey, Kelton P Tremellen, Nancy E Briggs, Gustaaf A Dekker, Sarah A Robertson
STUDY QUESTION: Do seminal plasma transforming growth factor-β (TGFB) cytokines vary within individuals over time, and does this relate to sperm parameters, age or prior abstinence? SUMMARY ANSWER: Activin A and follistatin, and to a lesser extent TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3, vary within individuals over time, in association with duration of abstinence. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: Seminal plasma TGFB cytokines can influence sperm function and reproductive success through interactions with the female reproductive tract after coitus...
October 2016: Human Reproduction
B G Fisher, A Thankamony, I A Hughes, K K Ong, D B Dunger, C L Acerini
STUDY QUESTION: What is the relationship between maternal paracetamol intake during the masculinisation programming window (MPW, 8-14 weeks of gestation) and male infant anogenital distance (AGD), a biomarker for androgen action during the MPW? SUMMARY ANSWER: Intrauterine paracetamol exposure during 8-14 weeks of gestation is associated with shorter AGD from birth to 24 months of age. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: The increasing prevalence of male reproductive disorders may reflect environmental influences on foetal testicular development during the MPW...
September 8, 2016: Human Reproduction
Premila Paiva, Michelle G Lockhart, Jane E Girling, Moshe Olshansky, Nicole Woodrow, Jennifer L Marino, Martha Hickey, Peter A W Rogers
STUDY QUESTION: Does the changing molecular profile of the endometrium during menstruation correlate with the histological profile of menstruation. SUMMARY ANSWER: We identified several genes not previously associated with menstruation; on Day 2 of menstruation (early-menstruation), processes related to inflammation are predominantly up-regulated and on Day 4 (late-menstruation), the endometrium is predominantly repairing and regenerating. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Menstruation is induced by progesterone withdrawal at the end of the menstrual cycle and involves endometrial tissue breakdown, regeneration and repair...
September 8, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
Paula Mulvenna, Matthew Nankivell, Rachael Barton, Corinne Faivre-Finn, Paula Wilson, Elaine McColl, Barbara Moore, Iona Brisbane, David Ardron, Tanya Holt, Sally Morgan, Caroline Lee, Kathryn Waite, Neil Bayman, Cheryl Pugh, Benjamin Sydes, Richard Stephens, Mahesh K Parmar, Ruth E Langley
BACKGROUND: Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and dexamethasone are widely used to treat brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), although there have been no randomised clinical trials showing that WBRT improves either quality of life or overall survival. Even after treatment with WBRT, the prognosis of this patient group is poor. We aimed to establish whether WBRT could be omitted without a significant effect on survival or quality of life. METHODS: The Quality of Life after Treatment for Brain Metastases (QUARTZ) study is a non-inferiority, phase 3 randomised trial done at 69 UK and three Australian centres...
September 2, 2016: Lancet
Kimberly Guess, Lenka Malek, Amanda Anderson, Maria Makrides, Shao J Zhou
BACKGROUND: Little is known of healthcare providers' awareness and implementation of the National Health and Medical Research Council's recommendation regarding iodine supplementation during pre-conception, pregnancy and lactation. AIM: To assess knowledge and practices of Australian healthcare providers in relation to the National Health and Medical Research Council's iodine supplement recommendation. METHODS: Obstetricians, gynaecologists, general practitioners, dietitians and midwives were recruited through their relevant professional bodies to participate in an online survey...
September 2, 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
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